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Author (up) Broucek, J.; Ksac, P.; Uhrincat, M. openurl 
  Title The effect of sire line on learning and locomotor behaviour of heifers Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Czech Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal Czech J. Anim. Sci  
  Volume 48 Issue Pages 387-394  
  Keywords heifers; sire; maze; open-field test; repeatability; learning; locomotor behaviour relationship  
  Abstract ABSTRACT: e aim of this study was to test the effect of sire line on maze learning ability and locomotor behaviour

in open-field tests of heifers, consistency over the time of grid crossing and relationship between the time of traversing the maze and grid crossings in open-field tests, respectively. We analysed the results of ethological tests for 54 Holstein heifers that descended from 7 sires. Maze behaviour was observed at the age of 15 weeks, an open-field test was applied at two age periods, 16 weeks and 18 months. We found out highly significant differences in the time of traversing the maze between heifers of different sire origin (P < 0.01). &#57426;e number of grid crossings over the five minutes of the open-field test did not differ between the daughters of the age of 16 weeks and 18 months. Repeatability between the number of grid crossings at the age of 16 weeks and 18 months was proved by significant correlation (r = 0.2713*). On the contrary, significant relationships between the times of traversing the maze and locomotor behaviour in the open-field test (r =-0.3739*) were found only when the sequence of observations followed

after a week pause (age of 15 and 16 weeks).
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4322  
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Author (up) BROUCEK,J.; UHRINCAT,M.; ARAVE,C. W.; FRIEND,T. H.; MIHINA,S.; KISAC,P.; HANUS, A. openurl 
  Title Effects of Rearing Methods of Heifers during Milk Replacement Period Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Czech Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal Czech J. Anim. Sci  
  Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 509-516  
  Keywords Heifers, behaviour, maze, feeding, housing  
  Abstract Fifty-eight Holstein heifer calves were assigned to one out of three treatment groups after having nursed by their mothers for the first week: BN) individual hutch, bucket with nipple n=25; DF)loose housing pen, machine milk feeder, n=16; NC) loose housing pen, nursing cow, n=17. After weaning at 8 weeks, all calves were kept in group pens. At 15 weeks of age, the behaviour in the 6-unit maze (16.4 – 4.5 m) was determined. On the first observation day, the calves were tested five times (the first one for training); on the second day there were four runs. The calves had to solve two tasks. In task A, the passage was open on the left side, and on the right side (task B) on the next day. We were testing the following hypothesis: the speed of traversing the maze is affected by the rearing system. The slowest were NC calves. On the first day (task A), the average time to traverse the maze among treatments DF (43.9 s), BN (53 s) and NC (111.3 s) was different (F = 8.26*, P = 0.0007). On the second day (task B), the averages were: BN 77.1 s, DF 83.8 s and DC 166.6 s (F=8.17*, P = 0.0008). The results indicate that the feeding method and housing used to rear calves may have a significant impact on their maze behaviour.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4323  
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Author (up) Bruns, E. url  openurl
  Title Estimation of the breeding value of stallions from the tournament performance of their offspring Type Journal Article
  Year 1981 Publication Livestock Production Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages 465-473  
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  Abstract Data from horse-riding competitions recorded in Germany in 1976 and 1977 have been analysed to estimate genetic parameters for performance traits of riding horses measured in dressage, jumping competitions and trials. The performance traits analysed were logarithmic earnings per start, relative place number, and place value. The results are the following. 1. (1) Heritability and repeatability estimates for performance in dressage shows are 0.2 and 0.4 respectively. Corresponding estimates for performance in jumping competitions are 20% less. No genetic differences are found between stallions for performance in trials.2. (2) A selection index for estimating the breeding value of stallions was constructed by using the repeated performances of their offspring in dressage and jumping shows. For this purpose, performance data for at least ten progeny should be available. The correlation between the breeding values estimated from the dressage and jumping performances of the same stallions was approximately zero.3. (3) Reliable progeny-testing requires that the assumptions of mating stallions at random, selecting progeny randomly, and distributing them equally across environmental effects be fulfilled.4. (4) The genetic use of breeding values of stallions estimated from the performance of their progeny is opposed by the prolongation of the generation interval. This can be partly overcome by sampling young stallions and making use of the test results for young progeny only.  
