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Author Zentall, T.R. openurl 
  Title (up) A cognitive behaviorist approach to the study of animal behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication The Journal of general psychology Abbreviated Journal J Gen Psychol  
  Volume 129 Issue 4 Pages 328-363  
  Keywords Animals; *Attention; *Behavior, Animal; *Cognition; Learning; *Memory; Social Behavior  
  Abstract Traditional psychological approaches to animal learning and behavior have involved either the atheoretical behaviorist approach proposed by B. F. Skinner (1938), in which input-output relations are described in response to environmental manipulations, or the theoretical behaviorist approach offered by C. L Hull (1943), in which associations mediated by several hypothetical constructs and intervening variables are formed between stimuli and responses. Recently, the application of a cognitive behaviorist approach to animal learning and behavior has been found to have considerable value as a research tool. This perspective has grown out of E. C. Tolman's cognitive approach to learning in which behavior is mediated by mechanisms that are not directly observable but can be inferred from the results of critical experiments. In the present article, the author presents several examples of the successful application of the cognitive behaviorist approach. In each case, the experiments have been designed to distinguish between more traditional mechanisms and those mediated by hypothesized internal representations. These examples were selected because the evidence suggests that some form of active cognitive organization is needed to account for the behavioral results.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506, USA. Zentall@uky.edu  
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  ISSN 0022-1309 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12494989 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 214  
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Author Dugatkin, L.A. url  openurl
  Title (up) A comment on Lafleur et al.'s re-evaluation of mate-choice copying in guppies Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 513-514  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1812  
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Author Miklósi, Á.; Soproni, K. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A comparative analysis of animals' understanding of the human pointing gesture Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Animal cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages 81-93  
  Keywords *Animal Communication; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Child; Child, Preschool; Dogs; Fixation, Ocular; *Gestures; Hand; Humans; *Nonverbal Communication; Pinnipedia; Primates; Problem Solving; *Recognition (Psychology); Species Specificity  
  Abstract We review studies demonstrating the ability of some animals to understand the human pointing gesture. We present a 3-step analysis of the topic. (1) We compare and evaluate current experimental methods (2) We compare available experimental results on performance of different species and investigate the interaction of species differences and other independent variables (3) We evaluate how our present understanding of pointing comprehension answers questions about function, evolution and mechanisms. Recently, a number of different hypotheses have been put forward to account for the presence of this ability in some species and for the lack of such comprehension in others. In our view, there is no convincing evidence for the assumption that the competitive lifestyles of apes would inhibit the utilization of this human gesture. Similarly, domestication as a special evolutionary factor in the case of some species falls short in explaining high levels of pointing comprehension in some non-domestic species. We also disagree with the simplistic view of describing the phenomenon as a simple form of conditioning. We suggest that a more systematic comparative research is needed to understand the emerging communicative representational abilities in animals that provide the background for comprehending the human pointing gesture.  
  Address Department of Ethology, Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Pazmany P 1/c, H-1117, Budapest, Hungary. miklosa@ludens.elte.hu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16235075 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 463  
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Author Bhadra, A.; Jordán, F.; Sumana, A.; Deshpande, S.A.; Gadagkar, R. url  doi
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  Title (up) A comparative social network analysis of wasp colonies and classrooms: Linking network structure to functioning Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Ecological Complexity Abbreviated Journal Ecol Complex  
  Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 48-55  
  Keywords Social insect; Ropalidia; Centrality; Small world  
  Abstract A major question in current network science is how to understand the relationship between structure and functioning of real networks. Here we present a comparative network analysis of 48 wasp and 36 human social networks. We have compared the centralisation and small world character of these interaction networks and have studied how these properties change over time. We compared the interaction networks of (1) two congeneric wasp species (Ropalidia marginata and Ropalidia cyathiformis), (2) the queen-right (with the queen) and queen-less (without the queen) networks of wasps, (3) the four network types obtained by combining (1) and (2) above, and (4) wasp networks with the social networks of children in 36 classrooms. We have found perfect (100%) centralisation in a queen-less wasp colony and nearly perfect centralisation in several other queen-less wasp colonies. Note that the perfectly centralised interaction network is quite unique in the literature of real-world networks. Differences between the interaction networks of the two wasp species are smaller than differences between the networks describing their different colony conditions. Also, the differences between different colony conditions are larger than the differences between wasp and children networks. For example, the structure of queen-right R. marginata colonies is more similar to children social networks than to that of their queen-less colonies. We conclude that network architecture depends more on the functioning of the particular community than on taxonomic differences (either between two wasp species or between wasps and humans).  
