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Author Lanata, A.; Guidi, A.;Valenza, G.; Baragli, P.; Scilingo, E. P. openurl 
  Title The Role of Nonlinear Coupling in Human-Horse Interaction: a Preliminary Study Type Conference Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) Abbreviated Journal EMBC  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This study focuses on the analysis of humanhorse
dynamic interaction using cardiovascular information
exclusively. Specifically, the Information Theoretic Learning
(ITL) approach has been applied to a Human-Horse Interaction
paradigm, therefore accounting for the nonlinear information
of the heart-heart interplay between humans and horses.
Heartbeat dynamics was gathered from humans and horses
during three experimental conditions: absence of interaction,
visual-olfactory interaction, and brooming. Cross Information
Potential, Cross Correntropy, and Correntropy Coefficient were
computed to quantitatively estimate nonlinear coupling in a
group of eleven subjects and one horse. Results showed a
statistical significant difference on all of the three interaction
phases. Furthermore, a Support Vector Machine classifier
recognized the three conditions with an accuracy of 90:9%.
These preliminary and encouraging results suggest that ITL
analysis provides viable metrics for the quantitative evaluation
of human-horse interaction.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6176  
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Author Pfammatter, M.; Huwiler, S.; Kägi, F.; Kopp, Ch.; Krüger, K.; Herholz, C. openurl 
  Title Leistung und Stresslevel bei Maultieren während eines fünftägigen Gotthardtrecks [Performance et niveau de stress chez les mulets durant un trek de cinq jours sur le Gothard][Muli: prestazione e livello di stress durante una traversata del Gottardo di 5 giorni][Performance and stress level in mules during a five days Gotthard trek] Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Agrarforschung Schweiz Abbreviated Journal Agrarforschung Schweiz  
  Volume 8 Issue (7-8) Pages 276-283  
  Keywords mules, Gotthard trek, glucocorticoid metabolites in faeces, vital parameters  
  Abstract Während einer fünftägigen Gotthardüberquerung im Sommer 2016 haben drei Maultiere als Tragtiere mit einer Gepäcklast von je 80 kg rund 94,46 Kilometer und 3�364 Höhenmeter bewältigt. Die Leistungsanforderung wurde anhand der Erholungswerte der Vitalparameter Herzfrequenz, Atemfrequenz und Körpertemperatur, sowie durch kontinuierliche Herzfrequenzmessung während der Belastung evaluiert. Die Bestimmung der Glucokortikoid- Metabolit Konzentration im Kot diente zur Einschätzung des Stresslevels der drei Maultiere. Die Erholungswerte der Herzfrequenzen der drei Maultiere lagen während allen Trekkingetappen in einem Bereich, der nicht auf eine Leistungsüberforderung schliessen liess. Anhand der kontinuierlichen Herzfrequenzaufzeichnung bei einem der Maultiere konnte gezeigt werden, dass die physische Leistungsanforderung im Ausdauerbereich lag. Wie als normale physiologische Reaktion des Körpers nach einer fünftägigen körperlichen Belastung erwartet, stieg Stresslevel gemessen an den Glucokortikoid- Metaboliten im Kot gegen Ende des Trecks bei allen Maultieren an. In der vorliegenden Studie konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Maultiere während des Gotthardtrecks ausdauernd belastbar waren, ohne durch die Anstrengung beeinträchtigt zu sein, die schon historisch von Maultieren abverlangt wurde.[
Durant une traversée du Gothard de cinq jours pendant l�été 2016, trois mulets ont été employés comme animaux de bât pour porter une charge de 80 kg sur 94,46 km, avec un dénivelé de 3364 m. Les exigences de performance ont été évaluées à partir des valeurs de récupération des paramètres vitaux (fréquence cardiaque, fréquence respiratoire et température corporelle) et de la fréquence cardiaque durant l�effort. La concentration en métabolites glucocorticoïdes dans le crottin a permis d�estimer le niveau de stress des trois animaux. Durant toute la durée du trek, les valeurs de récupération de la fréquence cardiaque des trois mulets étaient comprises dans un intervalle n�indiquant aucun effort excessif. La mesure constante des pulsations cardiaques a montré que l�intensité des performances physiques de ces animaux ne sortait pas de leur zone d�endurance. Comme on pouvait s�y attendre, le niveau de stress mesuré par le biais des métabolites glucocorticoïdes a augmenté chez tous les mulets à la fin du trek, réaction physiologique normale du corps après un effort de cinq jours. La présente étude a montré que durant un trek sur le Gothard, les mulets ont fait preuve d�endurance et de résistance, sans altération due à l�effort que l�on exige traditionnellement de leur part.][Nell�estate del 2016 tre muli impiegati come animali da soma hanno attraversato il Gottardo portando un carico di 80 kg ciascuno e percorrendo in cinque giorni un percorso di circa 94,46 chilometri con un dislivello di 3364 metri. La prestazione è stata valutata sulla base dei valori di recupero dei parametri vitali (frequenza cardiaca, frequenza respiratoria, temperatura corporea) e misurando costantemente la frequenza cardiaca sotto sforzo. Il livello di stress dei tre muli è stato valutato in funzione della concentrazione di metaboliti glicocorticoidi riscontrata nelle feci. In tutte le tappe