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Author Warneken, F.; Tomasello, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Varieties of altruism in children and chimpanzees Type (up) Abstract
  Year 2009 Publication Trends in cognitive sciences Abbreviated Journal Trends Cogn Sci  
  Volume 13 Issue 9 Pages 397-402  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Recent empirical research has shed new light on the perennial question of human altruism. A number of recent studies suggest that from very early in ontogeny young children have a biological predisposition to help others achieve their goals, to share resources with others and to inform others of things helpfully. Humans nearest primate relatives, such as chimpanzees, engage in some but not all of these behaviors: they help others instrumentally, but they are not so inclined to share resources altruistically and they do not inform others of things helpfully. The evolutionary roots of human altruism thus appear to be much more complex than previously supposed.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Science, Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1364-6613 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ S1364-6613(09)00149-1 DOI - 10.1016/j.tics.2009.06.008 Serial 5608  
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Author Baumgartner, T.; Heinrichs, M.; Vonlanthen, A.; Fischbacher, U.; Fehr, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Oxytocin Shapes the Neural Circuitry of Trust and Trust Adaptation in Humans Type (up) Abstract
  Year 2008 Publication Neuron Abbreviated Journal Neuron  
  Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 639-650  
  Keywords Sysneuro; Sysbio  
  Abstract Trust and betrayal of trust are ubiquitous in human societies. Recent behavioral evidence shows that the neuropeptide oxytocin increases trust among humans, thus offering a unique chance of gaining a deeper understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying trust and the adaptation to breach of trust. We examined the neural circuitry of trusting behavior by combining the intranasal, double-blind, administration of oxytocin with fMRI. We find that subjects in the oxytocin group show no change in their trusting behavior after they learned that their trust had been breached several times while subjects receiving placebo decrease their trust. This difference in trust adaptation is associated with a specific reduction in activation in the amygdala, the midbrain regions, and the dorsal striatum in subjects receiving oxytocin, suggesting that neural systems mediating fear processing (amygdala and midbrain regions) and behavioral adaptations to feedback information (dorsal striatum) modulate oxytocin's effect on trust. These findings may help to develop deeper insights into mental disorders such as social phobia and autism, which are characterized by persistent fear or avoidance of social interactions.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Cell Press, Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0896-6273 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ S0896-6273(08)00327-9 DOI - 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.04.009 Serial 5647  
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Author Krueger., K.; Farmer, K. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Social learning in Horses: Differs from individual learning only in the learning stimulus and not in the learning mechanisms Type (up) Abstract
  Year 2018 Publication 14th Meeting of the Internatinoal Society for Equitation Science Abbreviated Journal 14th Meeting ISES  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords horse; individual learning; learning mechanisms; learning stimuli; social learning  
  Abstract Equine welfare can be enhanced by applying species specific training. This may incorporate social learning, as horses are highly social and social stimuli are of primary importance. Social learning is comparable to individual learning in its learning mechanisms, differing primarily in the way it is stimulated. Our initial study showed that horses of different breeds (N = 38) follow humans after observing other horses doing so, but only if the observed horse was familiar to and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's exact test: N = 12, P = 0.003). A second study showed that horses and ponies (N = 25) learned to pull a rope to open a feeding apparatus after observing demonstrations by conspecifics, again, only if the demonstrating horse was older and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's combination test, N = 3, v2 = 27.71, p = 0.006). Our third approach showed that horses and ponies (N = 24) learned to press a switch to open a feeding apparatus after observing a familiar person (GzLM: N = 24, z = 2.33, P = 0.02). Most recently, we confronted horses and ponies (N = 50) with persons demonstrating different techniques for opening a feeding apparatus. In this study we investigated whether the horses would copy the demonstrators' techniques or apply their own. Here only some horses copied the technique, and most of the successful learners used their mouths irrespective of the demonstrators' postures (Chi Square Test: N = 40, df = 2, &#967;2 = 31.4, p < 0.001). In all the approaches social stimuli elicited learning processes in the test horses, while only a few individuals in the control groups mastered the tasks by individual learning. The following behaviour observed in the initial study may have been facilitated by a social stimuli (social facilitation), and the opening of the feed boxes in the subsequent studies appear to be mostly the result of enhancement (social enhancement). Some horses may have used the social stimuli at first and continued their learning process by individual trial and error. However, the horses were also selective in whom and some in how to copy. This may have been conditioned (socially conditioned) or the result of simple forms of reasoning on the reliability of the particular information provided by demonstrators of certain social ranks or social positions, as high ranking and familiar horses and familiar persons were copied and some imitated exactly.
