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Author Heleski, C.R.; Shelle, A.C.; Nielsen, B.D.; Zanella, A.J.
Title Influence of housing on weanling horse behavior and subsequent welfare Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 78 Issue 2-4 Pages 291-302
Keywords Horse behavior; Weaning; Housing; Welfare; Time budget
Abstract (down) Weaning foals marks a stressful event in horses' lives. Limited research exists regarding different housing methods post-weaning and the long-term implications on horse behavior and welfare. The purpose of this study was to monitor behavior and physiological stress markers in horses weaned individually in solid partition box stalls versus horses weaned in small groups and housed in paddocks. Both treatment groups underwent maternal deprivation stress, but the stalled weanlings had the additive effects of social isolation which prevented them from performing social behaviors. Quarter Horse weanlings from the Michigan State University, Merillat Equine Center, average age 4.5 months, were weaned in 13.4 m2 box stalls (n=6) or in groups of three in a 992 m2 paddock, which had very limited grazing forage and an open shelter available (n=6). Subjects were fed concentrate and hay to National Research Council recommendations. A time budget for 31 observed behaviors was developed. Behavioral observations were made 2 days per week, approximately 6 h per day, for the duration of the 56 days study. Instantaneous samples were recorded every 5 min on each observation day, with equal division between the two treatment groups (n=35 scans per horse per observation day). Focal data were recorded continuously between scans to provide a more detailed ethogram. On each observation day, fecal samples were collected to measure 11,17-dioxoandrostanes, an indicator of glucocorticoid metabolite concentration. Regarding the fecal 11,17-dioxoandrostanes, there was no discernible treatment difference either immediately post-weaning or at the conclusion of the 56 days study. Interestingly, all 12 weanlings showed a 4 week post-weaning increase in 11,17-dioxoandrostanes. The reason for this peak was unclear. Behavioral observations demonstrated a significantly different time budget in paddock-housed weanlings than in stall-housed weanlings (P<0.0001). Paddock-housed weanlings displayed a time budget more like a feral horse time budget, showing more time spent moving and less time spent lying. Paddock-housed weanlings, who had the option of selectively engaging in a broader range of behaviors, showed strong motivation to graze and be near conspecifics. Stalled weanlings spent significantly more time engaged in aberrant behaviors: licking or chewing the stall/shed wall, kicking at the stall/shed wall, pawing, and bucking/rearing bouts (P<0.03). Based on the variety of behaviors shown, the ability to engage in strongly preferred behaviors, and freedom from aberrant behavior, we conclude that the paddock-reared, group-housed weanlings had better welfare. However, there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the stalled weanlings had poor welfare.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3629
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Author Galef, J., Bennett G.; Whiskin, E.E.
Title Effects of environmental stability and demonstrator age on social learning of food preferences by young Norway rats Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.
Volume 68 Issue 4 Pages 897-902
Keywords
Abstract (down) We used socially learned food preferences of Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, to examine two common predictions of formal models of social learning in animals: (1) that animals living in relatively stable environments should be more attentive to socially acquired information than animals living in highly variable environments, and (2) that older demonstrators should have greater influence than younger demonstrators on the behaviour of young observers. Old and young demonstrators were equally effective in modifying the food preferences of juveniles that interacted with them. However, food choices of rats that were moved daily from one cage to another and fed at unpredictable times for unpredictable periods were less affected by demonstrators than were rats maintained in stable environments. Our results thus provided experimental support for the first, but not the second, prediction from theory.
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ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5610
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Author Kacelnik, A.; Marsh, B.
Title Cost can increase preference in starlings Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.
Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 245-250
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Abstract (down) We used European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to investigate the relationship between the cost paid to obtain food rewards and preference between stimuli associated with the resulting rewards. In no-choice trials either 16 1-m flights (high effort) or four 1-m flights (low effort) gave access to differently coloured keys. Pecking at these keys resulted in identical food rewards. When subjects were given choices between the coloured keys in choice trials without having paid any effort, the majority preferred the coloured key that was paired with the higher level of work in no-choice trials. We relate our findings to results in animal behaviour, psychology and economics, and give a theoretical account that has implications for phenomena variously recognized as the `sunk cost fallacy' (the tendency to invest more in something after much has already been invested), `work ethics' (valuing an option more as a result of physical effort), `cognitive dissonance' (making mental effort to overlook or re-evaluate information that does not accord with a dominant internal representation) and the `Concorde Fallacy' (the readiness to forego more fitness for something that has been responsible for greater fitness compromise in the past).
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 2107
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Author Murray, J.K.; Singer, E.R.; Morgan, K.L.; Proudman, C.J.; French, N.P.
