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Author Elfers, K.; Marr, I.; Wilkens, M.R.; Breves, G.; Langeheine, M.; Brehm, R.; Muscher-Banse, A.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Expression of Tight Junction Proteins and Cadherin 17 in the Small Intestine of Young Goats Offered a Reduced N and/or Ca Diet Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages (down) e0154311  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>Diets fed to ruminants should contain nitrogen (N) as low as possible to reduce feed costs and environmental pollution. Though possessing effective N-recycling mechanisms to maintain the N supply for rumen microbial protein synthesis and hence protein supply for the host, an N reduction caused substantial changes in calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis in young goats including decreased intestinal transepithelial Ca absorption as reported for monogastric species. In contrast to the transcellular component of transepithelial Ca transport, the paracellular route has not been investigated in young goats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N and/or Ca reduction on paracellular transport mechanisms in young goats. Electrophysiological properties of intestinal epithelia were investigated by Ussing chamber experiments. The expression of tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins in intestinal epithelia were examined on mRNA level by <italic>q</italic>PCR and on protein level by western blot analysis. Dietary N reduction led to a segment specific increase in tissue conductances in the proximal jejunum which might be linked to concomitantly decreased expression of cadherin 17 mRNA. Expression of occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens protein 1 was increased in mid jejunal epithelia of N reduced fed goats on mRNA and partly on protein level. Reduced dietary Ca supply resulted in a segment specific increase in claudin 2 and claudin 12 expression and decreased the expression of OCLN which might have been mediated at least in part by calcitriol. These data show that dietary N as well as Ca reduction affected expression of TJ and AJ proteins in a segment specific manner in young goats and may thus be involved in modulation of paracellular Ca permeability.</p>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6006  
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Author A. Lanata; A. Guidi; G. Valenza; P. Baragli; E. P. Scilingo doi  openurl
  Title Quantitative heartbeat coupling measures in human-horse interaction Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) Abbreviated Journal 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (E  
  Volume Issue Pages (down) 2696-2699  
  Keywords electrocardiography; medical signal processing; signal classification; time series; Dtw; Hrv; Mpc; Msc; complex biological systems; dynamic time warping; grooming; heart rate variability time series; heartbeat dynamics; human-horse dynamic interaction; magnitude squared coherence; magnitude-phase coupling; mean phase coherence; nearest mean classifier; quantitative heartbeat coupling; real human-animal interaction; time duration; visual-olfactory interaction; Coherence; Couplings; Electrocardiography; Heart rate variability; Horses; Protocols; Time series analysis  
  Abstract Abstract— We present a study focused on a quantitative estimation of a human-horse dynamic interaction. A set of measures based on magnitude and phase coupling between heartbeat dynamics of both humans and horses in three different conditions is reported: no interaction, visual/olfactory interaction and grooming. Specifically, Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC), Mean Phase Coherence (MPC) and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) have been used as estimators of the amount of coupling between human and horse through the analysis of their heart rate variability (HRV) time series in a group of eleven human subjects, and one horse. The rationale behind this study is that the interaction of two complex biological systems go towards a coupling process whose dynamical evolution is modulated by the kind and time duration of the interaction itself. We achieved a congruent and consistent
statistical significant difference for all of the three indices. Moreover, a Nearest Mean Classifier was able to recognize the three classes of interaction with an accuracy greater than 70%. Although preliminary, these encouraging results allow a discrimination of three distinct phases in a real human-animal interaction opening to the characterization of the empirically proven relationship between human and horse.
