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Author Seyfarth, R.M.; Cheney, D.L. isbn  openurl
  Title The Structure of Social Knowledge in Monkeys Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2003 Publication Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture, and Individualized Societies Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Harvard University Press Place of Publication Cambridge, Massachusetts Editor F. B. M. de Waal; P. L. Tyack  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture, and Individualized Societies  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-0674009295 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 464  
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Author Feh, C. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Relationships and Communication in Socially Natural Horse Herds Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2005 Publication The domestic horse : the origins, development, and management of its behaviour Abbreviated Journal The domestic horse : the origins, development, and management of its behaviour  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract Horses are quite unique. In most mammals, sexes segregate and maintain bonds only during the breeding season (Clutton-Brock, 1989). Some canids, a few rodents and primate species such as gorillas, hamadryas baboons and red howler monkeys are the exception, where the same males stay with the same females all year round and over many breeding seasons. Typically, both sexes disperse at puberty in these species. In horses, it was clearly shown that the causes for female dispersal were incest avoidance and not intra-specific competition (Monard, 1996). As a rule, this is confirmed for mammal species where tenure length by males exceeds the age at first reproduction in females (Clutton-Brock, 1989). When horses are allowed to choose their mating partner freely, the inbreeding coefficient of the offspring is lower than expected should they mate randomly (Duncan et al, 1984).  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Cambridge University Press 2005 Place of Publication Cambridge Editor Mills, D. S. ; McDonnell, , S. M.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 13 978-0-521-81414-6 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @; Equine Behaviour @ team @ room B 3.092 Serial 472  
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Author Nicol, C.J url  openurl
  Title Equine Stereotypies. In: Houpt K.A. (Ed.), Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2000 Publication Recent Advances in Companion Animal Behavior Problems Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher International Veterinary Information Service Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 477  
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Author Cheney, D. l .; Seyfarth, R. M. url  openurl
  Title Social complexity and the information acquired during eavesdropping by primates and other animals Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2004 Publication Animal Communication networks Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In many of the studies reviewed in this book, eavesdropping takes the
following form: a subject has the opportunity to monitor, or eavesdrop upon, an
interaction between two other animals,Aand B. The subject then uses the information
obtained through these observations to assess A`s and B`s relative dominance
or attractiveness as a mate (e.g. Mennill et al., 2002; Ch. 2). For example, Oliveira
et al. (1998) found that male fighting fish Betta splendens that had witnessed two
other males involved in an aggressive interaction subsequently responded more
strongly to the loser of that interaction than the winner. Subjects-behaviour could
not have been influenced by any inherent differences between the two males, because
subjects responded equally strongly to the winner and the loser of competitive
interactions they had not observed. Similarly, Peake et al. (2001) presented
male great tits Parus major with the opportunity to monitor an apparent competitive
interaction between two strangers by simulating a singing contest using two
loudspeakers. The relative timing of the singing bouts (as measured by the degree
of overlap between the two songs) provided information about each “contestants”
relative status. Following the singing interaction, one of the “contestants” was
introduced into the male`s territory. Males responded significantly less strongly
to singers that had apparently just “lost” the interaction (see also McGregor &
Dabelsteen, 1996; Naguib et al., 1999; Ch. 2).
What information does an individual acquire when it eavesdrops on others?
In theory, an eavesdropper could acquire information of many different sorts:
about A, about B, about the relationship between A and B, or about the place of
Animal Communication Networks, ed. Peter K. McGregor. Published by Cambridge University Press.
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Cambridge University Press 2005.
