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Author (up) Kaplan, G. isbn  openurl
  Title Social animals and Communication, with special reference to horses Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Kaplan, G. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Series Volume in prep Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5796  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Kis, A.; Huber, L.; Wilkinson, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social learning by imitation in a reptile (Pogona vitticeps) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim.Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 325-331  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The ability to learn through imitation is thought to be the basis of cultural transmission and was long considered a distinctive characteristic of humans. There is now evidence that both mammals and birds are capable of imitation. However, nothing is known about these abilities in the third amniotic class--reptiles. Here, we use a bidirectional control procedure to show that a reptile species, the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), is capable of social learning that cannot be explained by simple mechanisms such as local enhancement or goal emulation. Subjects in the experimental group opened a trap door to the side that had been demonstrated, while subjects in the ghost control group, who observed the door move without the intervention of a conspecific, were unsuccessful. This, together with differences in behaviour between experimental and control groups, provides compelling evidence that reptiles possess cognitive abilities that are comparable to those observed in mammals and birds and suggests that learning by imitation is likely to be based on ancient mechanisms.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Kis2015 Serial 6193  
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Author (up) Krause, J.; James, R.; Franks, D.W.; Croft, D. P. openurl 
  Title Animal Social Networks. Type Book Whole
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Oxford Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5883  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Krueger, K. pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Social learning and innovative behaviour in horses Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords social learning, innovative behaviour, Equus caballus, cognitive capacities  
  Abstract The evaluation of important parameters for measuring the horses’ cognitive capacities is one of the central topics of the equine behaviour team at Nürtingen-Geislingen University. Social complexity has been said to be one of the settings in which needs for cognitive capacities arise in animals. A variety of studies throughout the last two decades proved the horses’ social complexity to be far more elaborate than previously assumed. Horses form social bonds for the protection of offspring, intervene in encounters of others, identify group mates individually and easily orientate in a fission fusion society.
In such socially complex societies, animals will benefit from learning socially. In many bird and primate species the degree of social complexity correlates nicely with the species abilities for social learning. Social learning was, therefore, argued to be an indicator for elaborate mental capacities in animals. We were delighted to prove that horses actually copy social behaviour and techniques for operating a feeding apparatus from older and higher ranking group members. In a recent study we found young horses, at the age of 3 to 12, to copy the operation of a feeding apparatus from a human demonstrator. Social learning seems to work nicely in horses when the social background of the animals is considered.
The degree to which individual animals adapt to changes in their social or physical environment by finding innovative solution appears to be the other side of the coin, of whether animals adjust to challenges by social learning. It is not very astonishing, that along with the animals’ social complexity and their ability to learn socially also the degree to which they show innovative behaviour was claimed to be one of the most important demonstrations of advanced cognitive capacities. In a recent approach, we started to ask horse owners and horse keepers in many countries to tell us about unusual behaviour of their horses via a web site (http://innovative-behaviour.org). To date, we received 204 cases of innovative behaviour descriptions from which six cases were clear examples of tool use or borderline tool use. We categorized the innovative behaviours into the classes, a) innovations to gain food, b) innovations to gain freedom, c) social innovations, d) innovations to increase maintenance, and e) innovations that could not be clearly assigned to a category. About 20% of the innovative horses showed more than one innovation. These animals could be termed “true innovators”. Again, young horses were more innovative than older ones with the age group 5 – 9 showing the highest number of innovative behaviour descriptions.
In a nutshell, the horses’ cognitive capacities appear to be underestimated throughout the last decades. The horses’ social complexity is far more elaborate than previously assumed, horses learn socially from conspecific and humans, some of them demonstrate innovative behaviour adaptations to their environment and even simple forms of tool use.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Krueger, K. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume in prep Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5848  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Krueger, K. (ed) pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Type Conference Volume
  Year 2015 Publication IESM 2015 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5906  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Krueger, K.; Hollenhorst, H.; Schuetz, A.; Weil, S. isbn  openurl
  Title Social learning and innovative learning in horses. Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor K. Krueger  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5956  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Krueger, K.; Schneider, G.; Flauger, B.; Heinze, J. doi  openurl
  Title Context-dependent third-party intervention in agonistic encounters of male Przewalski horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 121 Issue Pages 54-62  
  Keywords Equus ferus przewalskii; Group conflict; Rank orders; Social bonds; Social control; Third-party intervention  
  Abstract Abstract One mechanism to resolve conflict among group members is third party intervention, for which several functions, such as kin protection, alliance formation, and the promotion of group cohesion have been proposed. Still, empirical research on the function of intervention behaviour is rare. We studied 40 cases of intervention behaviour in a field study on 13 semi-wild bachelor horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in (a) standard social situations, and (b) when new horses joined the group (i.e. introductions). Only interventions in agonistic encounters were analysed. Eight of 13 animals directed intervention behaviour toward threatening animal in agonistic encounters of group members. One stallion was particularly active. The stallions did not intervene to support former group mates or kin and interventions were not reciprocated. In introduction situations and in standard social situations, the interveners supported animals which were lower in rank, but targeted, threatening animals of comparable social rank. After introductions, stallions received more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and thus appeared to intervene for alliance formation. In standard social situations, interveners did not receive more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and may primarily have intervened to promote group cohesion and to reduce social disruption within the group.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5925  