 
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (E  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1557-170x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6175  
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Author Malavasi, R.; Huber, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evidence of heterospecific referential communication from domestic horses (Equus caballus) to humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 19 Issue 5 Pages (down) 899-909  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Referential communication occurs when a sender elaborates its gestures to direct the attention of a recipient to its role in pursuit of the desired goal, e.g. by pointing or showing an object, thereby informing the recipient what it wants. If the gesture is successful, the sender and the recipient focus their attention simultaneously on a third entity, the target. Here we investigated the ability of domestic horses (Equus caballus) to communicate referentially with a human observer about the location of a desired target, a bucket of food out of reach. In order to test six operational criteria of referential communication, we manipulated the recipient’s (experimenter) attentional state in four experimental conditions: frontally oriented, backward oriented, walking away from the arena and frontally oriented with other helpers present in the arena. The rate of gaze alternation was higher in the frontally oriented condition than in all the others. The horses appeared to use both indicative (pointing) and non-indicative (nods and shakes) head gestures in the relevant test conditions. Horses also elaborated their communication by switching from a visual to a tactile signal and demonstrated perseverance in their communication. The results of the tests revealed that horses used referential gestures to manipulate the attention of a human recipient so to obtain an unreachable resource. These are the first such findings in an ungulate species.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Malavasi2016 Serial 6029  
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Author Schino, G.; Aureli, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reciprocity in group-living animals: partner control versus partner choice Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Biological Reviews Abbreviated Journal Biol Rev  
  Volume 92 Issue 2 Pages (down) 665-672  
  Keywords cooperation; reciprocity; partner control; partner choice; proximate mechanisms  
  Abstract ABSTRACT Reciprocity is probably the most debated of the evolutionary explanations for cooperation. Part of the confusion surrounding this debate stems from a failure to note that two different processes can result in reciprocity: partner control and partner choice. We suggest that the common observation that group-living animals direct their cooperative behaviours preferentially to those individuals from which they receive most cooperation is to be interpreted as the result of the sum of the two separate processes of partner control and partner choice. We review evidence that partner choice is the prevalent process in primates and propose explanations for this pattern. We make predictions that highlight the need for studies that separate the effects of partner control and partner choice in a broader variety of group-living taxa.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1464-7931 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1111/brv.12248 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6411  
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Author Dalla Costa, E.; Dai, F.; Lebelt, D.; Scholz, P.; Barbieri, S.; Canali, E.; Zanella, A.J.; Minero, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Welfare assessment of horses: the AWIN approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Welfare Abbreviated Journal Anim. Welf.  
  Volume 25 Issue 4 Pages (down) 481-488  
  Keywords Animal-Based; Measure; Indicator; Animal Welfare; Horse; On-Farm  
  Abstract The EU-funded Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) research project (2011-2015) aimed to improve animal welfare through the development of practical on-farm animal welfare assessment protocols. The present study describes the application of the AWIN approach to the development of a welfare assessment protocol for horses (Equus caballus). Its development required the following steps: (i) selection of potential welfare indicators; (ii) bridging gaps in knowledge; (iii) consulting stakeholders; and (iv) testing a prototype protocol on-farm. Compared to existing welfare assessment protocols for other species, the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for horses introduces a number of innovative aspects, such as implementation of a two-level strategy focused on improving on-farm feasibility and the use of electronic tools to achieve standardised data collection and so promote rapid outcomes. Further refinement to the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for horses is needed in order to firstly gather data from a larger reference population and, secondly, enhance the welfare assessment protocol with reference to different horse housing and husbandry conditions.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6406  
