toggle visibility Search & Display Options

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author Rands, S.A.; Cowlishaw, G.; Pettifor, R.A.; Rowcliffe, J.M.; Johnstone, R.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The emergence of leaders and followers in foraging pairs when the qualities of individuals differ Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication BMC Evolutionary Biology Abbreviated Journal BMC Evol Biol  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages 51  
  Keywords (up) Animals; *Feeding Behavior; *Food Chain; *Models, Biological; *Social Dominance  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Foraging in groups offers animals a number of advantages, such as increasing their likelihood of finding food or detecting and avoiding predators. In order for a group to remain together, there has to be some degree of coordination of behaviour and movement between its members (which may in some cases be initiated by a decision-making leader, and in other cases may emerge as an underlying property of the group). For example, behavioural synchronisation is a phenomenon where animals within a group initiate and then continue to conduct identical behaviours, and has been characterised for a wide range of species. We examine how a pair of animals should behave using a state-dependent approach, and ask what conditions are likely to lead to behavioural synchronisation occurring, and whether one of the individuals is more likely to act as a leader. RESULTS: The model we describe considers how the energetic gain, metabolic requirements and predation risks faced by the individuals affect measures of their energetic state and behaviour (such as the degree of behavioural synchronisation seen within the pair, and the value to an individual of knowing the energetic state of its colleague). We explore how predictable changes in these measures are in response to changes in physiological requirements and predation risk. We also consider how these measures should change when the members of the pair are not identical in their metabolic requirements or their susceptibility to predation. We find that many of the changes seen in these measures are complex, especially when asymmetries exist between the members of the pair. CONCLUSION: Analyses are presented that demonstrate that, although these general patterns are robust, care needs to be taken when considering the effects of individual differences, as the relationship between individual differences and the resulting qualitative changes in behaviour may be complex. We discuss how these results are related to experimental observations, and how the model and its predictions could be extended.  
  Address Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. sean.rands@bristol.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2148 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:18282297 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5126  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author De Boyer Des Roches, A.; Richard-Yris, M.-A.; Henry, S.; Ezzaouia, M.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Laterality and emotions: visual laterality in the domestic horse (Equus caballus) differs with objects' emotional value Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.  
  Volume 94 Issue 3 Pages 487-490  
  Keywords (up) Animals; Animals, Newborn; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Dominance, Ocular/*physiology; *Emotions; Exploratory Behavior/physiology; Female; Horses/*physiology; Olfactory Pathways/physiology; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Photic Stimulation; Pregnancy; Statistics, Nonparametric; Visual Fields/physiology  
  Abstract Lateralization of emotions has received great attention in the last decades, both in humans and animals, but little interest has been given to side bias in perceptual processing. Here, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of stimuli on visual and olfactory explorations by horses, a large mammalian species with two large monocular visual fields and almost complete decussation of optic fibres. We confronted 38 Arab mares to three objects with either a positive, negative or neutral emotional valence (novel object). The results revealed a gradient of exploration of the 3 objects according to their emotional value and a clear asymmetry in visual exploration. When exploring the novel object, mares used preferentially their right eyes, while they showed a slight tendency to use their left eyes for the negative object. No asymmetry was evidenced for the object with the positive valence. A trend for an asymmetry in olfactory investigation was also observed. Our data confirm the role of the left hemisphere in assessing novelty in horses like in many vertebrate species and the possible role of the right hemisphere in processing negative emotional responses. Our findings also suggest the importance of both hemispheres in the processing positive emotions. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate clearly that the emotional valence of a stimulus induces a specific visual lateralization pattern.  
