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Author Marr, I.; Bauer, T.; Farmer, K.; Krueger, K. openurl 
  Title Gibt die sensorische Lateralität im Objekttest Aufschluss über das Interieur, den aktuellen Gemütszustand, oder den Trainingszustand der Pferde? Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication 33. FFP-Jahrestagung Abbreviated Journal  
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  Abstract Vor dem obersten Ziel der klassischen Ausbildungsskala für Pferde, die Versammlung, steht das Geraderichten. Ein jedes Pferd ist jedoch von Geburt an asymmetrisch, also schief. Hinter dieser Schiefe verbirgt sich nicht nur die natürliche Schiefe (asymmetrische muskuläre Entwicklung der beiden Körperhälften), die von Geburt an zu beobachten ist, sondern auch die sensorische und motorische Lateralität, also dem ungleichmäßigen Gebrauch der rechten oder linken Sinnesorgane sowie Gliedmaßen, der sich mit der Reifung des Gehirns entwickelt. Alle drei müssen als eigenständige Faktoren, die sich gegenseitig beeinflussen, gesehen werden (Krüger 2014). Um den Weg des Geraderichtens zu erleichtern, sollte in der Ausbildung eines Pferdes nicht nur an der natürlichen Schiefe gearbeitet werden, sondern auch die sensorische und motorische Lateralität beachtet werden um den Prozess des Geraderichtens für das Pferd zu erleichtern. Die sensorische und motorische Lateralität resultiert aus der Aufgabenteilung/Spezialisierung beider Gehirnhälften (Hemisphären) (Rogers 2010). Die rechte Hemisphäre ist dabei für die Verarbeitung von Emotionen (z.B. Angst, Aggression, Freude, Zufriedenheit) sowie für lebenserhaltende Spontanreaktionen zuständig. Die linke Hemisphäre ist für die rationale Verarbeitung von Informationen essentiell (Adolphs et al. 1996, Rogers 2010, Austin und Rogers 2012, De Boyer Des Roches et al. 2008, Demaree et al. 2005, Austin und Rogers 2014). Rückschlüsse auf die Informationsverarbeitung lassen sich über die Beobachtung der verwendeten Sinnesorgane (Ohren und Augen) ziehen, die kontralateral mit den Großhirnhemisphären verbunden sind (Brooks et al. 1999). Es wird vermutet, dass Stress zu einer verstärkten Informationsverarbeitung durch die rechte Großhirnhemisphäre führt (Rogers 2010, Schultheiss et al. 2009). Diese konnte auch in ersten Untersuchungen am Pferd bestätigt werden (unveröffentlichte Daten). Forscher, die den einseitigen Gebrauch von rechten und linken Gliedmaßen (motorische Lateralität) bei Menschen und Tieren untersuchten, zeigten weiterhin Zusammenhänge zur Emotionalität und Reaktivität (McGreevy und Thomson 2006, Rogers 2009, Austin und Rogers 2012, Deesing und Grandin 2014). Die Tendenz zum einseitigen Gebrauch der Gliedmaßen gibt Hinweise auf den „Cognitive Bias“ (= individuelle, kognitive Verzerrung der Wahrnehmung und Verarbeitung von Informationen ins Positive oder Negative) und steht im Zusammenhang mit der persönlichen Neigung auf Stressfaktoren zu reagieren (zusammengefasst von Rogers 2010). Die sensorische Lateralität ändert sich jedoch schneller und situationsgebundener als die motorische Lateralität. Sie wird mittels Objekttests bestimmt, die ebenfalls verwendet werden können um die Reaktivität und Emotionalität zu untersuchen. Für eine objektivere Beurteilung des Interieurs eines Pferdes ist daher zu überlegen, ob die sensorische Lateralität als objektiver Parameter integriert werden kann, welchen Einflüssen diese unterliegt und mit welchen Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen sie korreliert. Wie in der Studie von Farmer et al. (2010) dargestellt werden konnte, zeigten bilateral trainierte Pferde eine weniger stark ausgeprägte Präferenz für die linken Sinnesorgane als traditionell trainierte Pferde in Tests mit Personen (ohne Interaktion). Es stellt sich daher die Frage, ob diese Beobachtung ein Resultat von langjährigem Training ist oder ob es sich bereits nach wenigen Wochen Training einstellt sowie ob solche Entwicklungen auch bei Objekten beobachtet werden können.