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3968  
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Author (up) Bräuer, J.; Call, J.; Tomasello, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Visual perspective taking in dogs (Canis familiaris) in the presence of barriers Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 88 Issue 3-4 Pages 299-317  
  Keywords Dogs; Visual perspective taking; Metacognition  
  Abstract Previous studies have shown that dogs have developed a special sensitivity to the communicative signals and attentional states of humans. The aim of the current study was to further investigate what dogs know about the visual perception of humans and themselves. In the first two experiments we investigated whether dogs were sensitive to the properties of barriers as blocking the visual access of humans. We presented dogs with a situation in which a human forbade them to take a piece of food, but the type and orientation of the barrier allowed the dog to take the food undetected in some conditions. Dogs differentiated between effective and ineffective barriers, based on their orientation or the particular features of the barriers such as size or the presence of window. In the third study we investigated whether dogs know about what they themselves have seen. We presented subjects with two boxes and placed food in one of them. In the Seen condition the location of the food was shown to the dogs while in the Unseen condition dogs were prevented from seeing the destination of the food. Before selecting one of the boxes by pressing a lever, dogs had the opportunity to seek extra information regarding the contents of the boxes, which would be particularly useful in the condition in which they had not seen where the food was hidden. Dogs rarely used the opportunity to seek information about the contents of the box before making their choice in any condition. Therefore, we found no evidence suggesting that dogs have access to what they themselves have seen, which contrasts with the positive evidence about visual perspective taking in others from the first two experiments and previous studies.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4986  
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Author (up) Budras, K.D.; Scheibe, K.; Patan, B.; Streich, W.J.; Kim, K. openurl 
  Title Laminitis in Przewalski horses kept in a semireserve Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Veterinary Science (Suwon-si, Korea) Abbreviated Journal J Vet Sci  
  Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 1-7  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Domestic; Animals, Wild; Body Weight; Climate; Geography; Horse Diseases/*epidemiology; Horses; Korea/epidemiology; Lameness, Animal/*epidemiology  
  Abstract Semireserves were created by the European Conservation Project for scientific research in preparation for reintroduction in the wilderness. They are defined as enclosures large enough to carry a group of Przewalski horses throughout the year without any additional feeding. The semireserve offers diverse opportunities for significant scientific research. As part of a general screening program, the hoof development in a group of Przewalski horses was investigated in the semireserve Schorfheide near Berlin. Since the foundation of this semireserve in 1992, veterinary treatment was not necessary with the exception of hoof trimming in two animals in 1993. However, major health problems were encountered in the spring of 1999, when three other mares showed signs of laminitis. The initial diagnosis by the authors and the local veterinary surgeon based on observation of behaviour, gait, stance, walk and trot of three mares whose initial weights were higher than those of the healthy mares. The initial diagnosis was confirmed by palpation and the occurrence of very deep horn rings on all hooves and a laminitic horn ring on the right front hoof of one mare. An adequate laminitic therapy was not possible under the conditions of a semireserve. The applied management aimed at two goals: 1. To reduce endotoxin production and acidosis in the horses by reducing the ingestion of carbohydrate rich food. 2. To reduce the mares level of activity and to prevent tearing of the suspensory apparatus of the coffin bone. To achieve these two goals it was decided to remove the three laminitic mares from the rich pasture in the main part of the semireserve and to confine them onto the poorer pasture of the small separately fenced area. All three affected mares had fully recovered from their laminitic condition. Prevention of grass laminitis can be achieved by the following measures: 1. Reduction in grass intake could be achieved by increasing the grazing pressure by an increase in stocking rate of the horses or mixed grazing with another species such as sheep. 2. A longer term solution to the problem may well be to sow specific varieties of grass with lower concentrations of water soluble carbohydrate.  