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Author Cinková, I.; Policht, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sex and species recognition by wild male southern white rhinoceros using contact pant calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages (down) 375-386  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Recognition of information from acoustic signals is crucial in many animals, and individuals are under selection pressure to discriminate between the signals of conspecifics and heterospecifics or males and females. Here, we first report that rhinos use information encoded in their calls to assess conspecifics and individuals of closely related species. The southern (Ceratotherium simum) and critically endangered northern (C. cottoni) white rhinos are the most social out of all the rhinoceros species and use a contact call pant. We found that southern white rhino pant calls provide reliable information about the caller’s sex, age class and social situation. Playback experiments on wild territorial southern white rhinoceros males revealed that they responded more strongly to the pant calls of conspecific females compared to the calls of other territorial males. This suggests that pant calls are more important form of communication between males and females than between territorial males. Territorial southern males also discriminated between female and territorial male calls of northern species and reacted more intensively to the calls of northern than southern males. This might be caused by a novelty effect since both species naturally live in allopatry. We conclude that white rhinos can directly benefit from assessing individuals at long distances using vocal cues especially because their eyesight is poor. Pant calls thus likely play a significant role in their social relationships and spatial organization. In addition, better understanding of vocal communication in white rhinos might be helpful in conservation management particularly because of their low reproduction in captivity.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Cinková2016 Serial 6144  
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Author Sommer, V.; Lowe, A.; Dietrich, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Not eating like a pig: European wild boar wash their food Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages (down) 245-249  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Carrying food to water and either dunking or manipulating it before consumption has been observed in various taxa including birds, racoons and primates. Some animals seem to be simply moistening their food. However, true washing aims to remove unpleasant surface substrates such as grit and sand and requires a distinction between items that do and do not need cleaning as well as deliberate transportation of food to a water source. We provide the first evidence for food washing in suids, based on an incidental observation with follow-up experiments on European wild boar (Sus scrofa) kept at Basel Zoo, Switzerland. Here, all adult pigs and some juveniles of a newly formed group carried apple halves soiled with sand to the edge of a creek running through their enclosure where they put the fruits in the water and pushed them to and fro with their snouts before eating. Clean apple halves were never washed. This indicates that pigs can discriminate between soiled and unsoiled foods and that they are able to delay gratification for long enough to transport and wash the items. However, we were unable to ascertain to which degree individual and/or social learning brought this behaviour about.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Sommer2016 Serial 6132  
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Author Schwenk, B.K.; Fürst, A.E.; Bischhofberger, A.S. openurl 
  Title Traffic accident-related injuries in horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Pferdeheilkunde Abbreviated Journal Pferdeheilkunde  
  Volume 32 Issue 3 Pages (down) 192-199  
  Keywords traffic / horse / injury / body site / accident / trauma  
  Abstract Horses involved in road traffic accidents (RTAs) are commonly presented to veterinarians with varying types of injuries. The aim
of this study was describe the pattern and severity of traffic accident-related injuries in horses in a single hospital population. Medical
records of horses either hit by a motorized vehicle or involved in RTAs whilst being transported from 1993 to 2015 were retrospectively
reviewed and the following data was extracted: Signalement, hospitalisation time, month in which the accident happened, cause of the
accident, place of the accident and type of vehicle hitting the horse. Further the different body sites injured (head, neck, breast, fore limb,
abdomen, back and spine, pelvis and ileosacral region, hind limb, tail and genital region), the type of injury (wounds, musculoskeletal
lesions and internal lesions) and the presence of neurological signs were retrieved from the medical records. 34 horses hit by motorized
vehicles and 13 horses involved in RTAs whilst being transported were included in the study. Most of the accidents where horses were hit
by motorized vehicles occurred during December (14.7%) and October (14.7%), horses were most commonly hit by cars (85.3%) and the
majority of accidents occurred on main roads (26.5%). In 29.4% of the cases, horses had escaped from their paddock and then collided
with a motorized vehicle. Most of the accidents with horses involved in RTAs whilst being transported occurred during April (30.8%) and
June (23.1%). In 76.9% of the cases the accident happened on a freeway. In the horses hit by motorized vehicles the proximal hind limbs
were the body site most commonly affected (44.1%), followed by the proximal front limbs (38.2%) and the head (32.4%). When horses
were involved in RTAs whilst being transported the proximal fore limbs (61.5%), the proximal hind limbs (53.8%) and the distal hind limbs,
back and head (38.5% each) were the most common injured body sites. Wounds were the most common type of injury in both groups
(85.3% hit by motorized vehicle, 76.9% transported ones). In horses hit by a motorized vehicle 35.3% suffered from fractures, in 20.6%