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  ISSN 1476-945x ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5003  
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Author Cambefort, J.P. openurl 
  Title (up) A comparative study of culturally transmitted patterns of feeding habits in the chacma baboon Papio ursinus and the vervet monkey Cercopithecus aethiops Type Journal Article
  Year 1981 Publication Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology Abbreviated Journal Folia Primatol (Basel)  
  Volume 36 Issue 3-4 Pages 243-263  
  Keywords Age Factors; Animals; *Cercopithecus; *Cercopithecus aethiops; Culture; *Feeding Behavior; Female; Group Structure; Learning; Male; *Papio; Social Class; Teaching  
  Abstract Japanese workers have studied social acquisition patterns of new feeding habits in Macaca fuscata which they have termed precultural. The present study investigates the same phenomenon in the chacma baboon and the vervet monkey in their natural habitat. The questions addressed are: (1) How a new feeding habit enters a troop and by which age and sex category, also how it is propagated? (2) When individuals are permitted with a choice between palatable and unpalatable food, can they learn by demonstration only or do they have to pass through a direct learning process? (3) Can the results from the above questions be explained by social parameters such as the social structure of the individual species? It was found that juvenile baboons discover new food and that after the discovery propagation is instantaneous. In vervets discovery is random among the age classes and propagation is slow and takes place through certain 'pivot' individuals. Both species fail to learn about palatability by demonstration but have to go through a direct learning process. This contrasts strongly with the forest baboon Mandrillus sphinx that have been shown to learn by demonstration. Socially, baboon juveniles stay closer to each other than the adults who force them to live at the periphery of the troop. Vervets again forage without precise sub-group formation. The link between social and cultural propagation and social structure is discussed on the basis of these findings.  
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  ISSN 0015-5713 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:7319426 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 2087  
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Author Jones, J.E.; Antoniadis, E.; Shettleworth, S.J.; Kamil, A.C. openurl 
  Title (up) A comparative study of geometric rule learning by nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), pigeons (Columba livia), and jackdaws (Corvus monedula) Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983) Abbreviated Journal J Comp Psychol  
  Volume 116 Issue 4 Pages 350-356  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Birds; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Learning/*physiology; *Mathematics; Random Allocation; Spatial Behavior/*physiology  
  Abstract Three avian species, a seed-caching corvid (Clark's nutcrackers; Nucifraga columbiana), a non-seed-caching corvid (jackdaws; Corvus monedula), and a non-seed-caching columbid (pigeons; Columba livia), were tested for ability to learn to find a goal halfway between 2 landmarks when distance between the landmarks varied during training. All 3 species learned, but jackdaws took much longer than either pigeons or nutcrackers. The nutcrackers searched more accurately than either pigeons or jackdaws. Both nutcrackers and pigeons showed good transfer to novel landmark arrays in which interlandmark distances were novel, but inconclusive results were obtained from jackdaws. Species differences in this spatial task appear quantitative rather than qualitative and are associated with differences in natural history rather than phylogeny.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 68588-0118, USA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0735-7036 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12539930 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 369  
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Author Gutierrez Rincon, J.A.; Vives Turco, J.; Muro Martinez, I.; Casas Vaque, I. openurl 
  Title (up) A comparative study of the metabolic effort expended by horse riders during a jumping competition Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication British Journal of Sports Medicine Abbreviated Journal Br J Sports Med  
  Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 33-35  
  Keywords Adult; Animals; Energy Metabolism/*physiology; *Exertion; Heart Rate/physiology; Horses; Humans; Lactates/blood; *Sports  
  Abstract The three main Olympic horse riding disciplines are dressage, jumping, and three-day eventing (including dressage, cross country and jumping). In the jumping discipline (obstacle race), the 'team' (horse rider) is judged under the different conditions that might take place in a varied run. The horse is expected to show power and ability; the rider must show riding skill and good physical condition. However, the different conditions encountered by the rider during competition (duration of event, continuous isometric working level, especially in the inferior trunk, lead us to consider the need for a rider to develop different metabolic pathways to meet the high energy requirements of the competition.  
