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Author (down) Ward, A; Webster, M. openurl 
  Title Sociality: The Behaviour of Group-Living Animals Type Book Whole
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Covers the aspects of social behaviour of animals in comprehensive form Provides a clear overview to up-to-date empirical and theoretical research on social animal behaviour

Discusses collective animal behaviour, social networks and animal personality in detail

The last decade has seen a surge of interest among biologists in a range of social animal phenomena, including collective behaviour and social networks. In ‘Animal Social Behaviour’, authors Ashley Ward and Michael Webster integrate the most up-to-date empirical and theoretical research to provide a new synthesis of the field, which is aimed at fellow researchers and postgraduate students on the topic. ​
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6156  
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Author (down) Taubert, J.; Weldon, K.B.; Parr, L.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Robust representations of individual faces in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) but not monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-9  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Being able to recognize the faces of our friends and family members no matter where we see them represents a substantial challenge for the visual system because the retinal image of a face can be degraded by both changes in the person (age, expression, pose, hairstyle, etc.) and changes in the viewing conditions (direction and degree of illumination). Yet most of us are able to recognize familiar people effortlessly. A popular theory for how face recognition is achieved has argued that the brain stabilizes facial appearance by building average representations that enhance diagnostic features that reliably vary between people while diluting features that vary between instances of the same person. This explains why people find it easier to recognize average images of people, created by averaging multiple images of the same person together, than single instances (i.e. photographs). Although this theory is gathering momentum in the psychological and computer sciences, there is no evidence of whether this mechanism represents a unique specialization for individual recognition in humans. Here we tested two species, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), to determine whether average images of different familiar individuals were easier to discriminate than photographs of familiar individuals. Using a two-alternative forced-choice, match-to-sample procedure, we report a behaviour response profile that suggests chimpanzees encode the faces of conspecifics differently than rhesus monkeys and in a manner similar to humans.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Taubert2016 Serial 6030  
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Author (down) Suter, S.M.; Giordano, M.; Nietlispach, S.; Apollonio, M.; Passilongo, D. openurl 
  Title Non-invasive acoustic detection of wolves Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Bioacoustics Abbreviated Journal Bioacoustics  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Monitoring wolves (Canis lupus) is a difficult and often expensive task due to high mobility,pack dynamic, shyness and nocturnal activity of this species. Wolves communicate acoustically trough howling, within pack and with packs of the neighbourhood. A wolf howl is a low frequency vocalization that can be transmitted over long distances and thus be used

