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Author Houpt, K.A.; Wolski, T.R. openurl 
  Title Stability of equine hierarchies and the prevention of dominance related aggression Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 15-18  
  Keywords *Aggression; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Feeding Behavior; Female; *Hierarchy, Social; *Horses; Humans; Male; Maternal Behavior; *Social Dominance  
  Abstract The dominance hierarchy of a herd of 10 Thoroughbred mares was determined twice, at an interval of 18 months, using paired feeding tests. Each mare's rank was correlated significantly between the 2 tests. This indicated that the hierarchy within the herd was stable. The offspring of dominant and subordinate mares were also tested for dominance in their own age groups. The offspring of dominant mares tended to be near the top of the hierarchy while those of middle and low ranking mares were not consistently found in the middle or bottom of their own hierarchies. Paired feeding tests were carried out on 8 ponies. During tests the time that each pony spent eating and the ponies' aggressive interactions were recorded. Two situations were used. Each pony-pair was tested when both ponies were in the same paddock and also when they were separated by a rail fence. The subordinate ponies spent significantly more time eating and the domonant pony was significantly less aggressive, when the pony-pair was separated by a fence than when they were in one paddock. It was concluded that the dominance hierarchies of adult horse groups changed very little over time and that the foals of dominant mares will tend to be dominant in their own age groups. Management practices can be used to reduce aggression and consequent injury that may arise in group feeding situations.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:7189148 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 59  
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Author Brown, R.F.; Houpt, K.A.; Schryver, H.F. openurl 
  Title Stimulation of food intake in horses by diazepam and promazine Type Journal Article
  Year 1976 Publication Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav  
  Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 495-497  
  Keywords Age Factors; Animals; Diazepam/*pharmacology; Diet; Feeding Behavior/*drug effects; Female; Horses/*physiology; Male; Promazine/*pharmacology; Stimulation, Chemical  
  Abstract In two adult horses doses of 0.02-0.03 mg/kg diazepam, intravenously, increased 1 hr intake 54-75% above control levels. Intake was stimulated when the diet was a high grain, calorically dense one and also when the diet was a high fiber, calorically dilute one. Two young rapidly growing weanling horses showed an even more pronounced stimulation of intake. Following diazepam 1 hr intake was increased 105-240% above control lelvels. Promazine at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg also stimulated intake in adult horses, but not as markedly as did diazepam. A transquilizer and a neuroleptic appear to have a stimulatory eff upon short-term intake in horses.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0091-3057 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:1005496 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 60  
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Author Houpt, K.A. openurl 
  Title Animal behavior as a subject for veterinary students Type Journal Article
  Year 1976 Publication The Cornell veterinarian Abbreviated Journal Cornell Vet  
  Volume 66 Issue 1 Pages 73-81  
  Keywords Aggression; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Cats; Chickens; Dogs; Education, Veterinary; Goats; Horses; Humans; Maternal Behavior; Mice; New York; Sexual Behavior, Animal; Sheep; Sleep; Social Behavior; Social Dominance; Swine  
  Abstract Knowledge of animal behavior is an important asset for the veterinarian; therefore a course in veterinary animal behavior is offered at the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine as an elective. The course emphasizes the behavior of those species of most interest to the practicing veterinarian: cats, dogs, horses, cows, pigs and sheep. Dominance heirarchies, animal communication, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior and maternal behavior are discussed. Play, learning, diurnal cycles of activity and sleep, and controls of ingestive behavior are also considered. Exotic and zoo animal behaviors are also presented by experts in these fields. The critical periods of canine development are related to the optimum management of puppies. The behavior of feral dogs and horses is described. The role of the veterinarian in preventing cruelty to animals and recognition of pain in animals is emphasized. Whenever possible behavior is observed in the laboratory or on film.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0010-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:767053 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 61  