del trekking i valori di recupero della frequenza cardiaca registrati nei muli rientravano in un intervallo che non lasciava supporre un sovraccarico. Sulla base della registrazione costante della frequenza cardiaca di uno dei tre muli è stato possibile dimostrare che l�intensità dello sforzo fisico non superava il loro intervallo di resistenza. Come previsto, verso la fine del trekking la concentrazione di metaboliti glicocorticoidi nelle feci di tutti e tre i muli indicava un aumento del livello di stress; si tratta di una reazione fisiologica normale dopo uno sforzo fisico di cinque giorni. Questo studio ha dimostrato che lo sforzo sopportato dai muli per portare un carico attraverso il Gottardo, un compito da secoli richiesto a questi animali, rientrava nel loro intervallo di resistenza e non ha avuto ripercussioni negative sul loro fisico.][In the summer of 2016, three pack mules, each carrying a load weighing 80kg, accompanied a 94.46km trek across the Gotthard Pass with a total altitude difference of 3,364m. The mules� performances were evaluated by measuring vital recovery parameters such as heart- and respiratory rates and body temperature, and by continuous heartrate monitoring during the trek. The stress levels of the animals were estimated by determining glucocorticoid metabolite levels in their faeces. Throughout the trekking days, recovery heartrates lay within a range which indicated that the animals were not being overworked. The continuous heartrate monitoring of one of the mules showed that its physical performance lay within the endurance zone. As expected, glucocorticoid metabolite levels were elevated in the faeces of all the mules � a normal physiological response after five consecutive days of exercise. The study shows the mules as being capable of performing at an endurance level during the Gotthard trek with no adverse affects on their health � a performance which was historically expected of the animals.]
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6180  
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Author KOIZUMI, R.; MITANI, T.; UEDA, K.; KONDO, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Skill reading of human social cues by horses (Equus caballus) reared under year-round grazing conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Animal Behaviour and Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 53 Issue 2 Pages 69-78  
  Keywords horse behavior, human-horse communication, animal cognition, social cue  
  Abstract Animals use communicative signals, such as gesture or gaze, to communicate to someone the intention or expression of the sender, which is called social cue. In the previous studies, it was suggested the skill of reading human social cue in domestic animals are influenced to the domestication, the experience contacting with human and training to obey human. In this present study, we tested the skill for horses (Equus caballus) kept in year-round grazing conditions using 33 horses differed from breed and the degree of the experience with human by object-choice task subjects choosing either of bait boxes located at the end of experimenter. As results, non-socialized horses hardly responded to human social cues. Habituated horses that were both of trained and untrained responded to human social cues, but their accuracy rates were not more than 50% except for two trained subjects. For the skill of reading human social cues, there was high individual variation in responding to human social cues in horses kept in year-round grazing conditions. The individual characteristics influenced to it more than domestication, the experience with human, and training to obey human.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6168  
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Author Bílá, K.; Beránková, J.; Veselý, P.; Bugnyar, T.; Schwab, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Responses of urban crows to con- and hetero-specific alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 43-51  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Urban animals and birds in particular are able to cope with diverse novel threats in a city environment such as avoiding novel, unfamiliar predators. Predator avoidance often includes alarm signals that can be used also by hetero-specifics, which is mainly the case in mixed-species flocks. It can also occur when species do not form flocks but co-occur together. In this study we tested whether urban crows use alarm calls of conspecifics and hetero-specifics (jackdaws, Corvus monedula) differently in a predator and a non-predator context with partly novel and unfamiliar zoo animal species. Birds were tested at the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in the city of Vienna by playing back con- and hetero-specific alarm calls and control stimuli (great tit song and no stimuli) at predator (wolf, polar bear) and non-predator (eland antelope and cranes, peccaries) enclosures. We recorded responses of crows as the percentage of birds flying away after hearing the playback (out of those present before the playback) and as the number of vocalizations given by the present birds. A significantly higher percentage of crows flew away after hearing either con- or hetero-specific alarm calls, but it did not significantly differ between the predator and the non-predator context. Crows treated jackdaw calls just as crow calls, indicating that they make proper use of hetero-specific alarm calls. Responding similarly in both contexts may suggest that the crows were uncertain about the threat a particular zoo animal represents and were generally cautious. In the predator context, however, a high percentage of crows also flew away upon hearing the great tit control song which suggests that they may still evaluate those species which occasionally killed crows as more dangerous and respond to any conspicuous sound.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Bílá2017 Serial 6159  
