Schwenk, B. K., Fürst, A. E., & Bischhofberger, A. S. (2016). Traffic accident-related injuries in horses. Pferdeheilkunde, 32(3), 192–199.
Abstract: Horses involved in road traffic accidents (RTAs) are commonly presented to veterinarians with varying types of injuries. The aim
of this study was describe the pattern and severity of traffic accident-related injuries in horses in a single hospital population. Medical
records of horses either hit by a motorized vehicle or involved in RTAs whilst being transported from 1993 to 2015 were retrospectively
reviewed and the following data was extracted: Signalement, hospitalisation time, month in which the accident happened, cause of the
accident, place of the accident and type of vehicle hitting the horse. Further the different body sites injured (head, neck, breast, fore limb,
abdomen, back and spine, pelvis and ileosacral region, hind limb, tail and genital region), the type of injury (wounds, musculoskeletal
lesions and internal lesions) and the presence of neurological signs were retrieved from the medical records. 34 horses hit by motorized
vehicles and 13 horses involved in RTAs whilst being transported were included in the study. Most of the accidents where horses were hit
by motorized vehicles occurred during December (14.7%) and October (14.7%), horses were most commonly hit by cars (85.3%) and the
majority of accidents occurred on main roads (26.5%). In 29.4% of the cases, horses had escaped from their paddock and then collided
with a motorized vehicle. Most of the accidents with horses involved in RTAs whilst being transported occurred during April (30.8%) and
June (23.1%). In 76.9% of the cases the accident happened on a freeway. In the horses hit by motorized vehicles the proximal hind limbs
were the body site most commonly affected (44.1%), followed by the proximal front limbs (38.2%) and the head (32.4%). When horses
were involved in RTAs whilst being transported the proximal fore limbs (61.5%), the proximal hind limbs (53.8%) and the distal hind limbs,
back and head (38.5% each) were the most common injured body sites. Wounds were the most common type of injury in both groups
(85.3% hit by motorized vehicle, 76.9% transported ones). In horses hit by a motorized vehicle 35.3% suffered from fractures, in 20.6%
a synovial structure was involved and in 5.9% a tendon lesion was present. 14.7% suffered from internal lesions and 14.7% showed neurologic
symptoms (40% peripheral, 60% central neurologic deficits). On the other hand, in horses involved in a RTA whilst being transported
30.8% suffered from fractures. There were no synovial structures injured and no tendon injuries were present. Furthermore there were
no internal lesions present and only one horse involved in a RTA showed central neurologic symptoms. Injuries of horses being hit by a
motorized vehicle were more severe than when horses were protected by a trailer and involved in a RTA whilst being transported. The study
has been able to identify the different injury types of traffic accident-related injuries in horses. Awareness of the nature of these injuries is
important, to avoid underestimation of their severity.
Kiliç, S., & Cantürk, G. (2017). Car Accident Due to Horse Crossing the Motorway: Two Case Reports. Bull. Leg. Med., 22.
Abstract: Basic Commercial Court in Ankara wanted a report from our department of forensic medicine about two injury cases due to animal vehicle collision. The reports should include the disability rate and the duration of unfunctionality. After the examination we prepared the reports. Both vehicle collisions happened due to free ranging horse crossing the motorway. Both cases had different types of injury due to trauma. Vehicle collision due to horse crossing the motorway is rarely met in Turkey.
Our first case is a man that had upper extremity and facial injury. He uses prothesis due to ear amputation. He has a scar tissue on the right side of his face and left forearm. The other case is three-years-old boy that had cranial bone fracture and cranial hematoma. He has also hemiparesis of the right side of body. Both cases have neurologic sequels but they have no psychiatric sequels.
In literature, animal vehicle collisions involve lots of animal species such as kangaroo, deer, camel and moose. Animal vehicle collision involving the horses is rarely met. Forensic medicine specialists should state the causal link between traumatic events and disabilities in order to help justice. Our aim to present the current two cases is investigation of injuries of animal related collision and makes forensic medicine specialists pay attention to the subject of preparing reports about such cases.
Keeling, L. J., Bøe, K. E., Christensen, J. W., Hyyppä, S., Jansson, H., Jørgensen, G. H. M., et al. Injury incidence, reactivity and ease of handling of horses kept in groups: a matched case control study in four Nordic countries. Appl Anim Behav Sci, .
