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Author Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, K.E.K.; van den Broek, J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The influence of challenging objects and horse-rider matching on heart rate, heart rate variability and behavioural score in riding horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 192 Issue 1 Pages 75-80  
  Keywords Horse-rider interaction; Horse compliance; Welfare; Heart rate; Behaviour score  
  Abstract A good horse-rider ‘match’ is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was ridden by a different rider and was challenged by three objects (A–C). Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) of horse and rider, and behaviour score (BS) of the horse were obtained for each object and as a total for each test. The horse-rider interaction was evaluated with each combination and assessed as ‘matching’ or ‘mismatching’, and the horses were categorised as ‘compliant’, ‘partly-compliant’ or ‘non-compliant’. Horses exhibited a decreased HR (P = 0.015) and a decreased BS (P = 0.004) within and across different tests. ‘Matching’ horse-rider combinations exhibited less stress as indicated by reduced HR (‘match’ 69 ± 10 vs. ‘mismatch’ 72 ± 9, P = 0.001) and BS (‘match’ 1.9 ± 1.1 vs. ‘mismatch’ 3.8 ± 1.4, P = 0.017) of the horse. ‘Compliant’ (68 ± 8, P < 0.001) and ‘partly-compliant’ (71 ± 9, P = 0.002) horses had significantly lower HR than ‘non-compliant’ (75 ± 9) animals. The findings of the study indicate that HR and BS measurements support a subjective ‘match’ diagnosis and HR measurement may be a valuable tool in assessing horse compliance.  
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  ISSN 1090-0233 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5636  
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Author Merkies, K.; McKechnie, M.J.; Zakrajsek, E. doi  openurl
  Title Behavioural and physiological responses of therapy horses to mentally traumatized humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Equine-assisted therapy; Ptsd; Horse; Behaviour; Cortisol; Heart rate  
  Abstract The benefits to humans of equine-assisted therapy (EAT) have been well-researched, however few studies have analyzed the effects on the horse. Understanding how differing mental states of humans affect the behaviour and response of the horse can assist in providing optimal outcomes for both horse and human. Four humans clinically diagnosed and under care of a psychotherapist for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were matched physically to four neurotypical control humans and individually subjected to each of 17 therapy horses loose in a round pen. A professional acting coach instructed the control humans in replicating the physical movements of their paired PTSD individual. Both horses and humans were equipped with a heart rate (HR) monitor recording HR every 5secs. Saliva samples were collected from each horse 30 min before and 30 min after each trial to analyze cortisol concentrations. Each trial consisted of 5 min of baseline observation of the horse alone in the round pen after which the human entered the round pen for 2 min, followed by an additional 5 min of the horse alone. Behavioural observations indicative of stress in the horse (gait, head height, ear orientation, body orientation, distance from the human, latency of approach to the human, vocalizations, and chewing) were retrospectively collected from video recordings of each trial and analyzed using a repeated measures GLIMMIX with Tukey's multiple comparisons for differences between treatments and time periods. Horses moved slower (p < 0.0001), carried their head lower (p < 0.0001), vocalized less (p < 0.0001), and chewed less (p < 0.0001) when any human was present with them in the round pen. Horse HR increased in the presence of the PTSD humans, even after the PTSD human left the pen (p < 0.0001). Since two of the PTSD/control human pairs were experienced with horses and two were not, a post-hoc analysis showed that horses approached quicker (p < 0.016) and stood closer (p < 0.0082) to humans who were experienced with horses. Horse HR was lower when with inexperienced humans (p < 0.0001) whereas inexperienced human HR was higher (p < 0.0001). Horse salivary cortisol did not differ between exposure to PTSD and control humans (p > 0.32). Overall, behavioural and physiological responses of horses to humans are more pronounced based on human experience with horses than whether the human is diagnosed with a mental disorder. This may be a reflection of a directness of movement associated with humans who are experienced with horses that makes the horse more attentive. It appears that horses respond more to physical cues from the human rather than emotional cues. This knowledge is important in tailoring therapy programs and justifying horse responses when interacting with a patient in a therapy setting.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6385  
