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Author Krueger., K.; Farmer, K. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Social learning in Horses: Differs from individual learning only in the learning stimulus and not in the learning mechanisms Type Abstract
  Year 2018 Publication 14th Meeting of the Internatinoal Society for Equitation Science Abbreviated Journal 14th Meeting ISES  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords horse; individual learning; learning mechanisms; learning stimuli; social learning  
  Abstract Equine welfare can be enhanced by applying species specific training. This may incorporate social learning, as horses are highly social and social stimuli are of primary importance. Social learning is comparable to individual learning in its learning mechanisms, differing primarily in the way it is stimulated. Our initial study showed that horses of different breeds (N = 38) follow humans after observing other horses doing so, but only if the observed horse was familiar to and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's exact test: N = 12, P = 0.003). A second study showed that horses and ponies (N = 25) learned to pull a rope to open a feeding apparatus after observing demonstrations by conspecifics, again, only if the demonstrating horse was older and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's combination test, N = 3, v2 = 27.71, p = 0.006). Our third approach showed that horses and ponies (N = 24) learned to press a switch to open a feeding apparatus after observing a familiar person (GzLM: N = 24, z = 2.33, P = 0.02). Most recently, we confronted horses and ponies (N = 50) with persons demonstrating different techniques for opening a feeding apparatus. In this study we investigated whether the horses would copy the demonstrators' techniques or apply their own. Here only some horses copied the technique, and most of the successful learners used their mouths irrespective of the demonstrators' postures (Chi Square Test: N = 40, df = 2, &#967;2 = 31.4, p < 0.001). In all the approaches social stimuli elicited learning processes in the test horses, while only a few individuals in the control groups mastered the tasks by individual learning. The following behaviour observed in the initial study may have been facilitated by a social stimuli (social facilitation), and the opening of the feed boxes in the subsequent studies appear to be mostly the result of enhancement (social enhancement). Some horses may have used the social stimuli at first and continued their learning process by individual trial and error. However, the horses were also selective in whom and some in how to copy. This may have been conditioned (socially conditioned) or the result of simple forms of reasoning on the reliability of the particular information provided by demonstrators of certain social ranks or social positions, as high ranking and familiar horses and familiar persons were copied and some imitated exactly.

