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Author (up) Bates, L.A.; Byrne, R.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Creative or created: Using anecdotes to investigate animal cognition Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Methods Abbreviated Journal Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Creativity: A Toolkit  
  Volume 42 Issue 1 Pages 12-21  
  Keywords Anecdote; Creativity; Intelligence; Deception; Innovation; African elephant  
  Abstract In non-human animals, creative behaviour occurs spontaneously only at low frequencies, so is typically missed by standardised observational methods. Experimental approaches have tended to rely overly on paradigms from child development or adult human cognition, which may be inappropriate for species that inhabit very different perceptual worlds and possess quite different motor capacities than humans. The analysis of anecdotes offers a solution to this impasse, provided certain conditions are met. To be reliable, anecdotes must be recorded immediately after observation, and only the records of scientists experienced with the species and the individuals concerned should be used. Even then, interpretation of a single record is always ambiguous, and analysis is feasible only when collation of multiple records shows that a behaviour pattern occurs repeatedly under similar circumstances. This approach has been used successfully to study a number of creative capacities of animals: the distribution, nature and neural correlates of deception across the primate order; the occurrence of teaching in animals; and the neural correlates of several aptitudes--in birds, foraging innovation, and in primates, innovation, social learning and tool-use. Drawing on these approaches, we describe the use of this method to investigate a new problem, the cognition of the African elephant, a species whose sheer size and evolutionary distance from humans renders the conventional methods of comparative psychology of little use. The aim is both to chart the creative cognitive capacities of this species, and to devise appropriate experimental methods to confirm and extend previous findings.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1046-2023 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6185  
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Author (up) Becker-Birck, M.; Schmidt, A.; Wulf, M.; Aurich, J.; von der Wense, A.; Möstl, E.; Berz, R.; Aurich, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cortisol release, heart rate and heart rate variability, and superficial body temperature, in horses lunged either with hyperflexion of the neck or with an extended head and neck position Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 97 Issue 2 Pages 322-330  
  Keywords animal welfare; equitation; stress; training  
  Abstract Bringing the head and neck of ridden horses into a position of hyperflexion is widely used in equestrian sports. In our study, the hypothesis was tested that hyperflexion is an acute stressor for horses. Salivary cortisol concentrations, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and superficial body temperature were determined in horses (n = 16) lunged on two subsequent days. The head and neck of the horse was fixed with side reins in a position allowing forward extension on day A and fixed in hyperflexion on day B. The order of treatments alternated between horses. In response to lunging, cortisol concentration increased (day A from 0.73 ± 0.06 to 1.41 ± 0.13 ng/ml, p < 0.001; day B from 0.68 ± 0.07 to 1.38 ± 0.13 ng/ml, p < 0.001) but did not differ between days A and B. Beat-to-beat (RR) interval decreased in response to lunging on both days. HRV variables standard deviation of RR interval (SDRR) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR differences) decreased (p < 0.001) but did not differ between days. In the cranial region of the neck, the difference between maximum and minimum temperature was increased in hyperflexion (p < 0.01). In conclusion, physiological parameters do not indicate an acute stress response to hyperflexion of the head alone in horses lunged at moderate speed and not touched with the whip. However, if hyperflexion is combined with active intervention of a rider, a stressful experience for the horse cannot be excluded.  
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  Publisher Blackwell Publishing Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1439-0396 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6182  
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Author (up) Cooper, J.J. openurl 
  Title Comparative learning theory and its application in the training of horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Equine veterinary journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl  
  Volume Issue 27 Pages 39-43  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Conditioning (Psychology); Horses/*psychology; *Learning; Reinforcement (Psychology)  
  Abstract Training can best be explained as a process that occurs through stimulus-response-reinforcement chains, whereby animals are conditioned to associate cues in their environment, with specific behavioural responses and their rewarding consequences. Research into learning in horses has concentrated on their powers of discrimination and on primary positive reinforcement schedules, where the correct response is paired with a desirable consequence such as food. In contrast, a number of other learning processes that are used in training have been widely studied in other species, but have received little scientific investigation in the horse. These include: negative reinforcement, where performance of the correct response is followed by removal of, or decrease in, intensity of a unpleasant stimulus; punishment, where an incorrect response is paired with an undesirable consequence, but without consistent prior warning; secondary conditioning, where a natural primary reinforcer such as food is closely associated with an arbitrary secondary reinforcer such as vocal praise; and variable or partial conditioning, where once the correct response has been learnt, reinforcement is presented according to an intermittent schedule to increase resistance to extinction outside of training.  
  Address Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes PMID:10485003 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 846  
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Author (up) Creswell, J.W. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Research design Type Book Whole
  Year 2014 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages XXIX, 273 Seiten  
  Keywords  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Sage Place of Publication Los Angeles [u.a.] Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-1-4522-7461-4 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6184  
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Author (up) Klingel H, openurl 
  Title Observations on Social Organization and Behaviour of African and Asiatic Wild Asses (Equus africanus and E. hemionus) Type Journal Article
  Year 1977 Publication Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie Abbreviated Journal Z. Tierpsychol.  