Abstract: Abstract There is increasing interest in keeping horses in groups, but progress is hampered by a lack of knowledge about which horses can and should be kept together. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the effect of group composition on the occurrence of injuries among horses, the ease of removing horses from groups and horses’ reactivity to a fearful stimulus. Using a matched case control design, 61 groups of horses were studied in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden. They were allocated into groups of similar or different age and sex or where membership changed regularly or remained stable. Injuries were recorded before mixing the horses into treatment groups, the day after mixing and four weeks later. Reactivity of horses to a moving novel object and the behaviour of a horse being removed from its group and the reactions of other group members towards this horse and the handler were evaluated. It was hypothesized that a more socially variable group composition has beneficial effects on behaviour, ease of handling and reducing reactivity whereas frequent changes in group composition has negative consequences, resulting in more injuries. We found that differences in treatment effects were mainly related to breed, rather than group composition. Icelandic horses reacted less to the movement of the novel object (P = 0.007) and approached it more afterwards (P = 0.04). They also had fewer new injuries than warmbloods following mixing (P < 0.001) and fewer than all other groups 4 weeks later (P < 0.01). Most new injuries after mixing were minor and recorded on the horse’s head, chest, hind legs and rump. In conclusion, variations in sex and age composition of the group had little effect on injury level, reactivity and ease of handling compared to the general effect of breed. Concerns about the risk of severe injuries associated with keeping horses in groups are probably overestimated. Thus, we propose that horses can be successfully kept in groups of different sex and age composition.
Zeitler-Feicht, M. H., Streit, S., & Dempfle, L. (2011). Automatic feeding systems for horses in group housing systems with regard to animal welfare. Part 2: Comparison of different automatic feeding systems. Tierärztl Prax, 39(G), 33–40.
Abstract: Ziel: Überprüfung der Tiergerechtheit von in der Bauweise unterschiedlichen
Futterabrufstationen für Pferde in Gruppenhaltung anhand ethologischer
und physiologischer Parameter. Material und Methoden: In 32
Offenlaufställen (452 Pferde) mit computergesteuerten Abrufstationen
für Kraftfutter und Heu erfolgten kontinuierliche Direktbeobachtungen
für je einen 24-Stunden-Tag (Tortenstückverfahren). Erfasst wurden: Aufenthaltsdauer,
Besuchshäufigkeit, Droh- und Meideverhalten im Fütterungsbereich,
Blockaden sowie Herzfrequenz und Integumentverletzungen.
Ergebnisse: Eine Durchlaufstation reduzierte die Zahl der Auseinandersetzungen
im Fütterungsbereich signifikant. Ansonsten erhöhten die
für das fressende Pferd tiergerechten Varianten (Fressstand mit Eingangssperre,
ohne Austreibehilfe) Besuchshäufigkeit und Aufenthaltsdauer und
steigerten somit auch die Anzahl an Drohgesten je Tier und Tag. Insgesamt
betrachtet kann jedoch die Anzahl an sozionegativen Interaktionen
im Fütterungsbereich der Abrufstationen als relativ gering eingestuft
werden. Die Herzfrequenz lag im Warteareal bei den meisten Pferden im
physiologischen Bereich (45,1 ± 12,42 Schläge/min), erhöhte sich jedoch
in der Abrufstation um ca. 20 Schläge/min. Einige Tiere zeigten möglicherweise
stressbedingt kurzfristig auffallend hohe Werte (≥ 100 Schläge/
min). Integumentverletzungen im Zusammenhang mit dem Fütterungssystem
traten nicht auf. Der wichtigste Einflussfaktor auf die Untersuchungskriterien
war der Betrieb (Fläche, Konzeption, Management).
Schlussfolgerung: Durchlaufstationen sind pferdegerechter als Rücklaufstationen.
Nicht tiergerecht sind Stationen mit stromführender Austreibehilfe.
Weitere bauliche Unterschiede der derzeitigen Futterabrufstationen
dürften eher von untergeordneter Bedeutung sein, vor allem da
Flächengebot und Konzeption der Offenstallanlage sowie das Management
die überprüften Kriterien zur Tiergerechtheit maßgeblich beeinflussen.
Untersuchungen zur Abklärung der Ursache für die vereinzelt aufgetretenen
sehr hohen Herzfrequenzwerte sollten durchgeführt werden.
Objective: Comparison with regard to animal welfare of different automatic
feeding systems for hay and concentrate in group housing systems
for horses using parameters of ethology and physiology. Material and
methods: Parameters of research comprised: duration of stay, frequency
of visit, threatening behaviour with and without risk of injury, and avoiding
behaviour as well as heart rate and injuries of the integument. 452
horses were observed at the feeding area of 32 run-out-sheds. Every group
of horses was continuously observed following the pie chart system for
24 hours. Results: The “walk-through” station significantly reduced the
number of conflicts in the feeding area, whereas those systems which are
appropriate for the feeding horses (feeding station with access barrier and
without stimulation device by electric shock) led to a higher frequency of
visits and a longer duration of stay resulting in more threatening gestures.
However, the number of negative interactions in the feeding area of the
feeding systems can all together be classified as relatively insignificant.
The heart rate was within the physiological range (45.1 ± 12.42 beats/min)
in the waiting area, but increased by approximately 20 beats/min on average
within the feeding station. Some horses showed a very high heart rate
(≥ 100 beats/min) while entering the feeding station, possibly stress-related.