Title Memory decay and performance-related information bias in the reporting of scores by event riders Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Preventive Veterinary Medicine Abbreviated Journal
Volume 63 Issue 3-4 Pages 173-182
Keywords Reporting bias; Memory decay; Risk factors; Horse; Cross-country
Abstract (down) We used data from a case-control study investigating risk factors for horse falls in the cross-country phase of eventing in Great Britain (GB) to examine evidence for memory decay and information bias. Responses to two questions obtained by telephone for 173 cases and 521 controls were examined for evidence of differential reporting according to the respondent's case-control status and performance in the dressage and cross-country phases of competitions. Information bias was found in the accuracy of reporting dressage penalty scores when analysed as a function of performance level (good/poor). Poor dressage performers were less likely to report accurate dressage scores than good performers. The accuracy of reporting dressage scores decreased as the time between the event and questionnaire completion increased, with no case-control interaction. Competitors who incurred cross-country jumping penalties at the event preceding the selected event reported their cross-country scores with less accuracy when compared with competitors who incurred no penalties. No information bias was found when the reporting of dressage and cross-country scores were analysed as a function of respondent category (case/control).
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Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3955
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Author Caro, T.M.; Graham, C.M.; Stoner, C.J.; Vargas, J.K.
Title Adaptive significance of antipredator behaviour in artiodactyls Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.
Volume 67 Issue 2 Pages 205-228
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Abstract (down) We used comparative data to test functional hypotheses for 17 antipredator behaviour patterns in artiodactyls. We examined the literature for hypotheses about auditory and visual signals, defensive behaviour and group-related antipredator behaviour in this taxon and derived a series of predictions for each hypothesis. Next, we documented occurrences of these behaviour patterns and morphological, ecological and behavioural variables for 200 species and coded them in binary format. We then pitted presence of an antipredator behaviour against presence of an independent variable for cervids, bovids and all artiodactyls together using nonparametric tests. Finally, we reanalysed the data using Maddison's (1990, Evolution, 44, 539-557) concentrated-changes tests and a consensus molecular and taxonomic phylogeny. We found evidence that snorting is both a warning signal to conspecifics and a pursuit-deterrent signal, lack of evidence that whistling alerts conspecifics and indications that foot stamping is a visual signal to warn group members. Evidence suggested that tail flagging was a signal to both conspecifics and predators, that bounding, leaping and stotting were used both as a signal and to clear obstacles and that prancing functioned similarly to foot stamping. Analyses of tail flicking, zigzagging and tacking were equivocal. We confirmed that inspection occurs in large groups, freezing enhances crypticity, and species seeking refuge in cliffs tend to be small. Entering water and attacks on predators had few correlates. Finally, group living, a putative antipredator adaptation, was associated with large body size and species living in open habitats, confirming Jarman's (1974, Behaviour, 48, 215-267) classic hypothesis. Bunching and group attack apparently deter predators. Despite limitations, comparative and systematic analyses can bolster adaptive hypotheses and raise new functional explanations for antipredator behaviour patterns in general.
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Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 522
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Author McGreevy, P.D.; Harman, A.; McLean, A.; Hawson, L.
Title Over-flexing the horse's neck: A modern equestrian obsession? Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Abbreviated Journal Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research
Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 180-186
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Abstract (down) We used an opportunistic review of photographs of different adult and juvenile horses walking, trotting, and cantering (n = 828) to compare the angle of the nasal plane relative to vertical in feral and domestic horses at liberty (n = 450) with ridden horses advertised in a popular Australian horse magazine (n = 378). We assumed that horses in advertisements were shown at, what was perceived by the vendors to be, their best. Of the ridden horses, 68% had their nasal plane behind the vertical. The mean angle of the unridden horses at walk, trot, and canter (30.7 ± 11.5; 27.3 ± 12.0; 25.5 ± 11.0) was significantly greater than those of the ridden horses (1.4 ± 14.1; ?5.1 ± ?11.1; 3.1 ± 15.4, P < 0.001). Surprisingly, unridden domestic horses showed greater angles than feral horses or domestic horses at liberty. We compared adult and juvenile horses in all 3 gaits and found no significant difference. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the longitudinal neck flexion of the degree desirable by popular opinion in ridden horses is not a common feature of unridden horses moving naturally. Moreover, they suggest that advertised horses in our series are generally being ridden at odds with their natural carriage and contrary to the international rules of dressage (as published by the International Equestrian Federation). These findings are discussed against the backdrop of the established doctrine, which states that carrying a rider necessitates changes in longitudinal flexion, and in the context of the current debate around hyperflexion.
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Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1558-7878 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes doi: 10.1016/j.jveb.2010.03.004 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6501
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Author Mendres,Kimberly A.; de Waal,Frans B. M.
Title Capuchins do cooperate: the advantage of an intuitive task Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.
Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 523-529
Keywords
Abstract (down) We used a cooperative pulling task to examine proximate aspects of cooperation in captive brown capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Specifically, our goal was to determine whether capuchins can learn the contingency between their partner's participation in a task and its successful completion. We examined whether the monkeys visually monitored their partners and adjusted pulling behaviour according to their partner's presence. Results on five same-sex pairs of adults indicate that (1) elimination of visual contact between partners significantly decreased success, (2) subjects glanced at their partners significantly more in cooperative tests than in control tests in which no partner-assistance was needed, and (3) they pulled at significantly higher rates when their partner was present rather than absent. Therefore, in contrast to a previous report by Chalmeau et al. (1997, Animal Behaviour, 54, 1215-1225), cooperating capuchins do seem able to take the role of their partner into account. However, the type of task used may be an important factor affecting the level of coordination achieved. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Address Living Links, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:11032655 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 185
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Author Ramos-Fernández, G.; Boyer, D.; Aureli, F.; Vick, L.
