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Author Baragli, P.; Demuru, E.; Scopa, C.; Palagi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Are horses capable of mirror self-recognition? A pilot study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages (down) e0176717  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR) unveils complex cognitive, social and emotional skills and it has been found only in humans and few other species, such as great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. In this pilot study, we tested if horses show the capacity of MSR. Four subjects living socially under naturalistic conditions were selected for the experiment. We adopted the classical mark test, which consists in placing a coloured mark on an out-of-view body part, visible only through mirror inspection. If the animal considers the image as its own, it will use its reflection to detect the mark and will try to explore it. We enhanced the classical paradigm by introducing a double-check control. Only in the presence of the reflecting surface, animals performed tactile and olfactory exploration of the mirror and looked behind it. These behaviors suggest that subjects were trying to associate multiple sensory cues (visual, tactile and olfactory) to the image in the mirror. The lack of correspondence between the collected stimuli in front of the mirror and the response to the colored mark lead us to affirm that horses are able to perceive that the reflected image is incongruent when compared with the memorized information of a real horse. However, without replication of data, the self-directed behavior towards the colored marks showed by our horses cannot be sufficient per se to affirm that horses are capable of self-recognition.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6158  
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Author Valenchon, M.; Lévy, F.; Moussu, C.; Lansade, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Stress affects instrumental learning based on positive or negative reinforcement in interaction with personality in domestic horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages (down) e0170783  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The present study investigated how stress affects instrumental learning performance in horses (Equus caballus) depending on the type of reinforcement. Horses were assigned to four groups (N = 15 per group); each group received training with negative or positive reinforcement in the presence or absence of stressors unrelated to the learning task. The instrumental learning task consisted of the horse entering one of two compartments at the appearance of a visual signal given by the experimenter. In the absence of stressors unrelated to the task, learning performance did not differ between negative and positive reinforcements. The presence of stressors unrelated to the task (exposure to novel and sudden stimuli) impaired learning performance. Interestingly, this learning deficit was smaller when the negative reinforcement was used. The negative reinforcement, considered as a stressor related to the task, could have counterbalanced the impact of the extrinsic stressor by focusing attention toward the learning task. In addition, learning performance appears to differ between certain dimensions of personality depending on the presence of stressors and the type of reinforcement. These results suggest that when negative reinforcement is used (i.e. stressor related to the task), the most fearful horses may be the best performers in the absence of stressors but the worst performers when stressors are present. On the contrary, when positive reinforcement is used, the most fearful horses appear to be consistently the worst performers, with and without exposure to stressors unrelated to the learning task. This study is the first to demonstrate in ungulates that stress affects learning performance differentially according to the type of reinforcement and in interaction with personality. It provides fundamental and applied perspectives in the understanding of the relationships between personality and training abilities.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6202  
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Author Leadbeater, E.; Dawson, E.H. url  openurl
  Title A social insect perspective on the evolution of social learning mechanisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 114 Issue 30 Pages (down) 7838-7845  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The social world offers a wealth of opportunities to learn from others, and across the animal kingdom individuals capitalize on those opportunities. Here, we explore the role of natural selection in shaping the processes that underlie social information use, using a suite of experiments on social insects as case studies. We illustrate how an associative framework can encompass complex, context-specific social learning in the insect world and beyond, and based on the hypothesis that evolution acts to modify the associative process, suggest potential pathways by which social information use could evolve to become more efficient and effective. Social insects are distant relatives of vertebrate social learners, but the research we describe highlights routes by which natural selection could coopt similar cognitive raw material across the animal kingdom.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1073/pnas.1620744114 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6189  
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Author Liedtke, J.; Schneider, J.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social makes smart: rearing conditions affect learning and social behaviour in jumping spiders Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages (down) 1093-1106  
  Keywords  
  Abstract There is a long-standing debate as to whether social or physical environmental aspects drive the evolution and development of cognitive abilities. Surprisingly few studies make use of developmental plasticity to compare the effects of these two domains during development on behaviour later in life. Here, we present rearing effects on the development of learning abilities and social behaviour in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. These spiders are ideally suited for this purpose because they possess the ability to learn and can be reared in groups but also in isolation without added stress. This is a critical but rarely met requirement for experimentally varying the social environment to test its impact on cognition. We split broods of spiders and reared them either in a physically or in a socially enriched environment. A third group kept under completely deprived conditions served as a 'no-enrichment' control. We tested the spiders' learning abilities by using a modified T-maze. Social behaviour was investigated by confronting spiders with their own mirror image. Results show that spiders reared in groups outperform their conspecifics from the control, i.e. 'no-enrichment', group in both tasks. Physical enrichment did not lead to such an increased performance. We therefore tentatively suggest that growing up in contact with conspecifics induces the development of cognitive abilities in this species.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Liedtke2017 Serial 6191  