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Author Warren-Smith, A.K.; Greetham, L.; McGreevy, P.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behavioral and physiological responses of horses (Equus caballus) to head lowering Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 2 Issue 3 Pages 59-67  
  Keywords behavior; head lowering; heart rate; horse; training  
  Abstract Horse trainers often report that lowering the height of a horse's head so the poll is below the height of the withers can induce a calming effect during training. Four groups of horses were used in a 2-part study to investigate the behavioral and physiological effects of head lowering in horses. In Part 1, Group A had no experimental stimuli applied and horses in Group B were trained to lower their heads when presented with a specific stimulus by the handler. The stimulus for head lowering was the application of downward pressure on the headcollar via the lead rope until the horse lowered its head such that its lips were approximately at mid-cannon (third metacarpal) height, whereupon the pressure was released. The stimulus was applied again if the horse raised its head during the 300-second test period. In Part 2, Groups C and D were aroused until their heart rates exceeded 100 beats per minute (bpm). Group C had no further experimental stimuli applied whereas Group D lowered their heads as a response to the above stimulus for a period of 300 seconds. Repeated measures analysis showed that there was no difference between the heart rate of Groups A and B or Groups C and D but that the heart rate of Groups A and B were lower than Groups C and D during the 300-second post-arousal (P < 0.001). The horses in Groups A and B were more likely to contact the handler (P < 0.001), exhibit licking and chewing (P < 0.001), rest a hindleg (P < 0.001), and sniff the ground (P < 0.001) than those in Groups C and D. The number of stimuli required to maintain the head in a lowered position was greatest during the first 30 seconds (P = 0.012 and P < 0.001, Parts 1 and 2, respectively). The current study has shown that head lowering in horses does not influence cardiac responses, even after the horses had been aroused to have their heart rates above 100 bpm. Therefore, it is not a method that will aid in calming an aroused horse in training. Contrary to popular belief, there was no association with licking-and-chewing and head lowering, nor with these behaviors and response acquisition.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4201  
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Author Aerts, J.-M.; Gebruers, F.; Van Camp, E.; Berckmans, D. doi  openurl
  Title Controlling horse heart rate as a basis for training improvement Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Computers and Electronics in Agriculture Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 78-84  
  Keywords Heart rate; Horse; Model predictive control; Transfer function model  
  Abstract Equine training methods, and consequently, performance times have improved little since the last decades. With advances in measuring signals on-line by means of several new technologies and analytical procedures, and processing these signals immediately with strong and compact processors, it may be possible to develop new training methods. In this research, the objective was to explore the possibilities of using modern model-based algorithms to control the heart rate of horses (bpm) on-line by means of the control input running speed (km/h). Forty-five experiments with five horses and four riders were carried out to generate measurements of physiological status during running. The dynamical characteristics of each horse were quantified using linear discrete transfer function models. The dynamic response of heart rate to step changes in running speed were accurately described. In 90% of the cases, a first-order model gave the best fit. For 69% of the models, the r2 was higher than 0.90 and for 34% of the models, the r2 was even higher than 0.95. In a next step, the model-based algorithm was evaluated by controlling cardiac responses of two horses (horses 2 and 4) to a pre-defined trajectory. The model parameters were kept constant. On average, the error between the defined target trajectory in heart rate and the actual controlled heart rate ranged between 0.2 and 1.4 bpm for the whole target heart rate trajectory. During the steady-state part of the trajectory the average error was maximum 1.1 bpm. In the transient from one steady-state heart rate to another level, the error could increase on average up to 5 bpm. In the future, the combination of on-line measured bioresponses with real-time analysis can be used for adjusting the work load of the horse, during training, directly to the immediate needs of horse (welfare) and trainer (performance).  