  Address UMR CNRS 6552 Ethologie-Evolution-Ecologie, Universite de Rennes 1, Avenue du General Leclerc, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex, France. a.de-boyer@wanadoo.fr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:18455205 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4762  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Whitehead, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Precision and power in the analysis of social structure using associations Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 75 Issue 3 Pages 1093-1099  
  Keywords (up) association; precision; social structure; statistical power  
  Abstract I develop guidelines for assessing the precision and power of statistical techniques that are frequently used to study nonhuman social systems using observed dyadic associations. Association indexes estimate the proportion of time that two individuals are associated. Binomial approximation and nonparametric bootstrap methods produce similar estimates of the precision of association indexes. For a mid-range (0.4-0.9) association index to have a standard error of less than 0.1 requires about 15 observations of the pair associated, and for it to be less than 0.05, this rises to 50 observations. The coefficient of variation among dyads of the proportion of time that pairs of individuals are actually associated describes social differentiation (S), and this may be estimated from association data using maximum likelihood. With a poorly differentiated population (S~0.2), a data set needs about five observed associations per dyad to achieve a correlation between true and estimated association indexes of r=~0.4. It requires about 10 times as much data to achieve a representation with r=~0.8. Permutation tests usually reject the null hypothesis that individuals have no preferred associates when S2H>5, where H is the mean number of observed associations per individual. Thus most situations require substantial numbers of observations of associations to give useful portrayals of social systems, and sparse association data inform only when social differentiation is high.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4692  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Uher, J.; Asendorpf, J.B.; Call, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Personality in the behaviour of great apes: temporal stability, cross-situational consistency and coherence in response Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 75 Issue 1 Pages 99-112  
  Keywords (up) behaviour prediction; bonobo; bottom-up approach; chimpanzee; gorilla; individual differences; orang-utan; personality; traits  
  Abstract Using a multidisciplinary approach, the present study complements ethological behaviour measurements with basic theoretical concepts, methods and approaches of the personality psychological trait paradigm. Its adoptability and usefulness for animal studies are tested exemplarily on a sample of 20 zoo-housed great apes (five of each of the following species): bonobos, Pan paniscus; chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus; gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla; and orang-utans, Pongo pygmaeus abelii. Data on 76 single trait-relevant behaviours were recorded in a series of 14 laboratory-based situations and in two different group situations. Data collection was repeated completely after a break of 2 weeks within a 60-day period. All behaviour records were sufficiently reliable. Individual- and variable-oriented analyses showed high/substantial temporal stability on different levels of aggregation. Distinctive and stable individual situational and response profiles clarified the importance of situations and of multiple trait-relevant behaviours. The present study calls for a closer collaboration between behavioural biologists and personality psychologists to tap the full potential of animal personality research.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4278  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Slingerland, L.I.; Robben, J.H.; Schaafsma, I.; Kooistra, H.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Response of cats to familiar and unfamiliar human contact using continuous direct arterial blood pressure measurement Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Research in Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 85 Issue 3 Pages 575-582  
  Keywords (up) Behaviour; Activity; Technique; White-coat effect; Diurnal rhythm; Invasive  
  Abstract Continuous direct measurement of feline arterial blood pressure (ABP) was carried out via a modified method with percutaneous, ultrasound guided catheterization of the common carotid artery. In 21 healthy, conscious cats the ABP was measured during rest, alertness and activity. Furthermore, the ABP response to being petted by familiar and unfamiliar persons was assessed. Linear mixed modelling revealed that the mean blood pressure (MBP) in resting cats (114.6 mmHg) was lower (P < 0.001) than in alert cats (122.7 mmHg), which was lower (P < 0.001) than that of active cats (136.8 mmHg). The MBP during petting by a familiar person (144.7 mmHg) tended to be higher (P = 0.065) than that during petting by an unfamiliar person (139.4 mmHg). The MBP of active cats was lower (P = 0.003) than MBP of cats petted by a familiar person, but not different from MBP of cats petted by an unfamiliar person. The MBP returned to resting values between 16 and 20 min after the familiar person had left, whereas resting values were reached between 11 and 15 min after the unfamiliar person had left. The complications of the described method were limited considering the potential risks of continuous direct ABP measurement. In conclusion, the described technique enables accurate measurement of feline ABP, which is influenced by the cat's activity level and the familiarity of persons.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-5288 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4982  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Waran, N.K.; Clarke, N.; Farnworth, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of weaning on the domestic horse (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 110 Issue 1-2 Pages 42-57  
  Keywords (up) Behaviour; Foal; Horse; Stress; Weaning; Welfare  
  Abstract For free-living or feral horses weaning takes place naturally at around 8-9 months [Gill, E.L., 1988. Factors affecting body condition of New Forest Ponies. Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Biology, University of Southampton]. Some mares will continue to suckle their foal until shortly before the arrival of their next foal, gestation being approximately 342 days depending upon the breed of the horse [Ropiha, R.T., Mathews, G., Butterfield, R.M., 1969. The duration of pregnancy in Thoroughbred mares. Vet. Rec. 84, 552-555]. Under domestic conditions, weaning tends to take place earlier, typically between 4 and 6 months of age. The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, physical and nutritional stressors that are of welfare concern. Following a review of the literature it is evident that there is a need for detailed research into what should constitute best practice with respect to foal and mare welfare. In addition, there is a need to understand the potential long-term impact of weaning on, for example, trainability and later maternal behaviour, and whether the stresses associated with early weaning have detrimental effects on the performance horse. There is also a lack of clear information concerning the most frequently observed weaning practices and the reasons why certain weaning methods are chosen. Some variables should be closely managed during weaning in order to minimise stress responses. These include: early creep feeding to familiarise the young animal with the food it will be exposed to during weaning, feeding a high fibre diet and keeping the animal in extensive conditions using a gradual approach to weaning. However, we conclude that there may not be one best method for weaning, since the chosen method must take into account a number of factors including: available resources, the housing environment, the individual foal's stage of development, the strength of the mare-foal attachment, the foal's ability to cope with changes in social conditions and the ability of the horse owner to implement the chosen method. We do however suggest that the fewest stress responses appear to occur where foals are weaned gradually and allowed to have social contact either with other foals or with older horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 4348  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Benhajali, H.; Richard-Yris, M. -A.; Leroux, M.; Ezzaouia, M.; Charfi, F.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A note on the time budget and social behaviour of densely housed horses: A case study in Arab breeding mares Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 112 Issue 1-2 Pages 196-200  
  Keywords (up) Behavioural repertoire; Time budget; Mare; Social behaviour; Density  
  Abstract We observed a high-density herd (200 mares/ha) of 44 Arab breeding mares, while in a bare paddock in Tunisia. Twenty-minute animal focal samples and scan sampling were used to determine the time budget of the mares during the period from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. and study their social behaviour. The data obtained reveal restricted behavioural repertoires with missing behaviour like rolling, allogrooming and lying down; unusual time budgets with a high frequency of locomotion that constitutes the most frequent activity (27.9 ± 19.47%) of the mares. Social interactions were restricted to agonistic interactions but despite the high stocking density, aggressions were not that frequent among mares.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4774  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mirabet, V.; Fréon, P.; Lett, C. doi  openurl
  Title Factors affecting information transfer from knowledgeable to naive individuals in groups Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.  
  Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 159-171-171  
  Keywords (up) Biomedical and Life Sciences  
  Abstract There is evidence that individuals in animal groups benefit from the presence of knowledgeable group members in different ways. Experiments and computer simulations have shown that a few individuals within a group can lead others, for a precise task and at a specific moment. As a group travels, different individuals possessing a particular knowledge may act as temporary leaders, so that the group will, as a whole, follow their behaviour. In this paper, we use a model to study different factors influencing group response to temporary leadership. The model is based on four individual behaviours. Three of those, attraction, repulsion, and alignment, are shared by all individuals. The last one, attraction toward the source of a stimulus, concerns only a fraction of the group members. We explore the influence of group size, proportion of stimulated individuals, number of influential neighbours, and intensity of the attraction to the source of the stimulus, on the proportion of the group reaching this source. Special attention is given to the simulation of large group size, close to those observed in nature. Groups of 100, 400 and 900 individuals are currently simulated, and up to 8,000 in one experiment. We show that more stimulated individuals and a larger group size both induce the arrival of a larger fraction of the group. The number of influential neighbours and the intensity of the stimulus have a non-linear influence on the proportion of the group arrival, displaying first a positive relationship and then, above a given threshold, a negative one. We conclude that an intermediate level of group cohesion provides optimal transfer information from knowledgeable to naive individuals.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5295  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Powell, D. doi  openurl
  Title Female–female competition or male mate choice? Patterns of courtship and breeding behavior among feral horses (Equus caballus) on Assateague Island Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Ethology Abbreviated Journal J. Ethol.  
  Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 137-144-144  
  Keywords (up) Biomedical and Life Sciences  
  Abstract Previous research on the Assateague horses found that high-ranking females had more surviving offspring than low-ranking females. Variance in reproductive success may be the result of a variety of proximate processes that affect sexual behavior such as mate choice and mate competition. A study was done to determine whether patterns of courtship, social, and sexual behavior could be identified that would suggest mate choice and/or mate competition. Behavioral data were collected from approximately 40 sexually mature mares living in harem bands. Stallions showed more interest in the eliminations of dominant mares than subordinate mares. Males also engaged in significantly more high-intensity (e.g., mounts and copulations) sexual behavior with dominant mares than subordinate mares, and there was a trend for males to engage in more low-intensity (e.g., flehmen and ano-genital sniffing) sexual behavior with dominant mares than subordinate mares. There was no effect of mare rank on spatial relationships with the stallion; however, dominant mares did attempt to restrict reproductive access to the stallion by harassing and disrupting copulations. Higher foaling rates among dominant mares on Assateague Island could therefore be the result of rank-related mate choice by stallions and direct female competition for mating opportunities.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Japan Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0289-0771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5412  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Palagi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sharing the motivation to play: the use of signals in adult bonobos Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 75 Issue 3 Pages 887-896  
  Keywords (up) bonobo; full play face; Pan paniscus; play face; playful propensity; ritualization; social play; social tolerance; solitary play; visual communication  
  Abstract Gestures and facial displays are involved in regulating many aspects of mammal social life such as aggression, dominance-subordinate relationships, appeasement and play. Playful activity is an interesting behaviour for examining the role of signals as intentional communication systems. When animals play they perform patterns that are used in other serious contexts. To avoid miscommunication, many species have evolved signals to maintain a playful mood. Bonobos, Pan paniscus, with their flexible social relationships and playful propensity, may represent a good model species to test some hypotheses on adult play signalling. I analysed the potential roles of facial play expressions and solitary play in soliciting and regulating social play and found that adult bonobos used the play face (relaxed open-mouth display) in a selective manner. Play faces were more frequent during social than solitary play and, within social play, polyadic sessions (even though less frequent than dyadic sessions) were characterized by a higher frequency of signals. Following the rule of play intensity matching, play faces were more frequent when the two players matched in age and size (sessions among adults). Moreover, among dyads there was a positive correlation between the frequency of aggressive interactions performed and the frequency of play signals used, thus suggesting that signals are crucial in play negotiations among individuals showing high baseline levels of aggression. Finally, solitary play, especially when it involved pirouettes and somersaults, had an important role in triggering social play.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4316  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print