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Author (up) Baragli, P.; Scopa, C.; Maglieri, V.; Palagi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title If horses had toes: demonstrating mirror self recognition at group level in Equus caballus Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Mirror self-recognition (MSR), investigated in primates and recently in non-primate species, is considered a measure of self-awareness. Nowadays, the only reliable test for investigating MSR potential skills consists in the untrained response to a visual body mark detected using a reflective surface. Here, we report the first evidence of MSR at group level in horses, by facing the weaknesses of methodology present in a previous pilot study. Fourteen horses were used in a 4-phases mirror test (covered mirror, open mirror, invisible mark, visible colored mark). After engaging in a series of contingency behaviors (looking behind the mirror, peek-a-boo, head and tongue movements), our horses used the mirror surface to guide their movements towards their colored cheeks, thus showing that they can recognize themselves in a mirror. The analysis at the group level, which 'marks' a turning point in the analytical technique of MSR exploration in non-primate species, showed that horses spent a longer time in scratching their faces when marked with the visible mark compared to the non-visible mark. This finding indicates that horses did not see the non-visible mark and that they did not touch their own face guided by the tactile sensation, suggesting the presence of MSR in horses. Although a heated debate on the binary versus gradualist model in the MSR interpretation exists, recent empirical pieces of evidence, including ours, indicate that MSR is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon that appeared once in phylogeny and that a convergent evolution mechanism can be at the basis of its presence in phylogenetically distant taxa.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Baragli2021 Serial 6631  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Boyce, P.N.; McLoughlin, P.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ecological Interactions Involving Feral Horses and Predators: Review with Implications for Biodiversity Conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication The Journal of Wildlife Management Abbreviated Journal Jour. Wild. Mgmt.  
  Volume n/a Issue n/a Pages  
  Keywords apparent competition; artificial selection; community ecology; conservation; feral horse (Equus ferus caballus); life history; predator-prey dynamics  
  Abstract ABSTRACT For many ecosystems, feral horses are increasingly becoming an important if not dominant component of ungulate biomass and hence influence on community dynamics. Yet we still know little of how horses contribute to key ecological interactions including predator-prey and indirect competitive relationships at a community level. Notably, feral species like horses can exhibit life-history traits that differ from that of native (mainly artiodactyl) herbivore competitors. Artificial selection for traits like increased, early, or extended reproduction that have yet to be reversed by natural selection, coupled with naturally selected differences in anatomy and behavior, in addition to unique management objectives for horses compared to other species, means that the dynamics of feral horse populations are not likely to align with what might be expected of other large herbivores. Unexpected population dynamics and inherent biological asymmetries between native ungulates and feral horses may therefore influence the former via direct competition for shared resources and through enemy-mediated interactions like apparent competition. In several localities feral horses now co-exist with multiple native prey species, some of which are in decline or are species at risk. Compounding risks to native species from direct or indirect competitive exclusion by horses is the unique nature and socio-political context of feral horse management, which tends towards allowing horse populations to be limited largely by natural, density-dependent factors. We summarize the inherent asymmetries between feral horse biology and that of other ungulate prey species with consequences for conservation, focusing on predator-prey and emerging indirect interactions in multi-prey systems, and highlight future directions to address key knowledge gaps in our understanding of how feral horses may now be contributing to the (re)structuring of food webs. Observations of patterns of rapid growth and decline, and associated skews in sex ratios of feral horse populations, indicate a heightened potential for indirect interactions among large ungulate prey species, where there is a prevalence of feral horses as preferred prey, particularly where native prey are declining. In places like western North America, we expect predator-prey interactions involving feral horses to become an increasingly important factor in the conservation of wildlife. This applies not only to economically or culturally important game species but also at-risk species, both predators (e.g., wolves [Canis lupus], grizzly bears [Ursus arctos]) and prey (e.g., woodland caribou [Rangifer tarandus caribou]), necessitating an ecological understanding of the role of horses in natural environments that goes beyond that of population control. ? 2021 The Wildlife Society.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-541x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21995 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6642  
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Author (up) Gadhöfer, R.; Krüger, K.; Zanger, M. isbn  openurl
  Title Der Bockhuf – Entstehung, Verlauf und Therapie Type Book Whole
  Year 2021 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Verlag Place of Publication Wald Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 13: 978-3956250125 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6652  