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Author Schuetz, A.; Farmer, K.; Krueger, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social learning across species: horses (Equus caballus) learn from humans by observation Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages (down) 567-573  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This study examines whether horses can learn by observing humans, given that they identify individual humans and orientate on the focus of human attention. We tested 24 horses aged between 3 and 12. Twelve horses were tested on whether they would learn to open a feeding apparatus by observing a familiar person. The other 12 were controls and received exactly the same experimental procedure, but without a demonstration of how to operate the apparatus. More horses from the group with demonstration (8/12) reached the learning criterion of opening the feeder twenty times consecutively than horses from the control group (2/12), and younger horses seemed to reach the criterion more quickly. Horses not reaching the learning criteria approached the human experimenters more often than those that did. The results demonstrate that horses learn socially across species, in this case from humans.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Schuetz2016 Serial 6028  
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Author Heberlein, M.T.E.; Manser, M.B.; Turner, D.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Deceptive-like behaviour in dogs (Canis familiaris) Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages (down) 511-520  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Deception, the use of false signals to modify the behaviour of the receiver, occurs in low frequencies even in stable signalling systems. For example, it can be advantageous for subordinate individuals to deceive in competitive situations. We investigated in a three-way choice task whether dogs are able to mislead a human competitor, i.e. if they are capable of tactical deception. During training, dogs experienced the role of their owner, as always being cooperative, and two unfamiliar humans, one acting ‘cooperatively’ by giving food and the other being ‘competitive’ and keeping the food for themselves. During the test, the dog had the options to lead one of these partners to one of the three potential food locations: one contained a favoured food item, the other a non-preferred food item and the third remained empty. After having led one of the partners, the dog always had the possibility of leading its cooperative owner to one of the food locations. Therefore, a dog would have a direct benefit from misleading the competitive partner since it would then get another chance to receive the preferred food from the owner. On the first test day, the dogs led the cooperative partner to the preferred food box more often than expected by chance and more often than the competitive partner. On the second day, they even led the competitive partner less often to the preferred food than expected by chance and more often to the empty box than the cooperative partner. These results show that dogs distinguished between the cooperative and the competitive partner, and indicate the flexibility of dogs to adjust their behaviour and that they are able to use tactical deception.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Heberlein2017 Serial 6136  
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Author Riley, J.L.; Noble, D.W.A.; Byrne, R.W.; Whiting, M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does social environment influence learning ability in a family-living lizard? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages (down) 449-458  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Early developmental environment can have profound effects on individual physiology, behaviour, and learning. In birds and mammals, social isolation during development is known to negatively affect learning ability; yet in other taxa, like reptiles, the effect of social isolation during development on learning ability is unknown. We investigated how social environment affects learning ability in the family-living tree skink (Egernia striolata). We hypothesized that early social environment shapes cognitive development in skinks and predicted that skinks raised in social isolation would have reduced learning ability compared to skinks raised socially. Offspring were separated at birth into two rearing treatments: (1) raised alone or (2) in a pair. After 1 year, we quantified spatial learning ability of skinks in these rearing treatments (N = 14 solitary, 14 social). We found no effect of rearing treatment on learning ability. The number of skinks to successfully learn the task, the number of trials taken to learn the task, the latency to perform the task, and the number of errors in each trial did not differ between isolated and socially reared skinks. Our results were unexpected, yet the facultative nature of this species' social system may result in a reduced effect of social isolation on behaviour when compared to species with obligate sociality. Overall, our findings do not provide evidence that social environment affects development of spatial learning ability in this family-living lizard.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Riley2017 Serial 6190  
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Author Ringhofer, M.; Yamamoto, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Erratum to: Domestic horses send signals to humans when they are faced with an unsolvable task Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages (down) 407-407  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Ringhofer2017 Serial 6135  
