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Author Goodson, J.L.; Schrock, S.E.; Klatt, J.D.; Kabelik, D.; Kingsbury, M.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mesotocin and Nonapeptide Receptors Promote Estrildid Flocking Behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 325 Issue 5942 Pages 862-866  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Proximate neural mechanisms that influence preferences for groups of a given size are almost wholly unknown. In the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata), blockade of nonapeptide receptors by an oxytocin (OT) antagonist significantly reduced time spent with large groups and familiar social partners independent of time spent in social contact. Opposing effects were produced by central infusions of mesotocin (MT, avian homolog of OT). Most drug effects appeared to be female-specific. Across five estrildid finch species, species-typical group size correlates with nonapeptide receptor distributions in the lateral septum, and sociality in female zebra finches was reduced by OT antagonist infusions into the septum but not a control area. We propose that titration of sociality by MT represents a phylogenetically deep framework for the evolution of OTís female-specific roles in pair bonding and maternal functions.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.1174929 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5646  
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Author Warneken, F.; Tomasello, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Altruistic Helping in Human Infants and Young Chimpanzees Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 311 Issue 5765 Pages 1301-1303  
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  Abstract Human beings routinely help others to achieve their goals, even when the helper receives no immediate benefit and the person helped is a stranger. Such altruistic behaviors (toward non-kin) are extremely rare evolutionarily, with some theorists even proposing that they are uniquely human. Here we show that human children as young as 18 months of age (prelinguistic or just-linguistic) quite readily help others to achieve their goals in a variety of different situations. This requires both an understanding of others' goals and an altruistic motivation to help. In addition, we demonstrate similar though less robust skills and motivations in three young chimpanzees.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5607  
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Author Schultz, W.; Dayan, P.; Montague, P.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Neural Substrate of Prediction and Reward Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 275 Issue 5306 Pages 1593-1599  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The capacity to predict future events permits a creature to detect, model, and manipulate the causal structure of its interactions with its environment. Behavioral experiments suggest that learning is driven by changes in the expectations about future salient events such as rewards and punishments. Physiological work has recently complemented these studies by identifying dopaminergic neurons in the primate whose fluctuating output apparently signals changes or errors in the predictions of future salient and rewarding events. Taken together, these findings can be understood through quantitative theories of adaptive optimizing control.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5749  
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Author Hamilton, C.R.; Vermeire, B.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Complementary hemispheric specialization in monkeys Type Journal Article
  Year 1988 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 242 Issue 4886 Pages 1691-1694  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Twenty-five split-brain monkeys were taught to discriminate two types of visual stimuli that engage lateralized cerebral processing in human subjects. Differential lateralization for the two kinds of discriminations was found; the left hemisphere was better at distinguishing between tilted lines and the right hemisphere was better at discriminating faces. These results indicate that lateralization of cognitive processing appeared in primates independently of language or handedness. In addition, cerebral lateralization in monkeys may provide an appropriate model for studying the biological basis of hemispheric specialization.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5342  
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Author Wood, J.N.; Glynn, D.D.; Phillips, B.C.; Hauser, M.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Perception of Rational, Goal-Directed Action in Nonhuman Primates Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 317 Issue 5843 Pages 1402-1405  
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  Abstract Humans are capable of making inferences about other individuals' intentions and goals by evaluating their actions in relation to the constraints imposed by the environment. This capacity enables humans to go beyond the surface appearance of behavior to draw inferences about an individual's mental states. Presently unclear is whether this capacity is uniquely human or is shared with other animals. We show that cotton-top tamarins, rhesus macaques, and chimpanzees all make spontaneous inferences about a human experimenter's goal by attending to the environmental constraints that guide rational action. These findings rule out simple associative accounts of action perception and show that our capacity to infer rational, goal-directed action likely arose at least as far back as the New World monkeys, some 40 million years ago.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4241  
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Author Schmidt, M.; Lipson, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Distilling Free-Form Natural Laws from Experimental Data Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 324 Issue 5923 Pages 81-85  