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Author (up) Jarausch, A.; Harms, V.; Kluth, G.; Reinhardt, I.; Nowak, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How the west was won: genetic reconstruction of rapid wolf recolonization into Germany's anthropogenic landscapes Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Heredity Abbreviated Journal Heredity  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Following massive persecution and eradication, strict legal protection facilitated a successful reestablishment of wolf packs in Germany, which has been ongoing since 2000. Here, we describe this recolonization process by mitochondrial DNA control-region sequencing, microsatellite genotyping and sex identification based on 1341 mostly non-invasively collected samples. We reconstructed the genealogy of German wolf packs between 2005 and 2015 to provide information on trends in genetic diversity, dispersal patterns and pack dynamics during the early expansion process. Our results indicate signs of a founder effect at the start of the recolonization. Genetic diversity in German wolves is moderate compared to other European wolf populations. Although dispersal among packs is male-biased in the sense that females are more philopatric, dispersal distances are similar between males and females once only dispersers are accounted for. Breeding with close relatives is regular and none of the six male wolves originating from the Italian/Alpine population reproduced. However, moderate genetic diversity and inbreeding levels of the recolonizing population are preserved by high sociality, dispersal among packs and several immigration events. Our results demonstrate an ongoing, rapid and natural wolf population expansion in an intensively used cultural landscape in Central Europe.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1365-2540 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Jarausch2021 Serial 6638  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Krueger, K.; Esch, L.; Byrne, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Need or opportunity? A study of innovations in equids Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 16 Issue 9 Pages e0257730  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Debate persists over whether animals develop innovative solutions primarily in response to needs or conversely whether they innovate more when basic needs are covered and opportunity to develop novel behaviour is offered. We sourced 746 cases of “unusual” behaviour in equids by contacting equid owners and caretakers directly and via a website (https://innovative-behaviour.org), and by searching the internet platforms YouTube and Facebook for videos. The study investigated whether differences in need or opportunity for innovation were reflected in the numbers of different types of innovations and in the frequencies of repeating a once-innovative behaviour (i) with respect to the equids' sex, age, and breed type, (ii) across behavioural categories, and whether (iii) they were affected by the equids' management (single vs group housing, access to roughage feed, access to pasture, and social contact). We found that the numbers of different types of innovation and the frequency of displaying specific innovations were not affected by individual characteristics (sex, age, breed or equid species). Few types of innovation in escape and foraging contexts were observed, whilst the comfort, play, and social contexts elicited the greatest variety of innovations. We also found higher numbers of different types of innovations in horses kept in groups rather than in individual housing, and with unlimited rather than with restricted access to pasture and roughage. Equids in permanent social contact performed high rates of once-innovative behaviour. We suggest that equids produce goal-directed innovations and repeat the behaviour at high frequency in response to urgent needs for food and free movement or when kept in conditions with social conflict. However, equids devise the greatest variety of innovations when opportunity to play and to develop comfort behaviour arises and when kept in good conditions.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6653  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Krueger, K.; Esch, L.; Farmer, K.; Marr, I. doi  openurl
  Title Basic Needs in Horses?--A Literature Review Type Magazine Article
  Year 2021 Publication Animals Abbreviated Journal Animals  
  Volume 11 Issue 6 Pages 1798  
  Keywords abnormal behaviour; active responses; horse; movement; passive responses; roughage; stress; social contact  
  Abstract Every animal species has particular environmental requirements that are essential for its welfare, and when these so-called “basic needs” are not fulfilled, the animals suffer. The basic needs of horses have been claimed to be social contact, social companionship, free movement and access to roughage. To assess whether horses suffer when one or more of the four proposed basic needs are restricted, we examined several studies (n = 38) that reported behavioural and physiological reactions to these restrictions. We assigned the studies according to the four types of responses investigated: (a) Stress, (b) Active, (c) Passive, and (d) Abnormal Behaviour. Furthermore, the number of studies indicating that horses reacted to the restrictions were compared with the number of studies reporting no reaction. The limited number of studies available on single management restrictions did not allow conclusions to be drawn on the effect of each restriction separately, especially in the case of social companionship. However, when combinations of social contact, free movement and access to roughage were restricted, many of the horses had developed responses consistent with suffering. Passive Responses, indicating acute suffering, and Abnormal Behaviour, indicating suffering currently or at some time in the past, were especially clearly demonstrated. This provides further evidence of the usefulness of assessing behavioural parameters in combination with physiological measurements when evaluating horse welfare. This meta-analysis of the literature confirms that it is justified to claim that social contact, free movement and access to roughage are basic needs in horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Animals  
  Series Volume 11 Series Issue 6 Edition  
  ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6645  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Stomp, M.; d'Ingeo, S.; Henry, S.; Cousillas, H.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Brain activity reflects (chronic) welfare state: Evidence from individual electroencephalography profiles in an animal model Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 236 Issue Pages 105271  