Für die erste Untersuchung ergaben sich daher in dieser Studie folgende Fragstellungen: Sind die Ergebnisse eines Objekttests mit Evaluierung der sensorischen Lateralität hinsichtlich der Lateralität wiederholbar? Denn, sollte es möglich sein mittels der sensorische Lateralität auf bestimmte
Persönlichkeitsmerkmale rückschließen zu können, so muss diese genauso stabil und reproduzierbar sein, wie die betreffenden Persönlichkeitsmerkmale. Unterscheiden sich Pferde hinsichtlich ihrer Lateralität in Objekttests, die bereits intensiv gleichmäßig beidseitig trainiert wurden, von Pferden, bei denen weniger Augenmerk auf gleichmäßiges beidseitiges Training gelegt wurde? Kann die Lateralität in Objekttests mit einer definierten gleichmäßigen beidseitigen Trainingsmethode beeinflusst werden? In welche Richtung verschiebt sich gegebenenfalls die Lateralität? Beeinflusst das Alter gegebenenfalls das Ausmaß von Veränderungen, da sich die sensorische Lateralität mit der Reifung des Gehirns entwickelt?
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5961  
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Author Elfers, K.; Marr, I.; Wilkens, M.R.; Breves, G.; Langeheine, M.; Brehm, R.; Muscher-Banse, A.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Expression of Tight Junction Proteins and Cadherin 17 in the Small Intestine of Young Goats Offered a Reduced N and/or Ca Diet Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages e0154311  
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  Abstract <p>Diets fed to ruminants should contain nitrogen (N) as low as possible to reduce feed costs and environmental pollution. Though possessing effective N-recycling mechanisms to maintain the N supply for rumen microbial protein synthesis and hence protein supply for the host, an N reduction caused substantial changes in calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis in young goats including decreased intestinal transepithelial Ca absorption as reported for monogastric species. In contrast to the transcellular component of transepithelial Ca transport, the paracellular route has not been investigated in young goats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N and/or Ca reduction on paracellular transport mechanisms in young goats. Electrophysiological properties of intestinal epithelia were investigated by Ussing chamber experiments. The expression of tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins in intestinal epithelia were examined on mRNA level by <italic>q</italic>PCR and on protein level by western blot analysis. Dietary N reduction led to a segment specific increase in tissue conductances in the proximal jejunum which might be linked to concomitantly decreased expression of cadherin 17 mRNA. Expression of occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens protein 1 was increased in mid jejunal epithelia of N reduced fed goats on mRNA and partly on protein level. Reduced dietary Ca supply resulted in a segment specific increase in claudin 2 and claudin 12 expression and decreased the expression of OCLN which might have been mediated at least in part by calcitriol. These data show that dietary N as well as Ca reduction affected expression of TJ and AJ proteins in a segment specific manner in young goats and may thus be involved in modulation of paracellular Ca permeability.</p>  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6006  
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Author Smith, A.V.; Proops, L.; Grounds, K.; Wathan, J.; McComb, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Functionally relevant responses to human facial expressions of emotion in the domestic horse (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.  
  Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages  
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  Abstract Whether non-human animals can recognize human signals, including emotions, has both scientific and applied importance, and is particularly relevant for domesticated species. This study presents the first evidence of horses' abilities to spontaneously discriminate between positive (happy) and negative (angry) human facial expressions in photographs. Our results showed that the angry faces induced responses indicative of a functional understanding of the stimuli: horses displayed a left-gaze bias (a lateralization generally associated with stimuli perceived as negative) and a quicker increase in heart rate (HR) towards these photographs. Such lateralized responses towards human emotion have previously only been documented in dogs, and effects of facial expressions on HR have not been shown in any heterospecific studies. Alongside the insights that these findings provide into interspecific communication, they raise interesting questions about the generality and adaptiveness of emotional expression and perception across species.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6010  
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Author Ward, A; Webster, M. openurl 
  Title Sociality: The Behaviour of Group-Living Animals Type Book Whole
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Abstract Covers the aspects of social behaviour of animals in comprehensive form Provides a clear overview to up-to-date empirical and theoretical research on social animal behaviour

Discusses collective animal behaviour, social networks and animal personality in detail

The last decade has seen a surge of interest among biologists in a range of social animal phenomena, including collective behaviour and social networks. In ‘Animal Social Behaviour’, authors Ashley Ward and Michael Webster integrate the most up-to-date empirical and theoretical research to provide a new synthesis of the field, which is aimed at fellow researchers and postgraduate students on the topic. &#8203;
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6156  
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Author Smolla, M.; Alem, S.; Chittka, L.; Shultz, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Copy-when-uncertain: bumblebees rely on social information when rewards are highly variable Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Biology letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages  
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  Abstract To understand the relative benefits of social and personal information use in foraging decisions, we developed an agent-based model of social learning that predicts social information should be more adaptive where resources are highly variable and personal information where resources vary little. We tested our predictions with bumblebees and found that foragers relied more on social information when resources were variable than when they were not. We then investigated whether socially salient cues are used preferentially over non-social ones in variable environments. Although bees clearly used social cues in highly variable environments, under the same conditions they did not use non-social cues. These results suggest that bumblebees use a 'copy-when-uncertain' strategy.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6198  
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Author Bailey, D url  openurl
  Title Dominance Hierarchies in Horses: Comparing and Contrasting Different Methods for Assessing Hierarchies Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages  
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  Abstract Understanding animal social structures is imperative when it comes to the care, housing and handling of large herd animals. Knowing how hierarchies are structured, along with environmental and physiological aspects that may affect them, will allow owners and breeders to house and care for their animals. The aim of my study was to better understand two methods used to assess dominance hierarchies in horses, Equus caballus, and to predict which method would be more useful for owners housing domestic horses. I designed an experiment where I compared a structured method, the paired feeding test, with behavioral observations from the horses’ natural setting. I hypothesized that the structured method would not conclude the same dominance hierarchy as the natural observations. I also hypothesized that traits of the horses, such as size or age, would correlate with the hierarchy ranking within a herd. A herd of six individual horses from a small ranch east of Platteville, Colorado was used to test the two methods. I found that the two methods measured different hierarchies. The paired feeding test showed no correlations to any of the physical measurements, as well as did not provide a hierarchy that was similar to the natural dominance observations of the horses. Natural observations established a more linear hierarchy and had significant correlations with weight and overall body size. The results indicate that the paired feeding test may not be a valid method for establishing dominance hierarchies within domestic horses housed in a small range.

I recommend use of natural observations over paired feeding tests for ranchers, breeders or owners trying to understand the dominance hierarchies among their herds.