for monitoring tasks. Animated howling survey is a current method to monitor wolves indifferent areas all over the world. Animated howling, however, may be invasive to residential wolf packs and could create possible negative reactions from local human population. Here we show that it is possible to detect wolves by recording spontaneous howling events. We measured the sound pressure level of wolf howls on captive individuals and we further found that simulated howling may be recorded and clearly identified up to a distance of 3 km. We finally conducted non-invasive acoustic detection of wolves in a free ranging population. The use of passive sound recorders may provide a powerful non-invasive tool for future wolf monitoring and thus help to established sustainable management plans for this species.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6500  
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Author (down) Sommer, V.; Lowe, A.; Dietrich, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Not eating like a pig: European wild boar wash their food Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 245-249  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Carrying food to water and either dunking or manipulating it before consumption has been observed in various taxa including birds, racoons and primates. Some animals seem to be simply moistening their food. However, true washing aims to remove unpleasant surface substrates such as grit and sand and requires a distinction between items that do and do not need cleaning as well as deliberate transportation of food to a water source. We provide the first evidence for food washing in suids, based on an incidental observation with follow-up experiments on European wild boar (Sus scrofa) kept at Basel Zoo, Switzerland. Here, all adult pigs and some juveniles of a newly formed group carried apple halves soiled with sand to the edge of a creek running through their enclosure where they put the fruits in the water and pushed them to and fro with their snouts before eating. Clean apple halves were never washed. This indicates that pigs can discriminate between soiled and unsoiled foods and that they are able to delay gratification for long enough to transport and wash the items. However, we were unable to ascertain to which degree individual and/or social learning brought this behaviour about.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Sommer2016 Serial 6132  
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Author (down) Smolla, M.; Alem, S.; Chittka, L.; Shultz, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Copy-when-uncertain: bumblebees rely on social information when rewards are highly variable Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Biology letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract To understand the relative benefits of social and personal information use in foraging decisions, we developed an agent-based model of social learning that predicts social information should be more adaptive where resources are highly variable and personal information where resources vary little. We tested our predictions with bumblebees and found that foragers relied more on social information when resources were variable than when they were not. We then investigated whether socially salient cues are used preferentially over non-social ones in variable environments. Although bees clearly used social cues in highly variable environments, under the same conditions they did not use non-social cues. These results suggest that bumblebees use a 'copy-when-uncertain' strategy.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6198  
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Author (down) Smith, A.V.; Proops, L.; Grounds, K.; Wathan, J.; McComb, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Functionally relevant responses to human facial expressions of emotion in the domestic horse (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.  
  Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Whether non-human animals can recognize human signals, including emotions, has both scientific and applied importance, and is particularly relevant for domesticated species. This study presents the first evidence of horses' abilities to spontaneously discriminate between positive (happy) and negative (angry) human facial expressions in photographs. Our results showed that the angry faces induced responses indicative of a functional understanding of the stimuli: horses displayed a left-gaze bias (a lateralization generally associated with stimuli perceived as negative) and a quicker increase in heart rate (HR) towards these photographs. Such lateralized responses towards human emotion have previously only been documented in dogs, and effects of facial expressions on HR have not been shown in any heterospecific studies. Alongside the insights that these findings provide into interspecific communication, they raise interesting questions about the generality and adaptiveness of emotional expression and perception across species.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6010  
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Author (down) Schwenk, B.K.; Fürst, A.E.; Bischhofberger, A.S. openurl 
  Title Traffic accident-related injuries in horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Pferdeheilkunde Abbreviated Journal Pferdeheilkunde  
  Volume 32 Issue 3 Pages 192-199  
  Keywords traffic / horse / injury / body site / accident / trauma  
  Abstract Horses involved in road traffic accidents (RTAs) are commonly presented to veterinarians with varying types of injuries. The aim

of this study was describe the pattern and severity of traffic accident-related injuries in horses in a single hospital population. Medical

records of horses either hit by a motorized vehicle or involved in RTAs whilst being transported from 1993 to 2015 were retrospectively

reviewed and the following data was extracted: Signalement, hospitalisation time, month in which the accident happened, cause of the

accident, place of the accident and type of vehicle hitting the horse. Further the different body sites injured (head, neck, breast, fore limb,

abdomen, back and spine, pelvis and ileosacral region, hind limb, tail and genital region), the type of injury (wounds, musculoskeletal

lesions and internal lesions) and the presence of neurological signs were retrieved from the medical records. 34 horses hit by motorized

vehicles and 13 horses involved in RTAs whilst being transported were included in the study. Most of the accidents where horses were hit

by motorized vehicles occurred during December (14.7%) and October (14.7%), horses were most commonly hit by cars (85.3%) and the

majority of accidents occurred on main roads (26.5%). In 29.4% of the cases, horses had escaped from their paddock and then collided

with a motorized vehicle. Most of the accidents with horses involved in RTAs whilst being transported occurred during April (30.8%) and

June (23.1%). In 76.9% of the cases the accident happened on a freeway. In the horses hit by motorized vehicles the proximal hind limbs

were the body site most commonly affected (44.1%), followed by the proximal front limbs (38.2%) and the head (32.4%). When horses

were involved in RTAs whilst being transported the proximal fore limbs (61.5%), the proximal hind limbs (53.8%) and the distal hind limbs,

back and head (38.5% each) were the most common injured body sites. Wounds were the most common type of injury in both groups