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584 D. L. Cheney & R. M. Seyfarth
A`s and B`s relationship in a larger social framework. The exact information acquired
will probably reflect the particular species social structure. For example,
songbirds like great tits live in communities in which six or seven neighbours
surround each territory-holding male. Males appear to benefit from the knowledge
that certain individuals occupy specific areas (e.g. Brooks & Falls, 1975), that
competitive interactions between two different neighbours have particular outcomes,
and that these outcomes are stable over time. We would, therefore, expect
an eavesdropping great tit not only to learn that neighbour A was dominant to
neighbour B, for example, but also to form the expectation that A was likely to
defeat B in all future encounters. More speculatively, because the outcome of territorial
interactions are often site specific (reviewed by Bradbury & Vehrencamp,
1998), we would expect eavesdropping tits to learn further that A dominates B
in some areas but B dominates A in others. In contrast, the information gained
from monitoring neighbours interactions would unlikely be sufficient to allow
the eavesdropper to rank all of its neighbours in a linear dominance hierarchy,
because not all neighbouring males would come into contact with one another.
Such information would be difficult if not impossible to acquire; it might also be
of little functional value.
In contrast, species that live in large, permanent social groups have a much
greater opportunity to monitor the social interactions of many different individuals
simultaneously. Monkey species such as baboons Papio cynocephalus, for
example, typically live in groups of 80 or more individuals, which include several
matrilineal families arranged in a stable, linear dominance rank order (Silk et al.,
1999). Offspring assume ranks similar to those of their mothers, and females maintain
close bonds with their matrilineal kin throughout their lives. Cutting across
these stable long-term relationships based on rank and kinship are more transient
bonds: for example, the temporary associations formed between unrelated
females whose infants are of similar ages, and the “friendships” formed between
adult males and lactating females as an apparent adaptation against infanticide
(Palombit et al., 1997, 2001). In order to compete successfully within such groups, it
would seem advantageous for individuals to recognize who outranks whom, who
is closely bonded to whom, and who is likely to be allied to whom (Harcourt, 1988,
1992; Cheney & Seyfarth, 1990; see below). The ability to adopt a third party`s perspective
and discriminate among the social relationships that exist among others
would seem to be of great selective benefit.
In this chapter, we review evidence for eavesdropping in selected primate
species and we consider what sort of information is acquired when one individual
observes or listens in on the interactions of others. We then compare eavesdropping
by primates with eavesdropping in other animal species, focusing on both
potential differences and directions for further research
 
  Address  
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  Publisher Cambridge University Press Place of Publication Cambridge, Massachusetts Editor McGregor, P.K.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 495  
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Author Mendl M, Held Z. isbn  openurl
  Title Living in gourps: Evolutionary Perspective Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year Publication Social Behavior in Farm Animals Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract An understanding of social behavior is increasingly necessary in farm animal husbandry as more animals are housed in groups rather than in individual stalls or pens. There may be economic or welfare reasons for such housing. This book is the first to specifically address this important subject. The chapters fall into three broad subject areas: concepts in social behavior; species specific chapters; current issues. Authors include leading experts from Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 9780851993973 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 512  
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Author Nathan J. Emery url  openurl
  Title The Evolution of Social Cognition Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2005 Publication The Cognitive Neuroscience of Social BehaviourGarten Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract Although this bookis focusedon the cognitive neuroscience ofhuman social behaviour, an
understandingofsocial cognition in non-human animals is critical for unravellingthe neural basis of
social cognition in humans as well as the selective pressures that have shapedthe evolution ofcomplex
social cognition. Thanks to methodological limitations, we know little about the relationships between
certain biochemical andelectrophysiological properties ofthe human brain andhow theycompute the
behaviour andmental states ofother individuals. Traditional techniques for examiningneural function
in humans, such as event-relatedpotentials (ERP),positron emission tomography(PET),and
functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI),are constrainedbythe fact that subjects are placed
either into an immoveable scanner with a lot ofbackgroundnoise or wiredup with dozens of
electrodes that are sensitive to slight movements. The possibilityofscanningor recordingbrain waves
from two individuals that are physicallyinteractingsociallyis technicallyimpossible at present
(however, see Montague et al, 2002 for a new methodfor simultaneouslyscanningtwo individuals
interactingvia a computer).