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6204  
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Author Schwenk, B.K.; Fürst, A.E.; Bischhofberger, A.S. openurl 
  Title Traffic accident-related injuries in horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Pferdeheilkunde Abbreviated Journal Pferdeheilkunde  
  Volume 32 Issue 3 Pages 192-199  
  Keywords traffic / horse / injury / body site / accident / trauma  
  Abstract Horses involved in road traffic accidents (RTAs) are commonly presented to veterinarians with varying types of injuries. The aim
of this study was describe the pattern and severity of traffic accident-related injuries in horses in a single hospital population. Medical
records of horses either hit by a motorized vehicle or involved in RTAs whilst being transported from 1993 to 2015 were retrospectively
reviewed and the following data was extracted: Signalement, hospitalisation time, month in which the accident happened, cause of the
accident, place of the accident and type of vehicle hitting the horse. Further the different body sites injured (head, neck, breast, fore limb,
abdomen, back and spine, pelvis and ileosacral region, hind limb, tail and genital region), the type of injury (wounds, musculoskeletal
lesions and internal lesions) and the presence of neurological signs were retrieved from the medical records. 34 horses hit by motorized
vehicles and 13 horses involved in RTAs whilst being transported were included in the study. Most of the accidents where horses were hit
by motorized vehicles occurred during December (14.7%) and October (14.7%), horses were most commonly hit by cars (85.3%) and the
majority of accidents occurred on main roads (26.5%). In 29.4% of the cases, horses had escaped from their paddock and then collided
with a motorized vehicle. Most of the accidents with horses involved in RTAs whilst being transported occurred during April (30.8%) and
June (23.1%). In 76.9% of the cases the accident happened on a freeway. In the horses hit by motorized vehicles the proximal hind limbs
were the body site most commonly affected (44.1%), followed by the proximal front limbs (38.2%) and the head (32.4%). When horses
were involved in RTAs whilst being transported the proximal fore limbs (61.5%), the proximal hind limbs (53.8%) and the distal hind limbs,
back and head (38.5% each) were the most common injured body sites. Wounds were the most common type of injury in both groups
(85.3% hit by motorized vehicle, 76.9% transported ones). In horses hit by a motorized vehicle 35.3% suffered from fractures, in 20.6%
a synovial structure was involved and in 5.9% a tendon lesion was present. 14.7% suffered from internal lesions and 14.7% showed neurologic
symptoms (40% peripheral, 60% central neurologic deficits). On the other hand, in horses involved in a RTA whilst being transported
30.8% suffered from fractures. There were no synovial structures injured and no tendon injuries were present. Furthermore there were
no internal lesions present and only one horse involved in a RTA showed central neurologic symptoms. Injuries of horses being hit by a
motorized vehicle were more severe than when horses were protected by a trailer and involved in a RTA whilst being transported. The study
has been able to identify the different injury types of traffic accident-related injuries in horses. Awareness of the nature of these injuries is
important, to avoid underestimation of their severity.
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6207  
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Author Chapron, G.; Treves, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Proc Biol Sci Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B  
  Volume 283 Issue 1830 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Quantifying environmental crime and the effectiveness of policy interventions is difficult because perpetrators typically conceal evidence. To prevent illegal uses of natural resources, such as poaching endangered species, governments have advocated granting policy flexibility to local authorities by liberalizing culling or hunting of large carnivores. We present the first quantitative evaluation of the hypothesis that liberalizing culling will reduce poaching and improve population status of an endangered carnivore. We show that allowing wolf (Canis lupus) culling was substantially more likely to increase poaching than reduce it. Replicated, quasi-experimental changes in wolf policies in Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, revealed that a repeated policy signal to allow state culling triggered repeated slowdowns in wolf population growth, irrespective of the policy implementation measured as the number of wolves killed. The most likely explanation for these slowdowns was poaching and alternative explanations found no support. When the government kills a protected species, the perceived value of each individual of that species may decline; so liberalizing wolf culling may have sent a negative message about the value of wolves or acceptability of poaching. Our results suggest that granting management flexibility for endangered species to address illegal behaviour may instead promote such behaviour.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6379  
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Author Leliveld, L.M.C.; Düpjan, S.; Tuchscherer, A.; Puppe, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behavioural and physiological measures indicate subtle variations in the emotional valence of young pigs Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.  