Title Association networks in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
Volume 63 Issue 7 Pages 999-1013-1013
Keywords Biomedical and Life Sciences
Abstract (down) We use two novel techniques to analyze association patterns in a group of wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) studied continuously for 8 years. Permutation tests identified association rates higher or lower than chance expectation, indicating active processes of companionship and avoidance as opposed to passive aggregation. Network graphs represented individual adults as nodes and their association rates as weighted edges. Strength and eigenvector centrality (a measure of how strongly linked an individual is to other strongly linked individuals) were used to quantify the particular role of individuals in determining the network's structure. Female–female dyads showed higher association rates than any other type of dyad, but permutation tests revealed that these associations cannot be distinguished from random aggregation. Females formed tightly linked clusters that were stable over time, with the exception of immigrant females who showed little association with any adult in the group. Eigenvector centrality was higher for females than for males. Adult males were associated mostly among them, and although their strength of association with others was lower than that of females, their association rates revealed a process of active companionship. Female–male bonds were weaker than those between same-sex pairs, with the exception of those involving young male adults, who by virtue of their strong connections both with female and male adults, appear as temporary brokers between the female and male clusters of the network. This analytical framework can serve to develop a more complete explanation of social structure in species with high levels of fission–fusion dynamics.
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Publisher Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5220
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Author Szarka, A.; Nagy, K.; Maros, K.
Title Approaching a horse, approaching a human: Tolerating and seeking human contact in pastured horses Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg
Volume in press Issue Pages
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Abstract (down) We tested untrained horses (foals and breeding mares) in 3 different breeding centres. Horses were kept in a pasture during daytime in bigger groups (median 12, min: 6, max 35 / pasture) according to age, gender and breed (hungarian halfbred, hucul, arabian and thoroughbred). To measure their reactions to an unfamiliar person we conducted an active and a passive human test. In the active human test the test person (TP) approached a focal animal in the group from a predetermined direction: from their front, from their side (left or right) or from the rear. As TP reached the horse (of app. 0.5 m distance), she tried to pet the animal’s head. The TP always chose and approached a standing or a grazing horse (ie. those that were not walking, galloping, playing etc.). The horse’s reaction to the approaching human was scored 1-5. Score 1: the horse moved away and the TP could not even approach it within 0.5 m; Score 2: the horse made max. 2 steps away, but could be reached and petted; Score 3 and Score 4: the horse stood in its place but showed different signs of discomfort (head turn – Score 3; backing ears, tail slash – Score 4); Score 5: the horse stood and did not show any sign of discomfort or actively approached the TP. There was no significant difference in the horses’ reaction between approaching from their left or right side. Approaching from their front or from their side (left or right) did not differ significantly either. However, the odds of walking away from the TP (score 1 or 2) was 2.7 (Fisher-test, p=0.039) and 3.3 (p=0.012) times higher when TP approached from the rear compared to approaching from their front or from their side (left or right), respectively. In the passive human test the TP stood immobile for 4 minutes in 5 or 10 m far from the horses during their active (grazing) or inactive (standing idle during noon) period. Horses approached TP significantly sooner (general linear model, p=0.017) when she stood 5m distance (38 ±63 s) compared to 10m (97 ±52 s). The arrival of a second horse after the first horse approached the TP showed significant high correlation with the latency of the first horse arrival (Pearson correlation, r=0.96, p<0.001). The horses were less keen (p=0.008) to approach the human when they were tested in an inactive period (177 ±110 s) compare to active period (38 ±63 s).
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Corporate Author Maros, K. Thesis
Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger, K.;
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-3-9808134-26 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5594
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Author Robins, A.; Rogers, L.J.
Title Lateralized prey-catching responses in the cane toad, Bufo marinus: analysis of complex visual stimuli Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.
Volume 68 Issue 4 Pages 767-775
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Abstract (down) We tested the responses of Bufo marinus to prey stimuli of varying visual complexity that were moved around the toads in either a clockwise or anticlockwise direction at 1.7 revolutions/min. Predatory responses directed at prey resembling an insect were frequent when the model insect moved clockwise across the visual midline into the right visual hemifield. In contrast, the toads tended to ignore such stimuli when they moved anticlockwise across the midline into the left hemifield. No such lateralization was found when a rectangular strip moved along its longest axis was presented in a similar way. The toads also directed more responses towards the latter stimulus than towards the insect prey. Hence, the results suggest that lateralized predatory responses occur for considered decisions on whether or not to respond to complex insect-like stimuli, but not for decisions on comparatively simple stimuli. We discuss similarities between the lateralized feeding responses of B. marinus and those of avian species, as support for the hypothesis that lateralized brain function in tetrapods may have arisen from a common lateralized ancestor.
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ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5365
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