Lay person message: Traditional riding instructions suggest that horses learn by observing other horses. For example, older, more experienced driving horses are used for initial training of young driving horses. We have shown that horses indeed use learning stimuli provided by other horse, as well as by humans. Horses readily accept stimuli observed in high ranking and familiar horses, and familiar persons. Such stimuli elicit learning processes which are comparable to individual learning. We suggest applying social learning whenever possible, as it is much faster and less stressful than individual learning, where learners experience negative outcomes in trial and error learning.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6405  
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Author Gaunitz, C.; Fages, A.; Hanghøj, K.; Albrechtsen, A.; Khan, N.; Schubert, M.; Seguin-Orlando, A.; Owens, I.J.; Felkel, S.; Bignon-Lau, O.; de Barros Damgaard, P.; Mittnik, A.; Mohaseb, A.F.; Davoudi, H.; Alquraishi, S.; Alfarhan, A.H.; Al-Rasheid, K.A.S.; Crubézy, E.; Benecke, N.; Olsen, S.; Brown, D.; Anthony, D.; Massy, K.; Pitulko, V.; Kasparov, A.; Brem, G.; Hofreiter, M.; Mukhtarova, G.; Baimukhanov, N.; Lõugas, L.; Onar, V.; Stockhammer, P.W.; Krause, J.; Boldgiv, B.; Undrakhbold, S.; Erdenebaatar, D.; Lepetz, S.; Mashkour, M.; Ludwig, A.; Wallner, B.; Merz, V.; Merz, I.; Zaibert, V.; Willerslev, E.; Librado, P.; Outram, A.K.; Orlando, L. doi  openurl
  Title Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5,500 ya, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient and modern horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4,000 ya to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 6212  
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Author de Jong, T.R.; Neumann, I.D. doi  isbn
openurl 
  Title Oxytocin and Aggression Type Book Chapter
  Year 2018 Publication Behavioral Pharmacology of Neuropeptides: Oxytocin Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 175-192  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has a solid reputation as a facilitator of social interactions such as parental and pair bonding, trust, and empathy. The many results supporting a pro-social role of OT have generated the hypothesis that impairments in the endogenous OT system may lead to antisocial behavior, most notably social withdrawal or pathological aggression. If this is indeed the case, administration of exogenous OT could be the “serenic” treatment that psychiatrists have for decades been searching for.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Cham Editor Hurlemann, R.; Grinevich, V.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN 978-3-319-63739-6 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ de Jong2018 Serial 6424  
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Author Clayton, H.M.; Hampson, A.; Fraser, P.; White, A.; Egenvall, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comparison of rider stability in a flapless saddle versus a conventional saddle Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages e0196960  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The purpose of a saddle is to improve the rider's safety, security, and comfort, while distributing the forces exerted by the rider and saddle over a large area of the horse's back without focal pressure points. This study investigates the effects on rider stability of an innovative saddle design that differs from a conventional saddle in having no flaps. Five horses were ridden by their regular rider in their usual saddle and in a flapless saddle. A pressure mat (60 Hz) placed between the saddle and the horse's back was used to determine the position of the center of pressure, which represents the centroid of pressure distribution on the horse's back. Data were recorded as five horses were ridden at collected and extended walk, trot and canter in a straight line. Data strings were split into strides with 5 strides analysed per horse/gait/type. For each stride the path of the rider's center of pressure was plotted, maximal and minimal values in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were extracted, and ranges of motion in anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were calculated. Differences between the conventional and flapless saddles were analysed using mixed models ANOVA. Speed and stride length of each gait did not differ between saddles. Compared with the conventional saddle, the flapless saddle was associated with significant reductions in range of motion of the rider's center of pressure in the mediolateral direction in all gaits and in the anteroposterior direction in collected trot, extended trot and extended canter. The improved stability was thought to result from the absence of saddle flaps allowing the rider's thighs to lie in more adducted positions, which facilitated the action of the lumbopelvic-hip musculature in stabilizing and controlling translations and rotations of the pelvis and trunk. The closer contact between rider and horse may also have augmented the transfer of haptic information.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN (up) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6423  
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Author Santiago-Avila, F.J.; Cornman, A.M.; Treves, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Killing wolves to prevent predation on livestock may protect one farm but harm neighbors Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages e0189729  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Large carnivores, such as gray wolves, Canis lupus, are difficult to protect in mixed-use landscapes because some people perceive them as dangerous and because they sometimes threaten human property and safety. Governments may respond by killing carnivores in an effort to prevent repeated conflicts or threats, although the functional effectiveness of lethal methods has long been questioned. We evaluated two methods of government intervention following independent events of verified wolf predation on domestic animals (depredation) in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA between 1998-2014, at three spatial scales. We evaluated two intervention methods using log-rank tests and conditional Cox recurrent event, gap time models based on retrospective analyses of the following quasi-experimental treatments: (1) selective killing of wolves by trapping near sites of verified depredation, and (2) advice to owners and haphazard use of non-lethal methods without wolf-killing. The government did not randomly assign treatments and used a pseudo-control (no removal of wolves was not a true control), but the federal permission to intervene lethally was granted and rescinded independent of events on the ground. Hazard ratios suggest lethal intervention was associated with an insignificant 27% lower risk of recurrence of events at trapping sites, but offset by an insignificant 22% increase in risk of recurrence at sites up to 5.42 km distant in the same year, compared to the non-lethal treatment. Our results do not support the hypothesis that Michigan's use of lethal intervention after wolf depredations was effective for reducing the future risk of recurrence in the vicinities of trapping sites. Examining only the sites of intervention is incomplete because neighbors near trapping sites may suffer the recurrence of depredations. We propose two new hypotheses for perceived effectiveness of lethal methods: (a) killing predators may be perceived as effective because of the benefits to a small minority of farmers, and (b) if neighbors experience side-effects of lethal intervention such as displaced depredations, they may perceive the problem growing and then demand more lethal intervention rather than detecting problems spreading from the first trapping site. Ethical wildlife management guided by the “best scientific and commercial data available” would suggest suspending the standard method of trapping wolves in favor of non-lethal methods (livestock guarding dogs or fladry) that have been proven effective in preventing livestock losses in Michigan and elsewhere.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6502  
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Author Blatz, S.; Krüger,K.; Zanger, M. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Der Hufmechanismus – was wir wirklich wissen! Eine historische und fachliche Auseinandersetzung mit der Biomechanik des Hufes Type Book Whole
  Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Huf Hufmechanismus Pferd  
  Abstract Der Hufmechanismus – wir alle glauben ihn zu kennen und zu wissen wie er funktioniert. Doch wussten Sie, dass nach über 250 Jahren der Forschung immer noch keine eindeutige Aussage dazu getroffen werden kann, wie der Hufmechanismus genau entsteht, vonstattengeht und wie er bei der Hufbearbeitung berücksichtigt werden muss?

Die Ergebnisse von 50 Studien unterstützen die Elastizitätstheorie. Sie beschreibt einen individuellen Hufmechanismus, der von Pferd zu Pferd unterschiedlich und von mannigfaltigen Faktoren abhängig ist.