  Volume 157 Issue Pages 116-124  
  Keywords Emotion; Heart rate; Vocalisation; Emotional valence; Animal welfare; Domestic pig  
  Abstract Abstract In the study of animal emotions, emotional valence has been found to be difficult to measure. Many studies of farm animals' emotions have therefore focussed on the identification of indicators of strong, mainly negative, emotions. However, subtle variations in emotional valence, such as those caused by rather moderate differences in husbandry conditions, may also affect animals' mood and welfare when such variations occur consistently. In this study, we investigated whether repeated moderate aversive or rewarding events could lead to measurable differences in emotional valence in young, weaned pigs. We conditioned 105 female pigs in a test arena to either a repeated startling procedure (sudden noises or appearances of objects) or a repeated rewarding procedure (applesauce, toy and straw) over 11 sessions. Control pigs were also regularly exposed to the same test arena but without conditioning. Before and after conditioning, we measured heart rate and its variability as well as the behavioural reactions of the subjects in the test arena, with a special focus on detailed acoustic analyses of their vocalisations. The behavioural and heart rate measures were analysed as changes compared to the baseline values before conditioning. A limited number of the putative indicators of emotional valence were affected by the conditioning. We found that the negatively conditioned pigs showed changes that were significantly different from those in control pigs, namely a decrease in locomotion and an increase in standing. The positively conditioned pigs, however, showed a stronger increase in heart rate and a smaller decrease in SDNN (a heart rate variability parameter indicating changes in autonomic regulation) compared to the controls. Compared to the negatively conditioned pigs, the positively conditioned pigs produced fewer vocalisations overall as well as fewer low-frequency grunts but more high-frequency grunts. The low-frequency grunts of the negatively conditioned pigs also showed lower frequency parameters (bandwidth, maximum frequency, 25% and 50% quartiles) compared to those of the positively conditioned pigs. In any of the statistically significant results, the conditioning accounted for 1.5–11.9% of variability in the outcome variable. Hence, we conclude that repeated moderate aversive and rewarding events have weak but measurable effects on some aspects of behaviour and physiology in young pigs, possibly indicating changes in emotional valence, which could ultimately affect their welfare. The combination of ethophysiological indicators, i.e., the concurrent examination of heart rate measures, behavioural responses and especially vocalisation patterns, as used in the current study, might be a useful way of examining subtle effects on emotional valence in further studies.  
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  ISSN (up) 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6017  
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Author Mejdell, C.M.; Buvik, T.; Jørgensen, G.H.M.; Bøe, K.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Horses can learn to use symbols to communicate their preferences Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 184 Issue Pages 66-73  
  Keywords Operant conditioning; Blanket; Rug; Thermoregulation; Cognition; Clicker training  
  Abstract Abstract This paper describes a method in which horses learn to communicate by touching different neutral visual symbols, in order to tell the handler whether they want to have a blanket on or not. Horses were trained for 10–15 min per day, following a training program comprising ten steps in a strategic order. Reward based operant conditioning was used to teach horses to approach and touch a board, and to understand the meaning of three different symbols. Heat and cold challenges were performed to help learning and to check level of understanding. At certain stages, a learning criterion of correct responses for 8–14 successive trials had to be achieved before proceeding. After introducing the free choice situation, on average at training day 11, the horse could choose between a “no change” symbol and the symbol for either “blanket on” or “blanket off” depending on whether the horse already wore a blanket or not. A cut off point for performance or non-performance was set to day 14, and 23/23 horses successfully learned the task within this limit. Horses of warm-blood type needed fewer training days to reach criterion than cold-bloods (P < 0.05). Horses were then tested under differing weather conditions. Results show that choices made, i.e. the symbol touched, was not random but dependent on weather. Horses chose to stay without a blanket in nice weather, and they chose to have a blanket on when the weather was wet, windy and cold (χ2 = 36.67, P < 0.005). This indicates that horses both had an understanding of the consequence of their choice on own thermal comfort, and that they successfully had learned to communicate their preference by using the symbols. The method represents a novel tool for studying preferences in horses.  
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  ISSN (up) 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6022  
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