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Baum, M. J. (2006). Mammalian animal models of psychosexual differentiation: when is 'translation' to the human situation possible? Horm Behav, 50(4), 579–588.
Abstract: Clinical investigators have been forced primarily to use experiments of nature (e.g., cloacal exstrophy; androgen insensitivity, congenital adrenal hyperplasia) to assess the contribution of fetal sex hormone exposure to the development of male- and female-typical profiles of gender identity and role behavior as well as sexual orientation. In this review, I summarize the results of numerous correlative as well as mechanistic animal experiments that shed significant light on general neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling the differentiation of neural circuits controlling sexual partner preference (sexual orientation) in mammalian species including man. I also argue, however, that results of animal studies can, at best, provide only indirect insights into the neuroendocrine determinants of human gender identity and role behaviors.
Keywords: Animals; Estradiol/*physiology; Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; Hypothalamus/anatomy & histology/physiology; Male; Models, Animal; Sexual Behavior/physiology/psychology; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Testosterone/*physiology
Clark, M. L., & Ayers, M. (1992). Friendship similarity during early adolescence: gender and racial patterns. J Psychol, 126(4), 393–405.
Abstract: We studied the relationship of reciprocity, gender, and racial composition (Caucasian, African American, cross-race) of adolescent friendship dyads to similarity and proximity in 136 young adolescents. We found that adolescents selected friends who were of the same gender and race and that female dyads were more similar than male dyads on verbal achievement and several personality dimensions. Caucasian dyads were more similar than African American dyads on verbal achievement, mental alertness, and dominance. African American adolescents had more contact with their best friends outside school, whereas Caucasian adolescent friends had more in-school contact. African American students had fewer reciprocal relationships than the Caucasian students. Cross-race friendships were less reciprocal than same-race friendships. Race and gender were important in determining friendship patterns. Similarity and proximity were more important than reciprocity in understanding early adolescent friendships.
Keywords: Achievement; Adolescent; African Americans/*psychology; *Cross-Cultural Comparison; Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; Individuality; *Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Personality Development; Personality Inventory; Sociometric Techniques