  Address Division Measure, Model and Manage Bioresponses (M3-BIORES), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4555  
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Author Fazio, E.; Medica, P.; Cravana, C.; Giacoppo, E.; Ferlazzo, A. pdf  openurl
  Title Effect of Short-Distance Road Transport on Thyroid Function, Rectal Temperature, Body Weight and Heart Rate of Stallions Type Conference Article
  Year 2008 Publication IESM 2008 Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords horses, iodothyronines, rectal temperature, body weight, heart rate, transport  
  Abstract Aim of study was to investigate the effects of transport stress on thyroid response, body weight, rectal temperature and heart rate changes in one hundred twenty-six healthy stallions in basal conditions, before and after short road transport. One hundred twenty-six Thoroughbreds and crossbreds stallions with previous travelling experience, aged 4 to 15 yr, were transported by road in a commercial trailer for a period of 3 h (distance <300 km). Blood samples and physiological parameters were collected at 0800 (basal I) and at 1100 (basal II), in each horse“s box, one week before the loading and transport in basal conditions, and one week later, at 0800 immediately before loading (pre-transport), and after 3 h period of transport and unloading, on their arrival at the breeding stations (post-transport), in each new horse”s box, within 30 min. Increases in circulating T3, T4 and fT4 levels (P < 0.01), but not for fT3 levels, were observed after transport, as compared to before loading values, irrespective of different breed. Lower T4 and fT4 levels were observed in basal II (P < 0.01) than basal I and before loading values (pre-transport). After transport Thoroughbreds showed higher fT3 (P < 0.05) and fT4 (P < 0.01) levels than crossbred stallions. No significant differences for T3 and T4 changes were observed. A significant increase in rectal temperature (P < 0.01) and heart rate (P < 0.05) was observed after transport, as compared to before loading values (pre-transport). No differences between basal I, basal II and before loading values (pre-transport) for physiological parameters were observed.

The highest T3, T4 and fT4 levels recorded after short transport seem to suggest a preferential release from the thyroid gland. The results indicate that short road transport stress contributes significantly to thyroid hormone changes, according to different breed, and to the increase in rectal temperature and heart rate. No differences related to different age were observed.
 
  Address Department of Morphology, Biochemistry, Physiology and Animal Production – Unit of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Messina, Polo Universitario Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy  
  Corporate Author Cravana, C. Thesis  
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  Area Expedition Conference IESM 2008  
  Notes Poster IESM 2008 Approved yes  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4494  
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Author G. Hoffmann, G.; Bockisch, F.-J.; Kreimeier, P. openurl 
  Title Einfluss des Haltungssystems auf die Bewegungsaktivität und Stressbelastung bei Pferden in Auslaufhaltungssystemen Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Landbauforschung – vTI Agriculture and Forestry Research Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 2 Issue 59 Pages 105-112  
  Keywords Bewegung, Cortisol, Herzfrequenzvariabilität (HFV), Pferd, Verhalten [movement, cortisol, heart rate variability (HRV), horse, behaviour]  
  Abstract Frühere Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass die tägliche Bewegung für die Gesunderhaltung der Pferde notwendig ist. Inwieweit sich jedoch unterschiedliche Bewegungsangebote auf das Stress-und Bewegungsverhalten von Pferden in einer Gruppen-Auslaufhaltung auswirken und ob der Bewegungsbedarf der Pferde durch eine Auslaufhaltung ohne zusätzliche Bewegung gedeckt werden kann, ist der Literatur bisher nicht zu entnehmen. Daher sollte in der nachfolgend beschriebenen Untersuchung der Frage nachgegangen werden, welche Auswirkungen verschiedene Bewegungsangebote auf die Bewegungsaktivität von Pferden in Gruppen-Auslaufhaltungen haben und ob diese das Wohlbefinden der Tiere beeinflussen. Letzteres wurde durch Messung der Herzfrequenzvariabilität und Bestimmung von Cortisolmetaboliten im Pferdekot erfasst und die Bewegungsaktivität der Pferde wurde mit ALT-Pedometern bestimmt.

Verglichen wurden eine Einzel-und Gruppenhaltung mit jeweils angrenzendem Auslauf, aber ohne eine zusätzliche Bewegung der Pferde außerhalb des Stalls. In drei weiteren Varianten der Gruppenhaltung bekamen die Pferde täglichen Auslauf auf einer unbegrünten Koppel, auf einer Weide oder durch gezielte Bewegung in einer Führanlage. Die Bewegungsaktivität konnte durch die zusätzliche Bewegung in Form von Weide oder Führanlage signifikant gesteigert werden.

Ein zusätzliches Bewegungsangebot führte bei den Pferden zu einer Abnahme der Stressbelastung und sollte auch den Pferden ermöglicht werden, die in einer Gruppenhaltung gehalten werden, um ihre physische und psychische Gesundheit zu erhalten.