(85.3% hit by motorized vehicle, 76.9% transported ones). In horses hit by a motorized vehicle 35.3% suffered from fractures, in 20.6%

a synovial structure was involved and in 5.9% a tendon lesion was present. 14.7% suffered from internal lesions and 14.7% showed neurologic

symptoms (40% peripheral, 60% central neurologic deficits). On the other hand, in horses involved in a RTA whilst being transported

30.8% suffered from fractures. There were no synovial structures injured and no tendon injuries were present. Furthermore there were

no internal lesions present and only one horse involved in a RTA showed central neurologic symptoms. Injuries of horses being hit by a

motorized vehicle were more severe than when horses were protected by a trailer and involved in a RTA whilst being transported. The study

has been able to identify the different injury types of traffic accident-related injuries in horses. Awareness of the nature of these injuries is

important, to avoid underestimation of their severity.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6207  
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Author (down) Schino, G.; Aureli, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reciprocity in group-living animals: partner control versus partner choice Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Biological Reviews Abbreviated Journal Biol Rev  
  Volume 92 Issue 2 Pages 665-672  
  Keywords cooperation; reciprocity; partner control; partner choice; proximate mechanisms  
  Abstract ABSTRACT Reciprocity is probably the most debated of the evolutionary explanations for cooperation. Part of the confusion surrounding this debate stems from a failure to note that two different processes can result in reciprocity: partner control and partner choice. We suggest that the common observation that group-living animals direct their cooperative behaviours preferentially to those individuals from which they receive most cooperation is to be interpreted as the result of the sum of the two separate processes of partner control and partner choice. We review evidence that partner choice is the prevalent process in primates and propose explanations for this pattern. We make predictions that highlight the need for studies that separate the effects of partner control and partner choice in a broader variety of group-living taxa.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1464-7931 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1111/brv.12248 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6411  
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Author (down) Rochais, C.; Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Investigating attentional processes in depressive-like domestic horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 124 Issue Pages 93-96  
  Keywords Horses; Attention; Cognition; Welfare; Depression  
  Abstract Abstract Some captive/domestic animals respond to confinement by becoming inactive and unresponsive to external stimuli. Human inactivity is one of the behavioural markers of clinical depression, a mental disorder diagnosed by the co-occurrence of symptoms including deficit in selective attention. Some riding horses display ‘withdrawn’ states of inactivity and low responsiveness to stimuli that resemble the reduced engagement with their environment of some depressed patients. We hypothesized that ‘withdrawn’ horses experience a depressive-like state and evaluated their level of attention by confronting them with auditory stimuli. Five novel auditory stimuli were broadcasted to 27 horses, including 12 ‘withdrawn’ horses, for 5 days. The horses’ reactions and durations of attention were recorded. Non-withdrawn horses reacted more and their attention lasted longer than that of withdrawn horses on the first day, but their durations of attention decreased over days, but those of withdrawn horses remained stable. These results suggest that the withdrawn horses’ selective attention is altered, adding to already evidenced common features between this horses’ state and human depression.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6023  
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Author (down) Ringhofer, M.; Yamamoto, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Domestic horses send signals to humans when they face with an unsolvable task Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-9  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Some domestic animals are thought to be skilled at social communication with humans due to the process of domestication. Horses, being in close relationship with humans, similar to dogs, might be skilled at communication with humans. Previous studies have indicated that they are sensitive to bodily signals and the attentional state of humans; however, there are few studies that investigate communication with humans and responses to the knowledge state of humans. Our first question was whether and how horses send signals to their potentially helpful but ignorant caretakers in a problem-solving situation where a food item was hidden in a bucket that was accessible only to the caretakers. We then examined whether horses alter their behaviours on the basis of the caretakers’ knowledge of where the food was hidden. We found that horses communicated to their caretakers using visual and tactile signals. The signalling behaviour of the horses significantly increased in conditions where the caretakers had not seen the hiding of the food. These results suggest that horses alter their communicative behaviour towards humans in accordance with humans’ knowledge state.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Ringhofer2016 Serial 6037  
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