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Author Houpt, T.R.; Houpt, K.A. openurl 
  Title Nitrogen conservation by ponies fed a low -protein ration Type Journal Article
  Year 1971 Publication American journal of veterinary research Abbreviated Journal Am J Vet Res  
  Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 579-588  
  Keywords Administration, Oral; Amino Acids/biosynthesis; Animals; Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology; Body Weight/drug effects; Dietary Proteins/*pharmacology; Horses/*metabolism; Nitrogen/*metabolism; Urea/administration & dosage/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism; Water/metabolism  
  Abstract  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0002-9645 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:5110116 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 62  
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Author Douglas Wilson, A. doi  openurl
  Title The effects of diet on blood glucose, insulin, gastrin and the serum tryptophan: Large neutral amino acid ratio in foals Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication The Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal Vet J  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Diet; Horse; Insulin; Gastrin; Tryptophan  
  Abstract High carbohydrate diets can affect the health and behaviour of foals, but the mechanisms are not always fully understood. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of feeding a starch and sugar (SS), or a fat (oil) and fibre (FF) rich diet to two groups of eight foals. Diets were fed from 4 to 42 weeks of age, alongside ad libitum forage. Faecal pH levels did not differ significantly between groups and endoscopic examination showed that the gastric mucosa was healthy in both groups at 25 and 42 weeks of age. At 40 weeks of age, SS foals had significantly higher total blood glucose and lower total blood gastrin than FF foals during the 6h period following ingestion of their respective diets, but insulin levels did not differ significantly. The ratio between serum tryptophan and other large neutral amino acids showed a trend towards an interaction between diet and sampling time. The results provide preliminary information about the effects of diet on the physiology of young horses.  
  Address School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK  
  Corporate Author Amanda J. Badnell-Watersb, Rachel Biceb, Ailison Kellandb, Pat A. Harrisc and Christine J. Nicol Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1090-0233 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16945560 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 63  
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Author Dixon, G.; Green, L.E.; Nicol, C.J. doi  openurl
  Title Effect of diet change on the behavior of chicks of an egg-laying strain Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of applied animal welfare science : JAAWS Abbreviated Journal J Appl Anim Welf Sci  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 41-58  
  Keywords *Animal Feed; *Animal Nutrition Physiology; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Chickens/*physiology; Crowding; Feeding Behavior/*physiology; Female; Food Preferences/physiology; Oviposition; Random Allocation; Taste  
  Abstract Injurious pecking has serious welfare consequences in flocks of hens kept for egg laying, especially when loose-housed. Frequent diet change is a significant risk for injurious pecking; how the mechanics of diet change influence pecking behavior is unknown. This study investigated the effect of diet change on the behavior of chicks from a laying strain. The study included a 3-week familiarity phase: 18 chick pairs received unflavored feed (Experiment 1); 18 pairs received orange oil-flavored (Experiment 2). All chicks participated in a dietary preference test (P); a diet change (DC); or a control group (C), 6 scenarios. All P chicks preferred unflavored feed. In Experiment 1, DC involved change from unflavored to orange-flavored; Experiment 2, orange- flavored to unflavored. Compared with controls, Experiment 2 DC chicks exhibited few behavioral differences; Experiment 1 DC chicks exhibited increased behavioral event rates on Days 1 and 7. They pecked significantly longer at their environment; by Day 7, they showed significantly more beak activity. There was little evidence of dietary neophobia. Change from more preferred to less preferred feed led to increased activity and redirected pecking behavior.  