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Author Ringhofer, M.; Yamamoto, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Domestic horses send signals to humans when they face with an unsolvable task Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages (down) 397-405  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Some domestic animals are thought to be skilled at social communication with humans due to the process of domestication. Horses, being in close relationship with humans, similar to dogs, might be skilled at communication with humans. Previous studies have indicated that they are sensitive to bodily signals and the attentional state of humans; however, there are few studies that investigate communication with humans and responses to the knowledge state of humans. Our first question was whether and how horses send signals to their potentially helpful but ignorant caretakers in a problem-solving situation where a food item was hidden in a bucket that was accessible only to the caretakers. We then examined whether horses alter their behaviours on the basis of the caretakers’ knowledge of where the food was hidden. We found that horses communicated to their caretakers using visual and tactile signals. The signalling behaviour of the horses significantly increased in conditions where the caretakers had not seen the hiding of the food. These results suggest that horses alter their communicative behaviour towards humans in accordance with humans’ knowledge state.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Ringhofer2017 Serial 6134  
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Author Pfammatter, M.; Huwiler, S.; Kägi, F.; Kopp, Ch.; Krüger, K.; Herholz, C. openurl 
  Title Leistung und Stresslevel bei Maultieren während eines fünftägigen Gotthardtrecks [Performance et niveau de stress chez les mulets durant un trek de cinq jours sur le Gothard][Muli: prestazione e livello di stress durante una traversata del Gottardo di 5 giorni][Performance and stress level in mules during a five days Gotthard trek] Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Agrarforschung Schweiz Abbreviated Journal Agrarforschung Schweiz  
  Volume 8 Issue (7-8) Pages (down) 276-283  
  Keywords mules, Gotthard trek, glucocorticoid metabolites in faeces, vital parameters  
  Abstract Während einer fünftägigen Gotthardüberquerung im Sommer 2016 haben drei Maultiere als Tragtiere mit einer Gepäcklast von je 80 kg rund 94,46 Kilometer und 3�364 Höhenmeter bewältigt. Die Leistungsanforderung wurde anhand der Erholungswerte der Vitalparameter Herzfrequenz, Atemfrequenz und Körpertemperatur, sowie durch kontinuierliche Herzfrequenzmessung während der Belastung evaluiert. Die Bestimmung der Glucokortikoid- Metabolit Konzentration im Kot diente zur Einschätzung des Stresslevels der drei Maultiere. Die Erholungswerte der Herzfrequenzen der drei Maultiere lagen während allen Trekkingetappen in einem Bereich, der nicht auf eine Leistungsüberforderung schliessen liess. Anhand der kontinuierlichen Herzfrequenzaufzeichnung bei einem der Maultiere konnte gezeigt werden, dass die physische Leistungsanforderung im Ausdauerbereich lag. Wie als normale physiologische Reaktion des Körpers nach einer fünftägigen körperlichen Belastung erwartet, stieg Stresslevel gemessen an den Glucokortikoid- Metaboliten im Kot gegen Ende des Trecks bei allen Maultieren an. In der vorliegenden Studie konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Maultiere während des Gotthardtrecks ausdauernd belastbar waren, ohne durch die Anstrengung beeinträchtigt zu sein, die schon historisch von Maultieren abverlangt wurde.[
Durant une traversée du Gothard de cinq jours pendant l�été 2016, trois mulets ont été employés comme animaux de bât pour porter une charge de 80 kg sur 94,46 km, avec un dénivelé de 3364 m. Les exigences de performance ont été évaluées à partir des valeurs de récupération des paramètres vitaux (fréquence cardiaque, fréquence respiratoire et température corporelle) et de la fréquence cardiaque durant l�effort. La concentration en métabolites glucocorticoïdes dans le crottin a permis d�estimer le niveau de stress des trois animaux. Durant toute la durée du trek, les valeurs de récupération de la fréquence cardiaque des trois mulets étaient comprises dans un intervalle n�indiquant aucun effort excessif. La mesure constante des pulsations cardiaques a montré que l�intensité des performances physiques de ces animaux ne sortait pas de leur zone d�endurance. Comme on pouvait s�y attendre, le niveau de stress mesuré par le biais des métabolites glucocorticoïdes a augmenté chez tous les mulets à la fin du trek, réaction physiologique normale du corps après un effort de cinq jours. La présente étude a montré que durant un trek sur le Gothard, les mulets ont fait preuve d�endurance et de résistance, sans altération due à l�effort que l�on exige traditionnellement de leur part.][Nell�estate del 2016 tre muli impiegati come animali da soma hanno attraversato il Gottardo portando un carico di 80 kg ciascuno e percorrendo in cinque giorni un percorso di circa 94,46 chilometri con un dislivello di 3364 metri. La prestazione è stata valutata sulla base dei valori di recupero dei parametri vitali (frequenza cardiaca, frequenza respiratoria, temperatura corporea) e misurando costantemente la frequenza cardiaca sotto sforzo. Il livello di stress dei tre muli è stato valutato in funzione della concentrazione di metaboliti glicocorticoidi riscontrata nelle feci. In tutte le tappe del trekking i valori di recupero della frequenza cardiaca registrati nei muli rientravano in un intervallo che non lasciava supporre un sovraccarico. Sulla base della registrazione costante della frequenza cardiaca di uno dei tre muli è stato possibile dimostrare che l�intensità dello sforzo fisico non superava il loro intervallo di resistenza. Come previsto, verso la fine del trekking la concentrazione di metaboliti glicocorticoidi nelle feci di tutti e tre i muli indicava un aumento del livello di stress; si tratta di una reazione fisiologica normale dopo uno sforzo fisico di cinque giorni. Questo studio ha dimostrato che lo sforzo sopportato dai muli per portare un carico attraverso il Gottardo, un compito da secoli richiesto a questi animali, rientrava nel loro intervallo di resistenza e non ha avuto ripercussioni negative sul loro fisico.][In the summer of 2016, three pack mules, each carrying a load weighing 80kg, accompanied a 94.46km trek across the Gotthard Pass with a total altitude difference of 3,364m. The mules� performances were evaluated by measuring vital recovery parameters such as heart- and respiratory rates and body temperature, and by continuous heartrate monitoring during the trek. The stress levels of the animals were estimated by determining glucocorticoid metabolite levels in their faeces. Throughout the trekking days, recovery heartrates lay within a range which indicated that the animals were not being overworked. The continuous heartrate monitoring of one of the mules showed that its physical performance lay within the endurance zone. As expected, glucocorticoid metabolite levels were elevated in the faeces of all the mules � a normal physiological response after five consecutive days of exercise. The study shows the mules as being capable of performing at an endurance level during the Gotthard trek with no adverse affects on their health � a performance which was historically expected of the animals.]
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6180  
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