  Address Institute of Veterinary Anatomy of the Free University of Berlin, Berlin 33, Germany. budras@vetmed.fu-berlin.de  
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  ISSN 1229-845X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:14614287 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1905  
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Author (up) Buechner-Maxwell, V.A.; Elvinger, F.; Thatcher, C.D.; Murray, M.J.; White, N.A.; Rooney, D.K. url  openurl
  Title Physiological Response of Normal Adult Horses to a Low-Residue Liquid Diet Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Journal of Equine Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 23 Issue 7 Pages 310-317  
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  Abstract Abstract The anorexic or dysphagic adult horse often requires nutritional support. Providing nutrients by the enteral route is the safest and most economic choice, but the dietary options available for use in horses are somewhat limited. The objective of this study was to compare the physiologic response of normal horses with a low-residue liquid or normal diet over a 10-day feeding period. Two groups of 6 normal adult horses were maintained on 1 of 2 diets for a 10-day period. Diets were formulated to meet the caloric needs of a horse maintained in a stall. The control group was fed 70% timothy hay and 30% textured concentrate for the test period, and the experimental group received the low-residue liquid diet, similar to liquid nutritional formulas designed for human use. Clinical parameters, body weight, packed cell volume, total plasma solids, blood glucose, and serum electrolytes were recorded daily for each horse during the dietary trial period. On days 1, 5, and 10 of the study, a complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, and urinalysis were performed. Horses' serum total bilirubin concentration and pattern of weight loss differed between groups. All other physical parameters, blood chemistry, complete blood count, and urinalysis results remained within the normal reference interval for the horses regardless of diet, although some statistical differences were observed. Horses returned to pasture and free-choice grass diet without complications at the end of the dietary trial period. These results demonstrate that few differences of biologic significance were observed between horses being fed low-residue diet and horses receiving a normal diet of hay and grain over a 10-day period. (Equine Vet J 2003;23:310-317)  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4229  
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Author (up) Bugnyar, T. url  doi
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  Title Knower–guesser differentiation in ravens: others' viewpoints matter Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci.  
  Volume 278 Issue 1705 Pages 634-640  
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  Abstract Differentiating between individuals with different knowledge states is an important step in child development and has been considered as a hallmark in human evolution. Recently, primates and corvids have been reported to pass knower–guesser tasks, raising the possibility of mental attribution skills in non-human animals. Yet, it has been difficult to distinguish ‘mind-reading’ from behaviour-reading alternatives, specifically the use of behavioural cues and/or the application of associatively learned rules. Here, I show that ravens (Corvus corax) observing an experimenter hiding food are capable of predicting the behaviour of bystanders that had been visible at both, none or just one of two caching events. Manipulating the competitors' visual field independently of the view of the test-subject resulted in an instant drop in performance, whereas controls for behavioural cues had no such effect. These findings indicate that ravens not only remember whom they have seen at caching but also take into account that the other's view was blocked. Notably, it does not suffice for the birds to associate specific competitors with specific caches. These results support the idea that certain socio-ecological conditions may select for similar cognitive abilities in distantly related species and that some birds have evolved analogous precursors to a human theory-of-mind.  
  Address raven; Corvus corax; knowledge attribution; perspective; competitive food retrieval; caching  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5287  
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Author (up) Bugnyar, T.; Stöwe, M.; Heinrich, B. doi  openurl
  Title Ravens, Corvus corax, follow gaze direction of humans around obstacles Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci.  
  Volume 271 Issue 1546 Pages 1331-1336  
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  Abstract The ability to follow gaze (i.e. head and eye direction) has recently been shown for social mammals, particularly primates. In most studies, individuals could use gaze direction as a behavioural cue without understanding that the view of others may be different from their own. Here, we show that hand–raised ravens not only visually co–orient with the look–ups of a human experimenter but also reposition themselves to follow the experimenter's gaze around a visual barrier. Birds were capable of visual co–orientation already as fledglings but consistently tracked gaze direction behind obstacles not before six months of age. These results raise the possibility that sub–adult and adult ravens can project a line of sight for the other person into the distance. To what extent ravens may attribute mental significance to the visual behaviour of others is discussed.  
