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Palm, A. - K. E., Wattle, O., Lundström, T., & Wattrang, E. (2016). Secretory immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G in horse saliva. Vet. Immunol. Immunolpathol., 180, 59–65.
Abstract: This study aimed to increase the knowledge on salivary antibodies in the horse since these constitute an important part of the immune defence of the oral cavity. For that purpose assays to detect horse immunoglobulin A (IgA) including secretory IgA (SIgA) were set up and the molecular weights of different components of the horse IgA system were estimated. Moreover, samples from 51 clinically healthy horses were tested for total SIgA and IgG amounts in saliva and relative IgG3/5 (IgG(T)) and IgG4/7 (IgGb) content were tested in serum and saliva. Results showed a mean concentration of 74μg SIgA/ml horse saliva and that there was a large inter-individual variation in salivary SIgA concentration. For total IgG the mean concentration was approx. 5 times lower than that of SIgA, i.e. 20μg IgG/ml saliva and the inter-individual variation was lower than that observed for SIgA. The saliva-serum ratio for IgG isotypes IgG3/5 and IgG4/7 was also assessed in the sampled horses and this analysis showed that the saliva-serum ratio of IgG4/7 was in general approximately 4 times higher than that of IgG3/5. The large inter-individual variation in salivary SIgA levels observed for the normal healthy horses in the present study emphasises the need for a large number of observations when studying this parameter especially in a clinical setting. Moreover, our results also indicated that some of the salivary IgG does not originate from serum but may be produced locally. Thus, these results provide novel insight, and a base for further research, into salivary antibody responses of horses.
Zaine, L., Ferreira, C., de O. S. Gomes, M., Monti, M., Tortola, L., Vasconcellos, R. S., et al. (2011). Faecal IgA concentration is influenced by age in dogs. British Journal of Nutrition, 106(Supplement S1), S183–S186.
Abstract: Data comparing age-related alterations in faecal IgA concentrations of dogs are not available in the literature. The present study aimed to
compare the faecal concentrations of IgA in puppies, mature and senior dogs. A total of twenty-four beagle dogs were used, including
eight puppies (5 months old, four females and four males), eight mature (4·6 years old, eight males) and eight senior dogs (10·6 years
old, three males and five females). Fresh faecal samples were collected from each dog for three consecutive days and pooled by
animal. After saline extraction, IgA content was measured by ELISA. Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA, and means were compared
with Tukey’s test (P,0·05). Results showed that puppies have lower faecal IgA concentrations than mature dogs (P,0·05); senior animals
presented intermediary results. The reduced faecal IgA concentration in puppies is consistent with the reduced serum and salivary IgA
concentrations reported previously, suggesting a reduced mucosal immunity in this age group. Although some studies have found an
increased serum IgA concentration in older dogs, this may differ from the intestinal secretion of IgA, which appears to be lower in
some senior animals (four of the eight dogs studied).