  Address School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, England  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1088-8705 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16649950 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 64  
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Author Nicol, C.J.; Brown, S.N.; Glen, E.; Pope, S.J.; Short, F.J.; Warriss, P.D.; Zimmerman, P.H.; Wilkins, L.J. doi  openurl
  Title Effects of stocking density, flock size and management on the welfare of laying hens in single-tier aviaries Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication British poultry science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci  
  Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 135-146  
  Keywords Animal Husbandry/*methods; *Animal Welfare; Animals; Body Constitution/*physiology; Chickens/*physiology; Crowding; Feathers; Female; *Housing, Animal/standards; Mortality; Organ Size; Oviposition/physiology; Population Density; Population Dynamics; Random Allocation  
  Abstract Management practices, stocking rate and flock size may affect laying hen welfare but there have been few replicated studies in commercial non-cage systems that investigate this. This study used a broad range of physical and physiological indicators to assess the welfare of hens in 36 commercial flocks. Six laying period treatments were examined with each treatment replicated 6 times. It was not possible to randomly allocate treatments to houses, so treatment and house were largely confounded. Three stocking rates were compared: 7 birds/m(2) (n = 2450), 9 birds/m(2) (n = 3150) and 12 birds/m(2) in either small (n = 2450) or large (n = 4200) flocks. In addition, at 12 birds/m(2), in both small and large flocks, birds were subjected to either standard (SM) or modified (MM) management. MM flocks had nipple drinkers and no nest-box lights. Bone strength, fracture incidence, heterophil:lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, live weight, organ weights, serum creatine, serum osmolality, muscle pH and faecal corticosterone were measured on samples of birds at the end of the rearing period and at the end of lay. During the laying period, mortality, production and integument condition were recorded at regular intervals. Birds housed at 9 birds/m(2) had higher mortality than birds housed at 12 birds/m(2) by the end of lay, but not higher than birds housed at 7 birds/m(2). Birds housed at 7 and 9 birds/m(2) had lower percent liver weight, and worse plumage condition than most of the 12 bird/m(2) treatments. Modified management tended to improve plumage condition. There were no clear effects of flock size on the welfare indicators recorded. At the end of the rearing period fracture incidence was almost negligible and H:L ratio was within a normal range. By the end of lay fracture incidence was 60% and H:L ratio was high, with no treatment effect for either measure. This, together with information on faecal corticosterone, feather loss and mortality, suggests that the welfare of birds in all treatments was relatively poor by the end of lay.  
  Address School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, Langford BS40 5DU and ADAS Gleadthorpe, Meden Vale, Mansfield, Notts NG20 9PF, England. c.j.nicol@bristol.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16641024 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 65  
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Author Haslam, S.M.; Brown, S.N.; Wilkins, L.J.; Kestin, S.C.; Warriss, P.D.; Nicol, C.J. doi  openurl
  Title Preliminary study to examine the utility of using foot burn or hock burn to assess aspects of housing conditions for broiler chicken Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication British poultry science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci  
  Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 13-18  
  Keywords Animal Husbandry; *Animal Welfare; Animals; Chickens; Dermatitis, Contact/diagnosis/pathology/*veterinary; Feathers; Female; Foot Diseases/diagnosis/pathology/*veterinary; *Housing, Animal; Male; Poultry Diseases/diagnosis/*pathology; Skin/pathology  
  Abstract 1. Eleven broiler chicken farms, representing 4 production system types, were visited during the last 5 d of the flock cycle: bird and flock details were recorded. Litter friability was assessed at 9 sites within the house, atmospheric ammonia was measured at three sites and bird cleanliness was assessed on a numerical rating scale. 2. For these flocks, hock burn, foot burn and breast burn were measured at the processing plant by standardised assessors. 3. Significant correlations were identified between the percentage of birds with foot burn and average litter score, average house ammonia concentrations and feather score. 4. No correlation was found between the percentage of birds with hock burn or breast burn and average litter scores, average ammonia concentrations or feather score. 5. No correlation was found between stocking density and foot burn, hock burn or breast burn.6. If confirmed, these findings may have implications for the draft EU Broiler Directive, for which it is proposed that permitted stocking density on farm may be determined by the incidence and severity of contact dermatitis measured on plant.  