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  Notes 10.1098/rspb.2004.2738 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5009  
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Author (up) Burden, F.; Thiemann, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Donkeys Are Different Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Equine Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal Proceedings of the 2015 Equine Science Society Symposium  
  Volume 35 Issue 5 Pages 376-382  
  Keywords Donkey; Ass; Equid; Mule  
  Abstract As a unique species of equine, the donkey has certain specific variations from the horse. This review highlights the origins of the donkey and how this impacts on its behavior, physiology, and propensity to disease. The donkey is less of a flight animal and has been used by humans for pack and draught work, in areas where their ability to survive poorer diets, and transboundary disease while masking overt signs of pain and distress has made them indispensable to human livelihoods. When living as a companion animal, however, the donkey easily accumulates adipose tissue, and this may create a metabolically compromised individual prone to diseases of excess such as laminitis and hyperlipemia. They show anatomic variations from the horse especially in the hoof, upper airway, and their conformation. Variations in physiology lead to differences in the metabolism and distribution of many drugs. With over 44 million donkeys worldwide, it is important that veterinarians have the ability to understand and treat this equid effectively.  
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  ISSN 0737-0806 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6541  
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Author (up) Burla, J.-B.; Ostertag, A.; Schulze Westerath Niklaus, H.; Hillmann, E. pdf  openurl
  Title Validation of the MSR145W Data Logger for Gait Determination in Horses (Equus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords horse, activity, acceleration, gait determination  
  Abstract Group housed horses at a stud farm/riding stable in Belgium were observed on 17 days between 21 February and 25 April 2008, totalling 54hr25min of detailed data. The original group consisted of 8 Irish Cob mares, 1 Warmblood mare, 1 Arabian gelding and 2 Arabian mares. The group had been established in December 2007. During the course of the study 5 horses were removed from the group and 2 foals were born. 3 highly pregnant mares were housed adjacent to the group for part of the period. Horses were regularly used for lessons. Available surface area differed with the group on pasture at the end. Continuous all occurrence sampling of 10 agonistic and 2 affiliative behaviours was carried out for all group members present. Overall the group showed a frequency of 44.75 agonistic interactions per hour and 11.25 affiliative per hour. Of those agonistic interactions 46.3% were threats while 47% were less active interactions (displacement, being avoided), leaving only 6.7% more aggressive interactions ( mainly biting, some kicking and chasing). The effect on acting agonistically was not significant for age (p=0.1591) and borderline significant for density (p=0.0627). The analysis of the frequency of affiliative interactions showed there is no significant effect of age (p=0.1865) or density (p=0.7923). Agonistic and affiliative interactions were not significantly correlated (p=0.72). Affiliative behaviour a horse received showed a borderline effect (p=0.0787) on agonistic behaviour, as did the interaction between received agonistic and affiliative interactions (p=0.0725). Received agonistic interactions had a borderline negative effect (p=0.0656) on affiliative behaviour. A dominance hierarchy was calculated based on agonistic interactions using Empirical Bayes’ estimates based on Poisson regression with random effects. Agonistic behaviour expressed to other horses was significantly effected by relative rank (p=0.0243). Overall horses tended to be 3.7 times more aggressive towards lower ranking horses compared to higher ranking horses. Affiliative behaviour shown to other horses was not significantly influenced by the rank of the social partner (p=0.7915). Some individuals did show a significant effect whereby they showed more affiliative behaviour towards lower ranking individuals. This study was a small project to look at a practical situation of riding horses being kept in group housing. The frequent changes in group composition and available surface made it possible to look at agonistic and affiliative interactions in such circumstances. This is useful as instability in group composition is often used as main reason not to keep horses in social groups. The results from this study showed a borderline effect of density on agonistic behaviour. In reality it was also influenced by practical details, like a narrow paddock with only 2 hay crates on the smallest surface. Rank in a dominance hierarchy, based on agonistic behaviour, had a significant effect on the agonistic behaviour expressed towards higher or lower ranking horses. No injuries or escalating fights were observed. This study shows it is possible to keep a group of riding horses in a social context without excessive aggression.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Burla, J.-B. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger, K.  
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  ISSN 978-3-9808134-26 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5511  
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