  Keywords Laterality; Electroencephalography; Theta wave; Welfare; Horses  
  Abstract Assessing the animal welfare state is a challenge given the subjective individual cognitive and emotional processing involved. Electroencephalography (EEG) spectrum analysis has proved an ecologically valid recording situation to assess the link between brain processes and affective or cognitive states in humans: a higher slow wave/fast wave ratio has been associated with a positive internal state. In particular, a high production of theta power (3-8 Hz) has been related to positive emotions. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that a left hemisphere (LH) dominance may be associated with a better welfare state. Here, we test the hypothesis that individual differences in the resting-state quantitative EEG power spectrum of adult horses (N = 18) and its lateralization pattern may reflect individual subjective perception of their conditions of life and welfare state. The results show clear individual differences in the proportions of the different waves and their inter-hemispheric distribution. Three different EEG power spectrum profiles were highlighted, from a bilateral predominance of theta waves in horses in a more positive welfare state to a bilateral predominance of beta waves in horses with clear expressions of compromised welfare. Interestingly, particular correlations were found between wave power activity and welfare parameters. We found a negative correlation between the number of stereotypic behaviours per hour and the median proportion of theta waves in the left hemisphere. and between the overall state (total chronic stress score) of welfare and gamma production in the right hemisphere (RH). These findings go along the hypothesis of a particular involvement of the left hemisphere for positive processing and of the right hemisphere for negative processing. However, the pattern of laterality did not appear as the most important feature here as both extreme clusters in terms of welfare showed bilateral predominance of one wave type. It is possible that hemispheric specialization makes more sense during acute emotion-inducing conditions rather than in this resting-state context (i.e. in absence of any high emotion-inducing stimulation), although the opposition gamma versus theta waves between both hemispheres in the horses with an intermediate welfare state is noticeable and intriguing. It seems that bilateral but also LH theta activity is a promising neurophysiological marker of good welfare in horses, while a bilateral or RH high production of gamma waves should alert about potential welfare alterations. Quantitative resting-state EEG power spectrum appears as a highly promising tool for exploring the brain processes involved in the subjective perception of chronic welfare, as a useful complementary tool for welfare assessment.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6628  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Stomp, M.; d'Ingeo, S.; Henry, S.; Cousillas, H.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Brain activity reflects (chronic) welfare state: Evidence from individual electroencephalography profiles in an animal model Type Journal Article
  Year 2021 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 236 Issue Pages 105271  
  Keywords Laterality; Electroencephalography; Theta wave; Welfare; Horses  
  Abstract Assessing the animal welfare state is a challenge given the subjective individual cognitive and emotional processing involved. Electroencephalography (EEG) spectrum analysis has proved an ecologically valid recording situation to assess the link between brain processes and affective or cognitive states in humans: a higher slow wave/fast wave ratio has been associated with a positive internal state. In particular, a high production of theta power (3-8 Hz) has been related to positive emotions. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that a left hemisphere (LH) dominance may be associated with a better welfare state. Here, we test the hypothesis that individual differences in the resting-state quantitative EEG power spectrum of adult horses (N = 18) and its lateralization pattern may reflect individual subjective perception of their conditions of life and welfare state. The results show clear individual differences in the proportions of the different waves and their inter-hemispheric distribution. Three different EEG power spectrum profiles were highlighted, from a bilateral predominance of theta waves in horses in a more positive welfare state to a bilateral predominance of beta waves in horses with clear expressions of compromised welfare. Interestingly, particular correlations were found between wave power activity and welfare parameters. We found a negative correlation between the number of stereotypic behaviours per hour and the median proportion of theta waves in the left hemisphere. and between the overall state (total chronic stress score) of welfare and gamma production in the right hemisphere (RH). These findings go along the hypothesis of a particular involvement of the left hemisphere for positive processing and of the right hemisphere for negative processing. However, the pattern of laterality did not appear as the most important feature here as both extreme clusters in terms of welfare showed bilateral predominance of one wave type. It is possible that hemispheric specialization makes more sense during acute emotion-inducing conditions rather than in this resting-state context (i.e. in absence of any high emotion-inducing stimulation), although the opposition gamma versus theta waves between both hemispheres in the horses with an intermediate welfare state is noticeable and intriguing. It seems that bilateral but also LH theta activity is a promising neurophysiological marker of good welfare in horses, while a bilateral or RH high production of gamma waves should alert about potential welfare alterations. Quantitative resting-state EEG power spectrum appears as a highly promising tool for exploring the brain processes involved in the subjective perception of chronic welfare, as a useful complementary tool for welfare assessment.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6629  
Permanent link to this record
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