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Author Schuetz, A.; Farmer, K.; Krueger, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social learning across species: horses (Equus caballus) learn from humans by observation Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 567-573  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This study examines whether horses can learn by observing humans, given that they identify individual humans and orientate on the focus of human attention. We tested 24 horses aged between 3 and 12. Twelve horses were tested on whether they would learn to open a feeding apparatus by observing a familiar person. The other 12 were controls and received exactly the same experimental procedure, but without a demonstration of how to operate the apparatus. More horses from the group with demonstration (8/12) reached the learning criterion of opening the feeder twenty times consecutively than horses from the control group (2/12), and younger horses seemed to reach the criterion more quickly. Horses not reaching the learning criteria approached the human experimenters more often than those that did. The results demonstrate that horses learn socially across species, in this case from humans.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Schuetz2016 Serial 6028  
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Author Heberlein, M.T.E.; Manser, M.B.; Turner, D.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Deceptive-like behaviour in dogs (Canis familiaris) Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 511-520  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Deception, the use of false signals to modify the behaviour of the receiver, occurs in low frequencies even in stable signalling systems. For example, it can be advantageous for subordinate individuals to deceive in competitive situations. We investigated in a three-way choice task whether dogs are able to mislead a human competitor, i.e. if they are capable of tactical deception. During training, dogs experienced the role of their owner, as always being cooperative, and two unfamiliar humans, one acting ‘cooperatively’ by giving food and the other being ‘competitive’ and keeping the food for themselves. During the test, the dog had the options to lead one of these partners to one of the three potential food locations: one contained a favoured food item, the other a non-preferred food item and the third remained empty. After having led one of the partners, the dog always had the possibility of leading its cooperative owner to one of the food locations. Therefore, a dog would have a direct benefit from misleading the competitive partner since it would then get another chance to receive the preferred food from the owner. On the first test day, the dogs led the cooperative partner to the preferred food box more often than expected by chance and more often than the competitive partner. On the second day, they even led the competitive partner less often to the preferred food than expected by chance and more often to the empty box than the cooperative partner. These results show that dogs distinguished between the cooperative and the competitive partner, and indicate the flexibility of dogs to adjust their behaviour and that they are able to use tactical deception.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Heberlein2017 Serial 6136  
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Author Ringhofer, M.; Yamamoto, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Erratum to: Domestic horses send signals to humans when they are faced with an unsolvable task Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 407-407  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Some domestic animals are thought to be skilled at social communication with humans due to the process of domestication. Horses, being in close relationship with humans, similar to dogs, might be skilled at communication with humans. Previous studies have indicated that they are sensitive to bodily signals and the attentional state of humans; however, there are few studies that investigate communication with humans and responses to the knowledge state of humans. Our first question was whether and how horses send signals to their potentially helpful but ignorant caretakers in a problem-solving situation where a food item was hidden in a bucket that was accessible only to the caretakers. We then examined whether horses alter their behaviours on the basis of the caretakers’ knowledge of where the food was hidden. We found that horses communicated to their caretakers using visual and tactile signals. The signalling behaviour of the horses significantly increased in conditions where the caretakers had not seen the hiding of the food. These results suggest that horses alter their communicative behaviour towards humans in accordance with humans’ knowledge state.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Ringhofer2017 Serial 6135  