Der Hufmechanismus zeigt sich als ebenso anpassungsfähig wie die Hufform selbst. Daher sollte bei der Hufbearbeitung und beim Beschlag mit Maß und Weitblick die optimale und individuelle Lösung für jedes Pferd gefunden werden.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Verlag e.K. Place of Publication Wald Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN 978-3-95625-004-0 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6404  
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Author Burla, J.-B.; Siegwart, J.; Nawroth, C. doi  openurl
  Title Human Demonstration Does Not Facilitate the Performance of Horses (Equus caballus) in a Spatial Problem-Solving Task Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Animal Abbreviated Journal Animal  
  Volume 8 Issue 6 Pages 96  
  Keywords detour task; equids; social cognition; social learning; spatial cognition  
  Abstract Horses’ ability to adapt to new environments and to acquire new information plays an important role in handling and training. Social learning in particular would be very adaptive for horses as it enables them to flexibly adjust to new environments. In the context of horse handling, social learning from humans has been rarely investigated but could help to facilitate management practices. We assessed the impact of human demonstration on the spatial problem-solving abilities of horses during a detour task. In this task, a bucket with a food reward was placed behind a double-detour barrier and 16 horses were allocated to two test groups of 8 horses each. One group received a human demonstration of how to solve the spatial task while the other group received no demonstration. We found that horses did not solve the detour task more often or faster with human demonstration. However, both test groups improved rapidly over trials. Our results suggest that horses prefer to use individual rather than social information when solving a spatial problem-solving task  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6392  
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Author McGreevy, P.; Yeates, J. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Horses (Equus caballus) Type Book Chapter
  Year 2018 Publication Companion Animal Care and Welfare Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords animal company; behavioural signs; diseases; domestic horses; euthanasia; human interaction; nutritional requirements  
  Abstract Summary Domestic horses are equid members of the class Mammalia, order Perissodactyla, and family Equidae. Horses are obligate herbivores, with nutritional requirements as listed in a table. Adequate space is necessary for exercise, exploration, flight, sharing resources, play, and rolling. Company is essential for all horses, including stallions. Company provides opportunities for mutual grooming and play and allows horses to stand head-to-tail to remove flies. Unhandled horses may respond to humans as they would to predators, whereas handled horses' responses depend on their previous interactions with humans. Horses can suffer from several diseases as listed in another table. The best method of euthanasia of horses is usually sedation followed by either cranial shooting or the injection of an overdose of pentobarbitone into the jugular vein. Behavioural signs of distress can include increased locomotory activity, vigilance behaviours, neighing, snorting, pawing, nibbling walls and buckets, defaecation, rearing, kicking stable walls or doors, and high-stepping 'prancing'.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Wiley Online Books Abbreviated Series Title Companion Animal Care and Welfare  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN 9781119333708 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi:10.1002/9781119333708.ch13 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6506  
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Author Forrester, G.; Hudry, K.; Lindell, A.; Hopkins, W. D. isbn  openurl
  Title Cerebral Lateralization and Cognition: Evolutionary and Developmental Investigations of Behavioral Biases Type Book Whole
  Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 238 Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Academic Press Place of Publication Cambridge Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN 9780128146729 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6530  
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Author Sigurjónsdóttir, H.; Haraldsson, H. doi  openurl
  Title Significance of Group Composition for the Welfare of Pastured Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Animals Abbreviated Journal Animals  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 14  
  Keywords horse welfare; aggression; allogrooming; pastured horses; Icelandic horse  
  Abstract Simple Summary

Because of their social nature, horses need to have plenty of opportunities to interact with others to establish bonds and learn from their elders. Comparison of social behaviour of 426 horses in 20 groups of Icelandic horses in pastures, showed that aggression was lowest where the group composition was like the natural system, i.e., with a stallion, mares and their young foals. In groups without a stallion, the presence of foals is also associated with low aggression. Stability of the group with respect to group composition is of great importance; the horses are less aggressive in the more stable groups. The highest aggression was found in groups of unfamiliar yearlings. The horses allogroomed more in groups with relatively more young horses, which suggests they are forming bonds. Later, they groom less but prefer certain individuals. Horse owners should all be aware of the importance of planning the composition of horse groups and to keep the membership as stable as possible in order to ensure good welfare.

Abstract

We explore how herd composition and management factors correlate with frequencies of social interactions in horse groups. Since the welfare of horses correlates with low aggression levels and social contact opportunities, information of this kind is important. The data are a collection of records of social interactions of 426 Icelandic horses in 20 groups of at least eight horses. The complexities and limitations of the data prohibit useful statistical modelling so the results are presented descriptively. Interesting and informative patterns emerge which can be of use both in management and in future studies. Of special interest are the low levels of agonistic behaviours in breeding groups where one stallion was present. The horses were less agonistic when in groups with young foals and where group membership was stable. Unfamiliar yearlings in peer groups were especially aggressive. Allogrooming was most frequent in groups with relatively more young horses and in unstable and small groups. Interestingly, the horses allogroomed more if they had few preferred allogrooming partners. The findings show that composition (age/sex) and stability of groups are of great importance with respect to aggression levels and opportunities for establishing bonds.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6585  
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