  Address Centre de Medicina de l'Esport de Barcelona, Spain  
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  ISSN 0306-3674 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:1600451 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3754  
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Author Miklosi, A.; Pongracz, P.; Lakatos, G.; Topal, J.; Csanyi, V. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A Comparative Study of the Use of Visual Communicative Signals in Interactions Between Dogs (Canis familiaris) and Humans and Cats (Felis catus) and Humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of Comparative Psychology Abbreviated Journal J. Comp. Psychol.  
  Volume 119 Issue 2 Pages 179-186  
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  Abstract Dogs' (Canis familiaris) and cats' (Felis catus) interspecific communicative behavior toward humans was investigated. In Experiment 1, the ability of dogs and cats to use human pointing gestures in an object-choice task was compared using 4 types of pointing cues differing in distance between the signaled object and the end of the fingertip and in visibility duration of the given signal. Using these gestures, both dogs and cats were able to find the hidden food; there was no significant difference in their performance. In Experiment 2, the hidden food was made inaccessible to the subjects to determine whether they could indicate the place of the hidden food to a naive owner. Cats lacked some components of attention-getting behavior compared with dogs. The results suggest that individual familiarization with pointing gestures ensures high-level performance in the presence of such gestures; however, species-specific differences could cause differences in signaling toward the human.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 599  
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Author Puppe, B.; Langbein, J.; Bauer, J.; Hoy, S. url  doi
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  Title (up) A comparative view on social hierarchy formation at different stages of pig production using sociometric measures Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Livestock Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 113 Issue 2-3 Pages 155-162  
  Keywords Pig; Dominance; Sociometric measures; Social hierarchy; Ontogeny  
  Abstract A standardised and comprehensive approach to describe dominance relationships in gregarious farm animals quantitatively was recently developed, incorporating a combination of appropriate sociometric measures. The present study applied this approach to a comparative analysis of the social hierarchies within 57 groups of domestic pigs at different age/production stages with a total of 496 animals. Unacquainted pigs were grouped to three age categories which correspond to the typical production stages: weaned pigs (PIG28, 12 groups), growing pigs (PIG80, 16 groups), and reproductive sows (SOW, 29 groups). Based on observed agonistic interactions, sociometric values were calculated both at the dyadic and at the group level and may be considered as preliminary reference values for further studies. As indicated by the respective values of the Kendall index (PIG28: 0.66, tested as significant in 69.0% of the observed groups; PIG80: 0.71, 87.5%; SOW: 0.61, 69.0%), and the improved Landau index (PIG28: 0.70, 75.0%; PIG80: 0.72, 93.7%; SOW: 0.71, 72.4%), a social organisation towards a quasi-linear social hierarchy was predominantly developed throughout all age/production categories. However, compared to weaned and growing pigs, sows were characterised by significant differences concerning establishment (fewer agonistic interactions) and kind (more unknown dyads, fewer two-way and significant dyads, higher directional consistency index) of their social hierarchy. It seems that sows have effectively adapted their agonistic behaviour towards pen-mates to regulate social dominance relationships, whereas younger pigs frequently display agonistic interactions also to gain additional experience on social cues (e.g. the fighting ability of an opponent). Hence, it is concluded that the effective experience of socialisation during sensitive periods may increase the social skills of pigs which in turn can improve their welfare and health, e.g. by adjusted aggressive behaviour. The consideration of comparable and standardised sociometric measures in livestock breeding may help to improve husbandry conditions.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 2139  
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Author Gruber, T.; Clay, Z.; Zuberbühler, K. url  doi
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  Title (up) A comparison of bonobo and chimpanzee tool use: evidence for a female bias in the Pan lineage Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 80 Issue 6 Pages 1023-1033  
  Keywords culture; great ape; neoteny; Pan; primate evolution; sex difference; tool use  
  Abstract Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, are the most sophisticated tool-users among all nonhuman primates. From an evolutionary perspective, it is therefore puzzling that the tool use behaviour of their closest living primate relative, the bonobo, Pan paniscus, has been described as particularly poor. However, only a small number of bonobo groups have been studied in the wild and only over comparably short periods. Here, we show that captive bonobos and chimpanzees are equally diverse tool-users in most contexts. Our observations illustrate that tool use in bonobos can be highly complex and no different from what has been described for chimpanzees. The only major difference in the chimpanzee and bonobo data was that bonobos of all age–sex classes used tools in a play context, a possible manifestation of their neotenous nature. We also found that female bonobos displayed a larger range of tool use behaviours than males, a pattern previously described for chimpanzees but not for other great apes. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the female-biased tool use evolved prior to the split between bonobos and chimpanzees.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5856  
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