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Author Ringhofer, M.; Yamamoto, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Domestic horses send signals to humans when they face with an unsolvable task Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 397-405  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Some domestic animals are thought to be skilled at social communication with humans due to the process of domestication. Horses, being in close relationship with humans, similar to dogs, might be skilled at communication with humans. Previous studies have indicated that they are sensitive to bodily signals and the attentional state of humans; however, there are few studies that investigate communication with humans and responses to the knowledge state of humans. Our first question was whether and how horses send signals to their potentially helpful but ignorant caretakers in a problem-solving situation where a food item was hidden in a bucket that was accessible only to the caretakers. We then examined whether horses alter their behaviours on the basis of the caretakers’ knowledge of where the food was hidden. We found that horses communicated to their caretakers using visual and tactile signals. The signalling behaviour of the horses significantly increased in conditions where the caretakers had not seen the hiding of the food. These results suggest that horses alter their communicative behaviour towards humans in accordance with humans’ knowledge state.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Ringhofer2017 Serial 6134  
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Author Hoffman, C.L.; Suchak, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dog rivalry impacts following behavior in a decision-making task involving food Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-13  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Dogs learn a great deal from humans and other dogs. Previous studies of socially influenced learning between dogs have typically used a highly trained demonstrator dog who is unfamiliar to the observer. Because of this, it is unknown how dynamics between familiar dogs may influence their likelihood of learning from each other. In this study, we tested dogs living together in two-dog households on whether individual dogs’ rivalry scores were associated with performance on a local enhancement task. Specifically, we wanted to know whether dog rivalry impacted whether an observer dog would approach a plate from which a demonstrator dog had eaten all available food, or whether the observer dog would approach the adjacent plate that still contained food. Dog rivalry scores were calculated using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire and indicated each dog’s tendency to engage aggressively with the other household dog. Low-rivalry dogs were more likely to approach the empty plate than high-rivalry dogs when the observer dog was allowed to approach the plates immediately after the demonstrator had moved out of sight. This difference between low- and high-rivalry dogs disappeared, however, when observer dogs had to wait 5 s before approaching the plates. The same pattern was observed during a control condition when a human removed the food from a plate. Compared to low-rivalry dogs, high-rivalry dogs may pay less attention to other dogs due to a low tolerance for having other dogs in close proximity.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Hoffman2017 Serial 6131  
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Author Griffin, A.S.; Tebbich, S.; Bugnyar, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Animal cognition in a human-dominated world Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication (up) Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 1-6  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In the USA, each year, up to one billion birds are estimated to die from colliding with windowpanes (Sabo et al. 2016). A further 573,000 are struck down by wind turbines, along with 888,000 bats (Smallwood 2013). Worldwide, unintended capture in fishing devices is recognized as the single most serious global threat to migratory, long-lived marine taxa including turtles, birds, mammals and sharks (Wallace et al. 2013). Estimates put the number of amphibians killed per year on Australian roads at 5 million (Seiler 2003). The likelihood of a green turtle erroneously ingesting plastic debris, often by mistaking them for food, rose from 30% in 1985 to almost 50% in 2012 (Schuyler et al. 2013). Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC, sensu Sih et al. 2011) is filling animals’ environments with new threats which bear little or excessive similarity to those they have encountered in their evolutionary history (Dwernychuk and Boag 1972; Patten and Kelley 2010; Witherington 1997). As a consequence, many of the stimuli involved fall outside the adaptive processing space of animals’ evolutionary perceptual, learning, memory and decision-making systems, making individuals particularly vulnerable to their impact.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Griffin2017 Serial 6129  
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