[Former studies confirm the necessity of daily movement for the health of a horse. But so far no description could be found in the literature how different movement offerings impact the stress and movement behaviour of horses in group husbandries with close-by discharge. The same holds true for the question whether a discharge husbandry system can meet the movement requirements of horses if there isn’t any additional movement possibility. The aim of the present study was to examine different movement offerings, their effects on the movement activities of horses in a group horse husbandry with close-by discharge and the impact of the movement on the wellbeing of the animals.

The heart rate variability and the concentration of the cortisol metabolites in the horse excrement were analyzed for detecting the wellbeing of the horses. Additionally ALT-Pedometers were used for determining the movement activity.

A single and a group husbandry system, each with closeby discharge, were compared when horses had no additional movement outside the stable. In three further variants the group husbandry was supplemented with daily time on a non-grassy pasture land, a pasture or in a horse walker. Pasture or horse walker increased movement activity significantly. Nevertheless an additional movement offering resulted in a lower stress load of the horses and should also be allowed to horses in group husbandry systems to ensure the horse’s physical and mental health.]
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5661  
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Author A. Lanata; A. Guidi; G. Valenza; P. Baragli; E. P. Scilingo doi  openurl
  Title Quantitative heartbeat coupling measures in human-horse interaction Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) Abbreviated Journal (up) 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (E  
  Volume Issue Pages 2696-2699  
  Keywords electrocardiography; medical signal processing; signal classification; time series; Dtw; Hrv; Mpc; Msc; complex biological systems; dynamic time warping; grooming; heart rate variability time series; heartbeat dynamics; human-horse dynamic interaction; magnitude squared coherence; magnitude-phase coupling; mean phase coherence; nearest mean classifier; quantitative heartbeat coupling; real human-animal interaction; time duration; visual-olfactory interaction; Coherence; Couplings; Electrocardiography; Heart rate variability; Horses; Protocols; Time series analysis  
  Abstract Abstract— We present a study focused on a quantitative estimation of a human-horse dynamic interaction. A set of measures based on magnitude and phase coupling between heartbeat dynamics of both humans and horses in three different conditions is reported: no interaction, visual/olfactory interaction and grooming. Specifically, Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC), Mean Phase Coherence (MPC) and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) have been used as estimators of the amount of coupling between human and horse through the analysis of their heart rate variability (HRV) time series in a group of eleven human subjects, and one horse. The rationale behind this study is that the interaction of two complex biological systems go towards a coupling process whose dynamical evolution is modulated by the kind and time duration of the interaction itself. We achieved a congruent and consistent

statistical significant difference for all of the three indices. Moreover, a Nearest Mean Classifier was able to recognize the three classes of interaction with an accuracy greater than 70%. Although preliminary, these encouraging results allow a discrimination of three distinct phases in a real human-animal interaction opening to the characterization of the empirically proven relationship between human and horse.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (E  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1557-170x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6175  
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Author Nicol, C.J.; Adachi, M.; Akiyama, T.E.; Gonzalez, F.J. doi  openurl
  Title PPARgamma in endothelial cells influences high fat diet-induced hypertension Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication American journal of hypertension : journal of the American Society of Hypertension Abbreviated Journal (up) Am J Hypertens  
  Volume 18 Issue 4 Pt 1 Pages 549-556  
  Keywords Administration, Oral; Animals; Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology; Blood Pressure/drug effects; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology; Dietary Fats/*administration & dosage/pharmacology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Endothelial Cells/*metabolism; Female; Heart Rate/drug effects; Hypertension/*etiology; Ligands; Male; Mice; Mice, Knockout; PPAR gamma/*metabolism; Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage/pharmacology; Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands improve human hypertension. However, the mechanism and site of this effect remains unknown, confounded by PPARgamma expression in many cell types, including endothelial cells (ECs). METHODS: To evaluate the vascular role of PPARgamma we used a conditional null mouse model. Specific disruption of PPARgamma in ECs was created by crossing Tie2-Cre+ transgenic (T2T+) and PPARgamma-floxed (fl/fl) mice to generate PPARgamma (fl/fl)T2T+ (PPARgamma E-null) mice. Conscious 8- to 12-week-old congenic PPARgamma (fl/fl)Cre- (wild type) and PPARgamma E-null mice were examined for changes in systolic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), untreated, after 2 months of salt-loading (drinking water), and after treatment for 3 months with high fat (HF) diet alone or supplemented during the last 2 weeks with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg/d). RESULTS: Untreated PPARgamma E-nulls were phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. However, compared to similarly treated wild types, HF-treated PPARgamma E-nulls had significantly elevated systolic BP not seen after normal diet or salt-loading. Despite sex-dependent baseline differences, salt-loaded and HF-treated PPARgamma E-nulls of either sex had significantly elevated HR versus wild types. Interestingly, rosiglitazone improved serum insulin levels, but not HF diet-induced hypertension, in PPARgamma E-null mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PPARgamma in ECs not only is an important regulator of hypertension and HR under stressed conditions mimicking those arising in type 2 diabetics, but also mediates the antihypertensive effects of rosiglitazone. These data add evidence supporting a beneficial role for PPARgamma-specific ligands in the treatment of hypertension, and suggest therapeutic strategies targeting ECs may prove useful.  