There were no injuries of the integument associated with the feeding
systems. The most important factor of the observation criteria was the
individual group housing system with its different dimensions, conception
and management. Conclusion: “Walk-through” stations are better than
”walk-back” stations with regard to animal welfare. Likewise, automatic
feeding stations with a current-carrying stimulation device are not supportive
of good welfare. The other differences between the constructions
of feeding stations of present systems are probably of less importance, particularly
as it was shown that the stable (management, stable area, conception)
had a significant influence on the surveyed parameters. Investigations
to obtain information on the cause for the sporadic occurrence of
very high heart rate values should be undertaken.]
Keywords: Pferd, Fütterungssystem, Bauvarianten, soziale Interaktionen, Besuchshäufigkeit, Aufenthaltsdauer, Herzfrequenz, Verletzungsrisiko [Horse, feeding system, different types of construction, social interactions, visiting frequency, duration of stay, heart rate, risk of injury]
Zeitler-Feicht, M. H., Streit, S., & Dempfle, L. (2010). Automatic feeding systems for horses in group housing systems with regard to animal welfare. Part 1: Feeding stalls versus automatic feeding systems. Tierärztl Prax, 38(G), 363–370.
Abstract: Gegenstand und Ziel: Überprüfung der Tiergerechtheit von Abrufstationen
für Kraftfutter und Heu in der Gruppenhaltung von Pferden anhand
ethologischer und physiologischer Parameter im Vergleich zu konventionellen
Fressständen. Material und Methoden: Die Verhaltensbeobachtungen
fanden in 11 bzw. 10 Offenlaufställen mit Abrufstationen
bzw. Fressständen statt. 270 Pferde wurden individuell unterschieden.
Untersuchungsparameter waren: Drohverhalten mit und ohne Verletzungsrisiko,
Meideverhalten, Verdrängung aus dem Fressstand sowie
Herzfrequenz und Integumentverletzungen. In jedem Betrieb erfolgten
kontinuierliche Direktbeobachtungen für je einen 24-Stunden-Tag (Tortenstückverfahren).
Ergebnisse: Im Wartebereich der Abrufautomaten
traten signifikant mehr Drohgesten ohne bzw. mit Verletzungsgefahr je
Pferd und Tag (8,6 bzw. 3,0) auf als im Wartebereich der Fressstände
(3,4 bzw. 0,9). Demgegenüber konnten die Pferde in Abrufstationen
(1,4 Drohgesten je Pferd und Tag) ungestörter fressen als in Fressständen
(3,2 Drohgesten je Pferd und Tag). Insgesamt betrachtet ergab sich
jedoch bei beiden Fütterungssystemen eine geringe Anzahl an sozionegativen
Interaktionen im Bereich der Futtereinrichtungen. Die Herzfrequenz
lag im Warteareal im Durchschnitt im physiologischen Bereich
(44,59 ± 11,73 Schläge/min). Integumentverletzungen im Zusammenhang
mit dem Fütterungssystem traten nicht auf. Der wichtigste Einflussfaktor
auf die Untersuchungskriterien war der Betrieb (Fläche, Konzeption,
Management). Schlussfolgerung: Unter dem Aspekt der Tiergerechtheit
hinsichtlich des Stress- und Verletzungsrisikos durch soziale
Interaktionen eignen sich bei ordnungsgemäßer Gruppenhaltung mit
fachgerechtem Management sowohl Fressstände als auch Abrufstationen
für Pferde im Offenlaufstall.
[Objective: A comparison with regard to animal welfare of feeding
stalls and automatic feeding systems for hay and concentrates in group
housing systems for horses using parameters of ethology and physiology.
Material and method: The observations of animal behaviour took
place in 10 stables with feeding stalls and in 11 stables with automatic
feeding systems. The field around the feeding systems was divided into
three areas with comparable dimensions (waiting area, exit area and
inside of the feeding system). 270 horses were individually observed.
Parameters of research comprised: threatening behaviour with and
without risk of injury, avoiding behaviour, ”chasing away from the feeding
place”, as well as heart rate and injuries of the integument. Every
group of horses was continuously observed for 24 hours. This observation
took place on four different days and comprised six sessions, each
of 4 hours. Results: In the waiting area of the automatic systems there
were significantly more threatening gestures with and without risk of
injuries for each horse and day (8.6 and 3.0, respectively) than in the
waiting area of the feeding stalls. In contrast, the horses could eat more
relaxed in the automatic systems (1.4 threatening gestures for each
horse and day) than in the feeding stalls (3.2 threatening gestures for
each horse and day). All together the number of negative interactions in
the feeding area of both feeding systems was relatively low. The heart
rate was within the physiological range (44,59 ± 11,73 beats/min) in
the waiting area. There were no injuries of the integument in correlation
with the feeding systems. The most important factor of the observation
criteria was the individual group housing system with its different dimension,
conception and management. Conclusion: Under the aspect
of animal welfare both feeding systems are suitable for horses with respect
to the risk of stress and injuries by social interactions and under
the condition of proper group housing with professional management.]
Keywords: Pferd, Fütterungseinrichtungen, soziale Interaktionen, Herzfrequenz, Verletzungsrisiko, Betriebseinfluss [Horse, feeding stations, social interactions, heart rate, risk of injury, individual farm management]