The onlywayto understandthe neurocognitive architecture ofhuman social behaviour is to examine
similar social processes in both human andnon-human animal minds andmake comparisons at the
species level. An additional argument is that traditional human socio-cognitive tasks are dependent on
the use ofstories, cartoons andverbal cues andinstructions (Heberlein & Adolphs, this volume)which
themselves will elicit specific neural responses that have to be eliminatedfrom neural responses
specificallyrelatedto mindreading. Therefore, the development ofnon-verbal tasks wouldprovide a
breakthrough for studies in non-linguistic animals, pre-verbal human infants andhuman cognitive
neuroimaging.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Psychology Press Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 543  
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Author Allen, C. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Transitive inference in animals: Reasoning or conditioned associations? Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2006 Publication Rational Animals? Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 175-186  
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  Abstract It is widely accepted that many species of nonhuman animals appear to engage in transitive inference,
producing appropriate responses to novel pairings of non-adjacent members of an ordered series
without previous experience of these pairings. Some researchers have taken this capability as
providing direct evidence that these animals reason. Others resist such declarations, favouring instead
explanations in terms of associative conditioning. Associative accounts of transitive inference have
been refined in application to a simple 5-element learning task that is the main paradigm for
laboratory investigations of the phenomenon, but it remains unclear how well those accounts
generalise to more information-rich environments such as social hierarchies which may contain scores
of individuals, and where rapid learning is important. The case of transitive inference is an example of
a more general dispute between proponents of associative accounts and advocates of more cognitive
accounts of animal behaviour. Examination of the specific details of transitive inference suggests
some lessons for the wider debate.
 
  Address Texas A&M University  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Oxford Editor Hurley, S.; Nudds, M.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-0-19-852827-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 611  
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Author Byrne, R.W. url  openurl
  Title Imitation of novel complex actions: What does the evidence from animals mean? Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2002 Publication Advances in the Study of Behavior Abbreviated Journal Adv Stud Behav  
  Volume 31 Issue Pages 77-105  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Summary Underlying the various behaviors that are classified as imitation, there may be several distinct mechanisms, differing in adaptive function, cognitive basis, and computational power. Experiments reporting “true motor imitation” in animals do not as yet give evidence of production learning by imitation; instead, contextual imitation can explain their data, and this can be explained by a simple mechanism (response facilitation) which matches known neural findings. When imitation serves a function in social mimicry, which applies to a wide range of phenomena from neonatal imitation in humans and great apes to pair-bonding in some bird species, the fidelity of the behavioral match is crucial. Learning of novel behavior can potentially be achieved by matching the outcome of a model's action, and it is argued that vocal imitation by birds is a clear example of this method (which is sometimes called emulation). Alternatively, the behavior itself may be perceived in terms of actions that the observer can perform, and thus it may be copied. If the imitation is linear and stringlike (action level), following the surface form rather than the underlying plan, then its utility for learning new instrumental methods is limited. However, the underlying plan of hierarchically organized behavior is visible in output behavior, in subtle but detectable ways, and imitation could instead be based on this organization (program level), extracted automatically by string parsing. Currently, the most likely candidates for such capacities are all great apes. It is argued that this ability to perceive the underlying plan of action, in addition to allowing highly flexible imitation of novel instrumental methods, may have resulted in the competence to understand the intentions (theory of mind) of others.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Academic Press Place of Publication San Diego Editor Snowdon, C. T.; Roper, T. J.;Rosenblatt,J. S.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 746  
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Author Pinkus, S.; Smith, J.; Jolly, A. doi  openurl
  Title Feeding Competition Between Introduced Eulemur fulvus and Native Lemur catta During the Birth Season at Berenty Reserve, Southern Madagascar Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2006 Publication Ringtailed Lemur Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 119-140  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 810  
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Author Hinde, R.A. openurl 
  Title A conceptural framework Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 1983 Publication Primate Social Relationships Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-7  
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  Publisher Sinauer, Sunderland Place of Publication Massechusetts Editor Hinde, R.A  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 818  
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