  Address Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0895-7061 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:15831367 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 69  
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Author Jezierski T., Gorecka A. openurl 
  Title Changes in the horses heart rate during different levels of social isolation Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Animal Science Papers and Reports Abbreviated Journal (up) Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep.  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 33-41  
  Keywords horse; heart rate; human-animal relation  
  Abstract Social isolation in horses may be regarded as a stress factor which implies welfare problems. The aim of the experiment was to examine the effect of different levels of transient social isolation and human presence on the heart rate (HR) in horses. Seven horses were used and the experiment was conducted in a tether-stable without boxes. The HR was recorded electronically, continuously for 40 min during the following test situations: all horses in the stable; experimenter approaches the tested horse, other horses being untied and leaving the stable; tested horse staying alone or in the company of one or two stable-mates; the experimenter attempts to calm the isolated horse; outdoor auditory stimuli from other horses. The HR was significantly higher during the whole period of isolation, and depended on how many horses were left as company for the one tested. The highest HR was observed while other horses were leaving the stable and during perception of outdoor auditory stimuli from others. When in the company of two stable mates, the HR was elevated only while other horses were leaving the stable and during auditory stimuli from outdoors. Human presence evoked a significant increase in HR, probably due to conditioning of horses (expecting to be untied and allowed to join the others), irrespectively whether the tested horse was left alone or with one or two stable-mates.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4816  
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Author Gorecka, A.; Golonka, M.; Chruszczewski, M.; Jezierski, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A note on behaviour and heart rate in horses differing in facial hair whorl Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal (up) Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 105 Issue 1-3 Pages 244-248  
  Keywords Horse; Hair whorls; Behavioural tests; Reactivity; Heart rate  
  Abstract The relationship between facial hair whorl position and reactivity, as assessed by behavioural measures (handling score = HS; startle reaction to a suddenly appearing novel object = SR; latency to touch a novel object = LNO) and heart rate measures (mean HR; increase in heart rate = IHR) were studied using 55 Konik horses reared either under conventional stable conditions or in the forest reserve. Horses were classified into four groups according to the whorl position and/or shape: (1) high, single whorl above the top eye line, n = 9; (2) medium, single whorl between the top and the bottom eye line, n = 30; (3) low, single whorl below the bottom eye line, n = 10; and (4) elongated or double whorl, n = 6. Horses with a high whorl position demonstrated a lesser degree of manageability as expressed by a lower HS compared to individuals with medium (P = 0.002) or low whorl positions (P = 0.016). Horses with different whorl positions did not differ significantly in their startle response to a suddenly appearing novel object (P = 0.685). The horses with an elongated or double whorl, which appeared only in the forest group, took significantly longer to approach the novel object than horses with medium (P = 0.006) or low (P = 0.005) whorl positions. No significant differences in mean HR and IHR between groups (HR: P = 0.629 and IHR: P = 0.214) were found. In conclusion, this study supports the relationship between the position of the hair whorl on the horses' head and their manageability during handling, as well as the latency to approach an unknown object.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 460  
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