Lay person message: Traditional riding instructions suggest that horses learn by observing other horses. For example, older, more experienced driving horses are used for initial training of young driving horses. We have shown that horses indeed use learning stimuli provided by other horse, as well as by humans. Horses readily accept stimuli observed in high ranking and familiar horses, and familiar persons. Such stimuli elicit learning processes which are comparable to individual learning. We suggest applying social learning whenever possible, as it is much faster and less stressful than individual learning, where learners experience negative outcomes in trial and error learning.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6405  
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Author Gil, M.; Bhatt, R.; Picotte, K.B.; Hull, E.M. url  openurl
  Title Sexual experience increases oxytocin receptor gene expression and protein in the medial preoptic area of the male rat Type (up) Abstract
  Year 2013 Publication Psychoneuroendocrinology Abbreviated Journal Psychoneuroendocrinology  
  Volume 38 Issue 9 Pages 1688-1697  
  Keywords Oxytocin; Oxytocin receptor; Sexual behavior; Sexual experience; Medial preoptic area; Hypothalamus; Rats  
  Abstract Oxytocin (OT) promotes social and reproductive behaviors in mammals, and OT deficits may be linked to disordered social behaviors like autism and severe anxiety. Male rat sexual behavior is an excellent model for OT regulation of behavior, as its pattern and neural substrates are well characterized. We previously reported that OT microinjected into the medial preoptic area (MPOA), a major integrative site for male sexual behavior, facilitates copulation in sexually experienced male rats, whereas intra-MPOA injection of an OT antagonist (OTA) inhibits copulation. In the present studies, copulation on the day of sacrifice stimulated OTR mRNA expression in the MPOA, irrespective of previous sexual experience, with the highest levels observed in first-time copulators. In addition, sexually experienced males had higher levels of OTR protein in the MPOA than sexually naïve males and first-time copulators. Finally, intra-MPOA injection of OT facilitated mating in sexually naive males. Others have reported a positive correlation between OT mRNA levels and male sexual behavior. Our studies show that OT in the MPOA facilitates mating in both sexually naive and experienced males, some of the behavioral effects of OT are mediated by the OTR, and sexual experience is associated with increased OTR expression in the MPOA. Taken together, these data suggest a reciprocal interaction between central OT and behavior, in which OT facilitates copulation and copulation stimulates the OT/OTR system in the brain.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Pergamon Press. Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0306-4530 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ S0306-4530(13)00040-1 Serial 5724  
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Author Maros, K.; Boross, B.; Kubinyi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Approach and follow behaviour – possible indicators of the human-horse relationship Type (up) Abstract
  Year 2010 Publication Interaction Studies Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 410-427  
  Keywords Approach; Follow; Human&#8211; Horse Interaction  
  Abstract The aim of our study was to analyze the behavioural responses of horses (N = 51) to familiar humans and to find factors that may affect these responses in three tests: (1) approach to, (2) standing beside, and (3) following the familiar person. We investigated the impacts of horse-related factors (gender and age) and human-related factors (type of work, housing management, amount of handling, number of handlers and training to follow).<br xmlns=“http://pub2web.metastore.ingenta.com/ns/”></br> Horses with one handler needed less time to approach the human than horses with more handlers. Standing beside the human correlated positively with following. Following was mainly affected by training.<br xmlns=“http://pub2web.metastore.ingenta.com/ns/”></br> According to our results, the number of handlers has an important effect on horses' responses to familiar humans, especially regarding approach and follow behaviour. However, following behaviour is fundamentally determined by training.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5728  
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Author Quaranta, A.; Siniscalchi, M.; Vallortigara, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Asymmetric tail-wagging responses by dogs to different emotive stimuli Type (up) Abstract
  Year 2007 Publication Current biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages R199-R201  
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  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Cell Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5733  
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Author Christensen, J.W.; Ahrendt, L.P.; Lintrup, R.; Gaillard, C.; Palme, R.; Malmkvist, J. doi  openurl
  Title Does learning performance in horses relate to fearfulness, baseline stress hormone, and social rank? Type (up) Abstract
  Year 2012 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal App Anim Behav Sci  
  Volume 140 Issue 1 Pages 44-52  
  Keywords Horse; Learning; Fearfulness; Stress; Reinforcement; Social rank  