a synovial structure was involved and in 5.9% a tendon lesion was present. 14.7% suffered from internal lesions and 14.7% showed neurologic
symptoms (40% peripheral, 60% central neurologic deficits). On the other hand, in horses involved in a RTA whilst being transported
30.8% suffered from fractures. There were no synovial structures injured and no tendon injuries were present. Furthermore there were
no internal lesions present and only one horse involved in a RTA showed central neurologic symptoms. Injuries of horses being hit by a
motorized vehicle were more severe than when horses were protected by a trailer and involved in a RTA whilst being transported. The study
has been able to identify the different injury types of traffic accident-related injuries in horses. Awareness of the nature of these injuries is
important, to avoid underestimation of their severity.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6207  
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Author Brubaker, L.; Udell, M.A.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cognition and learning in horses (Equus caballus): What we know and why we should ask more Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 126 Issue Pages (down) 121-131  
  Keywords Horse behaviour; Horse welfare; Learning; Social cognition  
  Abstract Abstract Horses (Equus caballus) have a rich history in their relationship with humans. Across different cultures and eras they have been utilized for work, show, cultural rituals, consumption, therapy, and companionship and continue to serve in many of these roles today. As one of the most commonly trained domestic animals, understanding how horses learn and how their relationship with humans and other horses impacts their ability to learn has implications for horse welfare, training, husbandry and management. Given that unlike dogs and cats, domesticated horses have evolved from prey animals, the horse-human relationship poses interesting and unique scientific questions of theoretical value. There is still much to be learned about the cognition and behaviour of horses from a scientific perspective. This review explores current research within three related areas of horse cognition: human-horse interactions, social learning and independent learning in horses. Research on these topics is summarized and suggestions for future research are provided.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6021  
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Author Leliveld, L.M.C.; Düpjan, S.; Tuchscherer, A.; Puppe, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behavioural and physiological measures indicate subtle variations in the emotional valence of young pigs Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.  
  Volume 157 Issue Pages (down) 116-124  
  Keywords Emotion; Heart rate; Vocalisation; Emotional valence; Animal welfare; Domestic pig  
  Abstract Abstract In the study of animal emotions, emotional valence has been found to be difficult to measure. Many studies of farm animals' emotions have therefore focussed on the identification of indicators of strong, mainly negative, emotions. However, subtle variations in emotional valence, such as those caused by rather moderate differences in husbandry conditions, may also affect animals' mood and welfare when such variations occur consistently. In this study, we investigated whether repeated moderate aversive or rewarding events could lead to measurable differences in emotional valence in young, weaned pigs. We conditioned 105 female pigs in a test arena to either a repeated startling procedure (sudden noises or appearances of objects) or a repeated rewarding procedure (applesauce, toy and straw) over 11 sessions. Control pigs were also regularly exposed to the same test arena but without conditioning. Before and after conditioning, we measured heart rate and its variability as well as the behavioural reactions of the subjects in the test arena, with a special focus on detailed acoustic analyses of their vocalisations. The behavioural and heart rate measures were analysed as changes compared to the baseline values before conditioning. A limited number of the putative indicators of emotional valence were affected by the conditioning. We found that the negatively conditioned pigs showed changes that were significantly different from those in control pigs, namely a decrease in locomotion and an increase in standing. The positively conditioned pigs, however, showed a stronger increase in heart rate and a smaller decrease in SDNN (a heart rate variability parameter indicating changes in autonomic regulation) compared to the controls. Compared to the negatively conditioned pigs, the positively conditioned pigs produced fewer vocalisations overall as well as fewer low-frequency grunts but more high-frequency grunts. The low-frequency grunts of the negatively conditioned pigs also showed lower frequency parameters (bandwidth, maximum frequency, 25% and 50% quartiles) compared to those of the positively conditioned pigs. In any of the statistically significant results, the conditioning accounted for 1.5–11.9% of variability in the outcome variable. Hence, we conclude that repeated moderate aversive and rewarding events have weak but measurable effects on some aspects of behaviour and physiology in young pigs, possibly indicating changes in emotional valence, which could ultimately affect their welfare. The combination of ethophysiological indicators, i.e., the concurrent examination of heart rate measures, behavioural responses and especially vocalisation patterns, as used in the current study, might be a useful way of examining subtle effects on emotional valence in further studies.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6017  
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