  Volume 44 Issue Pages 323-331  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1309  
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Author (up) Krueger, K.; Marr, I.; Farmer, K. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Equine Cognition Type Book Chapter
  Year 2017 Publication Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-11  
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  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Cham Editor Vonk, J.; Shackelford, T.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-47829-6 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Krueger2017 Serial 6181  
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Author (up) Schuetz, A.; Farmer, K.; Krueger, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social learning across species: horses (Equus caballus) learn from humans by observation Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 567-573  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This study examines whether horses can learn by observing humans, given that they identify individual humans and orientate on the focus of human attention. We tested 24 horses aged between 3 and 12. Twelve horses were tested on whether they would learn to open a feeding apparatus by observing a familiar person. The other 12 were controls and received exactly the same experimental procedure, but without a demonstration of how to operate the apparatus. More horses from the group with demonstration (8/12) reached the learning criterion of opening the feeder twenty times consecutively than horses from the control group (2/12), and younger horses seemed to reach the criterion more quickly. Horses not reaching the learning criteria approached the human experimenters more often than those that did. The results demonstrate that horses learn socially across species, in this case from humans.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Schuetz2016 Serial 6028  
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Author (up) Selby, A.; Smith-Osborne, A. doi  openurl
  Title A Systematic Review of Effectiveness of Complementary and Adjunct Therapies and Interventions Involving Equines Type Book Whole
  Year 2012 Publication Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 32 Issue Pages  
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  Abstract Objective: This systematic review examines the empirical literature in an emerging body of evidence for the effectiveness of biopsychosocial interventions involving equines across populations with chronic illness or health challenges. Method: Selected quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals were reviewed for inclusion; the gray literature and white papers were also explored. Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome (PICO) criteria and Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) were applied to all studies. Fourteen full reports meeting a priori inclusion criteria were extracted from 103 studies accessed through 16 electronic databases and a hand search. Data were synthesized in relation to three research questions informing evidence-based practice. Results: No randomized clinical trials were located. Two studies provided a moderate level of evidence for effectiveness. Nine studies demonstrated statistically significant positive effects. Three studies did not find significant psychosocial effects for the target group, although one found significant positive effects for the comparison group. Conclusion: In the aggregate, the evidence is promising in support of the effectiveness of complementary and adjunct interventions employing equines in the treatment of health challenges. Future studies are needed that utilize rigorous and creative designs, especially longitudinal studies and comparisons with established effective treatments.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6186  
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Author (up) van Breda, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Nonnatural Head-Neck Position(Rollkur) During Training Results in Less Acute Stress in Elite, Trained, Dressage Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Abbreviated Journal Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 59-64  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This study measured parameters of stress in recreational, trained horses (REC; n = 7) and elite (International Grand Prix level) trained, dressage horses (DRES; n = 5). The training of the DRES horses uses an unnatural head?neck position (Rollkur), whereas in the REC horses such training techniques are not common. The study measured stress by using heart rate variability analysis for 30 min postfeeding in the morning and 30 min postexercise after a morning training session. The study found no significant difference at rest between the REC and DRES horses. During the posttraining measurements, however, the DRES horses showed, among others, a less sympathetic and increased parasympathetic dominance. These results suggest that DRES horses tend to have less acute stress than do REC horses postexercise. The findings of this study suggest maintaining the health and well-being of DRES horses despite nonnatural, biomechanical positions.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Routledge Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1088-8705 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes doi: 10.1207/s15327604jaws0901_5 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6183  
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Author (up) Wolter, R.; Pantel, N.; Stefanski, V.; Möstl, E.; Krueger, K. doi  openurl
  Title The role of an alpha animal in changing environmental conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.  
  Volume 133 Issue 0 Pages 236-243  
  Keywords Alpha male; Horse; Equus ferus przewalskii; Bachelor group; Group structure  
  Abstract Abstract The maintenance and development of conservation areas by grazing of large herbivores, such as Przewalski's horses, is common practice. Several nature conservation areas house male bachelor groups of this species. When males are needed for breeding they are removed from the groups, often without considering group compositions and individual social positions. However, alpha animals are needed for ensuring group stability and decision making in potentially dangerous situations in several species. To investigate the role of the alpha male in a bachelor group, we observed the behaviour of five Przewalski's horse males during the enlargement of their enclosure. We analyzed the group's social structure and movement orders, as well as the animals' connectedness, activity budgets, and whether they moved with preferred group members and how factors such as social rank influenced the horses' behaviour. We also investigated the excretion of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) via faeces of the horses while exploring a new area as a parameter of glucocorticoid production. Our results show that the alpha male is important for a bachelor group in changing environmental conditions. The alpha male had the highest level of connectedness within the group. When exploring the new environment, its position in the group changed from previously being the last to being the first. Furthermore the whole group behaviour changed when exploring the new area. The stallions showed reduced resting behavior, increased feeding and did not stay close to each other. We found that the excretion of glucocorticoid metabolites of most horses rose only marginally during the first days on the new area while only the alpha male showed a significant increased amount of glucocorticoid production during the first day of the enclosure enlargement.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5818  
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