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  Abstract For centuries, scientists have attempted to identify and document analytical laws that underlie physical phenomena in nature. Despite the prevalence of computing power, the process of finding natural laws and their corresponding equations has resisted automation. A key challenge to finding analytic relations automatically is defining algorithmically what makes a correlation in observed data important and insightful. We propose a principle for the identification of nontriviality. We demonstrated this approach by automatically searching motion-tracking data captured from various physical systems, ranging from simple harmonic oscillators to chaotic double-pendula. Without any prior knowledge about physics, kinematics, or geometry, the algorithm discovered Hamiltonians, Lagrangians, and other laws of geometric and momentum conservation. The discovery rate accelerated as laws found for simpler systems were used to bootstrap explanations for more complex systems, gradually uncovering the “alphabet” used to describe those systems.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.1165893 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5264  
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Author Rowe, M.L.; Goldin-Meadow, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Differences in Early Gesture Explain SES Disparities in Child Vocabulary Size at School Entry Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 323 Issue 5916 Pages 951-953  
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  Abstract Children from low-socioeconomic status (SES) families, on average, arrive at school with smaller vocabularies than children from high-SES families. In an effort to identify precursors to, and possible remedies for, this inequality, we videotaped 50 children from families with a range of different SES interacting with parents at 14 months and assessed their vocabulary skills at 54 months. We found that children from high-SES families frequently used gesture to communicate at 14 months, a relation that was explained by parent gesture use (with speech controlled). In turn, the fact that children from high-SES families have large vocabularies at 54 months was explained by children's gesture use at 14 months. Thus, differences in early gesture help to explain the disparities in vocabulary that children bring with them to school.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.1167025 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4728  
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Author Li, W.; Howard, J.D.; Parrish, T.B.; Gottfried, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Aversive Learning Enhances Perceptual and Cortical Discrimination of Indiscriminable Odor Cues Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 319 Issue 5871 Pages 1842-1845  
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  Abstract Learning to associate sensory cues with threats is critical for minimizing aversive experience. The ecological benefit of associative learning relies on accurate perception of predictive cues, but how aversive learning enhances perceptual acuity of sensory signals, particularly in humans, is unclear. We combined multivariate functional magnetic resonance imaging with olfactory psychophysics to show that initially indistinguishable odor enantiomers (mirror-image molecules) become discriminable after aversive conditioning, paralleling the spatial divergence of ensemble activity patterns in primary olfactory (piriform) cortex. Our findings indicate that aversive learning induces piriform plasticity with corresponding gains in odor enantiomer discrimination, underscoring the capacity of fear conditioning to update perceptual representation of predictive cues, over and above its well-recognized role in the acquisition of conditioned responses. That completely indiscriminable sensations can be transformed into discriminable percepts further accentuates the potency of associative learning to enhance sensory cue perception and support adaptive behavior.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.1152837 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4408  
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Author Li, W.; Howard, J.D.; Parrish, T.B.; Gottfried, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Supporting Online Material to: Aversive Learning Enhances Perceptual and Cortical Discrimination of Indiscriminable Odor Cues Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2008 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 319 Issue 5871 Pages 1842-1845  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Learning to associate sensory cues with threats is critical for minimizing aversive experience. The ecological benefit of associative learning relies on accurate perception of predictive cues, but how aversive learning enhances perceptual acuity of sensory signals, particularly in humans, is unclear. We combined multivariate functional magnetic resonance imaging with olfactory psychophysics to show that initially indistinguishable odor enantiomers (mirror-image molecules) become discriminable after aversive conditioning, paralleling the spatial divergence of ensemble activity patterns in primary olfactory (piriform) cortex. Our findings indicate that aversive learning induces piriform plasticity with corresponding gains in odor enantiomer discrimination, underscoring the capacity of fear conditioning to update perceptual representation of predictive cues, over and above its well-recognized role in the acquisition of conditioned responses. That completely indiscriminable sensations can be transformed into discriminable percepts further accentuates the potency of associative learning to enhance sensory cue perception and support adaptive behavior.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1126/science.1152837 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4409  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Silk, J.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social Components of Fitness in Primate Groups Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 317 Issue 5843 Pages 1347-1351  
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  Abstract There is much interest in the evolutionary forces that favored the evolution of large brains in the primate order. The social brain hypothesis posits that selection has favored larger brains and more complex cognitive capacities as a means to cope with the challenges of social life. The hypothesis is supported by evidence that shows that group size is linked to various measures of brain size. But it has not been clear how cognitive complexity confers fitness advantages on individuals. Research in the field and laboratory shows that sophisticated social cognition underlies social behavior in primate groups. Moreover, a growing body of evidence suggests that the quality of social relationships has measurable fitness consequences for individuals.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.1140734 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4239  
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