  Address Division of Farm Animal Science, School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, England. sue.haslam@bris.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16546791 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 66  
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Author Crosby, M.B.; Zhang, J.; Nowling, T.M.; Svenson, J.L.; Nicol, C.J.; Gonzalez, F.J.; Gilkeson, G.S. doi  openurl
  Title Inflammatory modulation of PPAR gamma expression and activity Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Clinical immunology Abbreviated Journal Clin Immunol  
  Volume 118 Issue 2-3 Pages 276-283  
  Keywords Age Factors; Animals; Cell Line, Transformed; Cells, Cultured; Female; Inflammation Mediators/*physiology; Kidney/metabolism; Mesangial Cells/metabolism; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Inbred MRL lpr; Mice, Knockout; Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis; Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/biosynthesis/genetics; PPAR gamma/*biosynthesis/*genetics/metabolism; Up-Regulation/immunology  
  Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) production increases with age in the lupus-prone MRL/lpr mouse, paralleling disease activity. One mechanism for excess NO production in MRL/lpr mice may be a defect in down-regulatory mechanisms of the iNOS pathway. A potential modulator of NO is the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferation activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). We demonstrate that renal PPARgamma protein expression was altered as disease progressed in MRL/lpr mice, which paralleled increased iNOS protein expression. Additionally, MRL/lpr-derived primary mesangial cells expressed less PPARgamma than BALB/c mesangial cells and produced more NO in response to LPS and IFNgamma. Furthermore, PPARgamma activity was reduced in mesangial cells following exposure to inflammatory mediators. This activity was restored with the addition of a NOS enzyme inhibitor. These results indicate that the activation of inflammatory pathways may lead to reduced activity and expression of PPARgamma, further exacerbating the disease state.  
  Address Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1521-6616 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16303334 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 67  
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Author Wells, P.G.; Bhuller, Y.; Chen, C.S.; Jeng, W.; Kasapinovic, S.; Kennedy, J.C.; Kim, P.M.; Laposa, R.R.; McCallum, G.P.; Nicol, C.J.; Parman, T.; Wiley, M.J.; Wong, A.W. doi  openurl
  Title Molecular and biochemical mechanisms in teratogenesis involving reactive oxygen species Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Toxicology and applied pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Toxicol Appl Pharmacol  
  Volume 207 Issue 2 Suppl Pages 354-366  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Developmental pathologies may result from endogenous or xenobiotic-enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules and/or alter signal transduction. This minireview focuses upon several model drugs (phenytoin, thalidomide, methamphetamine), environmental chemicals (benzo[a]pyrene) and gamma irradiation to examine this hypothesis in vivo and in embryo culture using mouse, rat and rabbit models. Embryonic prostaglandin H synthases (PHSs) and lipoxygenases bioactivate xenobiotics to free radical intermediates that initiate ROS formation, resulting in oxidation of proteins, lipids and DNA. Oxidative DNA damage and embryopathies are reduced in PHS knockout mice, and in mice treated with PHS inhibitors, antioxidative enzymes, antioxidants and free radical trapping agents. Thalidomide causes embryonic DNA oxidation in susceptible (rabbit) but not resistant (mouse) species. Embryopathies are increased in mutant mice deficient in the antioxidative enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), or by glutathione (GSH) depletion, or inhibition of GSH peroxidase or GSH reductase. Inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice are partially protected. Inhibition of Ras or NF-kB pathways reduces embryopathies, implicating ROS-mediated signal transduction. Atm and p53 knockout mice deficient in DNA damage response/repair are more susceptible to xenobiotic or radiation embryopathies, suggesting a teratological role for DNA damage, consistent with enhanced susceptibility to methamphetamine in ogg1 knockout mice with deficient repair of oxidative DNA damage. Even endogenous embryonic oxidative stress carries a risk, since untreated G6PD- or ATM-deficient mice have increased embryopathies. Thus, embryonic processes regulating the balance of ROS formation, oxidative DNA damage and repair, and ROS-mediated signal transduction may be important determinants of teratological risk.  
  Address Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0041-008X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16081118 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 68  
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