  Abstract The ability of horses to learn and remember new tasks is fundamentally important for their use by humans. Fearfulness may, however, interfere with learning, because stimuli in the environment can overshadow signals from the rider or handler. In addition, prolonged high levels of stress hormones can affect neurons within the hippocampus; a brain region central to learning and memory. In a series of experiments, we aimed to investigate the link between performance in two learning tests, the baseline level of stress hormones, measured as faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM), fearfulness, and social rank. Twenty-five geldings (2 or 3 years old) pastured in one group were included in the study. The learning tests were performed by professional trainers and included a number of predefined stages during which the horses were gradually trained to perform exercises, using either negative (NR) or positive reinforcement (PR). Each of the learning tests lasted 3 days; 7min/horse/day. The NR test was repeated in a novel environment. Performance, measured as final stage in the training programme, and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Faeces were collected on four separate days where the horses had been undisturbed at pasture for 48h. Social rank was determined through observations of social interactions during feeding. The fear test was a novel object test during which behaviour and HR were recorded. Performance in the NR and PR learning tests did not correlate. In the NR test, there was a significant, negative correlation between performance and HR in the novel environment (rS=-0.66, P<0.001, i.e. nervous horses had reduced performance), whereas there was no such correlation in the home environment (both NR and PR). Behavioural reactions in the fear test correlated significantly with performance in the NR test in the novel environment (e.g. object alertness and final stage: rS=-0.43, P=0.04), suggesting that performance under unfamiliar, stressful conditions may be predicted by behavioural responses in a fear test. There was a negative correlation between social rank and baseline stress hormones (rS=-0.43, P=0.04), i.e. high rank corresponded to low FCM concentrations, whereas neither rank nor FCM correlated with fearfulness or learning performance. We conclude that performance under stressful conditions is affected by activation of the sympathetic nervous system during training and related to behavioural responses in a standardised fear test. Learning performance in the home environment, however, appears unrelated to fearfulness, social rank and baseline FCM levels.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ S0168-1591(12)00168-2 Serial 5769  
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Author Ahrendt, L.P.; Christensen, J.W.; Ladewig, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through social observation Type (up) Abstract
  Year 2012 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 139 Issue 1 Pages 105-113  
  Keywords Horse; Social learning; Social interaction; Instrumental task; Investigative behaviour; Aggression  
  Abstract The ability of horses to learn through social observation may ease the implementation of new management systems, because the use of automatic feeders etc. by naive horses could be facilitated by observation of experienced horses. However, previous studies found no documentation for observational learning abilities in horses. This study aimed to investigate the ability of horses to learn an instrumental task from a familiar conspecific when social interaction was allowed during the demonstration. Two similar experiments were performed. In the first experiment, Observer horses (n=11) participated in ten successive demonstrations, where a trained Demonstrator opened an operant device by pushing a sliding lid aside with the muzzle in order to obtain a food reward. Immediately after the demonstrations the Observer horses were given the opportunity to operate the device alone. Control horses (n=11) were aware that the device contained food but were presented to the operant device without demonstration of the task. The learning criterion was at least two openings. Accomplishment of and latency to accomplish the learning criterion, and investigative behaviour towards the operant device were recorded. Five Observers and one Control, out of the eleven horses in each treatment group, accomplished the learning criterion. Even though this presents a high odds ratio (OR) in favour of the Observer treatment (OR=7.6), there was no significant difference between the treatment groups (P=0.15). Analysis of investigative behaviour showed, however, that the demonstrations increased the motivation of the Observer horses to investigate the device. Subsequently, a similar experiment was performed in a practical setting with 44 test horses (mixed age, gender and breed). We used the same operant device and the same number and type of demonstrations, although the horses were held on a loose rope to minimise aggression. In this second experiment, six of 23 Observer horses and five of 21 Control horses learned the instrumental task, representing no influence of the demonstration. Thus, this study did not demonstrate an ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through observation.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ S0168-1591(12)00087-1 Serial 5773  
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Author Skandakumar, S.; Stodulski, G.; Hau, J. url  openurl
  Title Salivary IgA: a Possible Stress Marker In Dogs Type (up) Abstract
  Year 1995 Publication Animal Welfare Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 4 Issue 4 Pages 339-350  
  Keywords Animal Welfare; Behaviour; Cortisol; Dog; Salivary Iga (S-Iga); Stress; Well-Being  
  Abstract Stress in humans has been reported to be associated with a decrease in the salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) levels enabling the possible use of s-IgA to assess stress. Prolonged stress, if reliably assessed in a non-invasive manner, may be used to assess animal welfare. This study analysed groups of dogs undergoing physical and temperamental training and s-IgA levels were measured by rocket immunoelectrophoresis in prospective samples. Behavioural assessment was carried out and cortisol levels in saliva were measured by ELISA. A significant negative correlation (P < 0.007) between the logarithmic cortisol concentrations and s-IgA levels in saliva was recorded. The behavioural assessment of the dogs agreed well with the biochemical markers. It is concluded that IgA levels in saliva may be a useful marker of dog well-being and that stress results in decreased s-IgA levels.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5964  
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Author AKELEY, CE url  openurl
  Title The wild Ass of Somaliland Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 1914 Publication American Museum Journal Abbreviated Journal Amer Mus J  
  Volume 14 Issue Pages 113-117  
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  Notes Approved yes  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 107  
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