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Author (up) Kruger, K. isbn  openurl
  Title Wie schlau sind Pferde? Soziales Lernen und innovative Anpassungen der Pferde Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Göttinger Pferdetage’15 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 15 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher FN Verlag Place of Publication Warendorf Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-88542-886-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5955  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) König von Borstel, U.; Kienapfel, K.; McLean, A.; Wilkins, C.; Evans, D.; McGreevy, P. pdf  openurl
  Title Hyperflexing the horse‘s neck: a cost-benefit and meta-analysis Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords horse, head-and-neck posture, hyperflexion, welfare, gymnastics  
  Abstract In ethical discussions, a cost-benefit analysis requires that welfare costs associated with an activity can be reliably estimated and balanced against the potential benefits of the activity to both humans and animals. The current study applies a meta-analysis to the peer-reviewed evidence for costs and benefits of hyperflexion of the neck in horses; a practice that has attracted enormous public and scientific scrutiny over the past 15 years. A literature review identified 55 studies dealing with horses’ head and neck postures. Fourty-two of these studies examined the impact of various postures on equine welfare, for example, by assessing behavior, physiological stress parameters, health or rider-horse interaction. Thirty-five studies examined the impact of various postures on gymnastics (e.g. kinematics, shifts in weight distribution, muscle activity, airway functioning or overall workload). For the meta-analysis a dataset containing information from each of the individual studies was created. Data included information such as type, degree, duration and circumstances of hyperflexion applied in that particular study as well as information on the horses (e.g., sport discipline, level of training, breed) and on the study design (e.g., size of study and experimental or epidemiological research design). The results of the study regarding the impact of hyperflexion on a) welfare and b) gymnastics were coded as positive (1), insignificant or contradictory (0) or negative (-1). The significant majority of studies (88%) concluded that a hyperflexed head and neck posture negatively impacts welfare. Just one study suggested welfare advantages of training in a hyperflexed head and neck posture. An analysis using a generalized linear mixed model to assess the influence of the above factors collated in the dataset revealed that none of these factors significantly influenced the probability of a study to detect negative welfare implications. Thus hyperflexing the neck appears to impair horses’ welfare regardless of, for example, the duration or the way of achieving hyperflexion. A concurrent assessment of the evidence for gymnastic benefits showed that approximately one quarter of studies conclude that there may be benefits, while another quarter of the studies conclude that hyperflexion has detrimental effects on gymnastics. Thus, on the costs-side there is a clear reduction in equine welfare and some undesirable gymnastic effects, as well as likely a compromised profile of the equestrian sports in public. Benefits, on the other hand, include some desirable gymnastic effects, and potentially increased control of the horse for the rider. On balance, it appears that the costs associated with hyperflexion exceed the potential benefits of the activity to both humans and horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author König von Borstel, U. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5872  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) König von Borstel, U.; Küllmar, A. pdf  openurl
  Title A pilot study on horses‘ behaviour and distance travelled in a “Paddock Trail” husbandry system Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract With most modern horse husbandry systems, horses’ locomotory behavior is quantitatively as well as qualitatively considerably altered, compared to the slow and continuous movement shown by horses living under conditions similar to those they have evolved under. This lack of locomotion as well as the change in quality of locomotion is thought to be responsible for a number of health issues seen in present day horses. The aim of the present study was to assess behaviour and particularly locomotion in horses kept in a husbandry system specifically designed to stimulate locomotory behaviour in horses. This type of husbandry system is named “Paddock Trail”, (PT) but is also known as “Paddock Paradise”, and the key concept of this husbandry system involves strategic placement of small portions of feed along a track which is an integral part of this husbandry system. For the present study, 11 horses, not used for riding or other activities and kept in one Paddock Trail husbandry system were available. Seven horses used in equine assisted therapy lessons and housed individually in conventional paddock-boxes (IB) served as a control group. Both groups of horses were composed of a similar mixture of horses with regard to age and breeds. Using time-sampling, behaviour of the horses was observed in 8 bouts (4 morning and 4 afternoon sessions) of 5 hours each. In addition, the average speed and distance covered was assessed in 3 (PT) and 5 (IB) horses, respectively, using a GPS system. Since the GPS signal is blocked by buildings and reliable recording would not be possible indoors, the IB horses were recorded only during their work in the therapy sessions. The behavioural observations revealed that the PT horses allocated a larger proportion of time to locomotory behaviour compared to the IB horses (on average 12 vs 3% of the 5 h observation periods; P<0,05), and in turn resting behaviour was reduced in PT horses compared to IB horses (30 vs. 46%; P<0,05). Time spent grazing (10 vs. 8%) and feeding other than grazing (47 vs. 44%) did not differ significantly between the two groups of horses in the two different husbandry systems (P>0,1). In addition, resting and feeding behaviour was influenced by social rank, such that higher ranking horses spent more time feeding and less time resting compared to horses of lower ranks (both P<0,05). Within the 5 hour observation periods, horses of the PT system covered on average a distance of 2,7 km at an average speed of 0,5 km/h. In comparison, IB horses covered during their work in the therapy sessions on average a distance of 2,1 km at an average speed of 3,6 km/h for a duration of 35 minutes. Although the confounding of groups of horses with husbandry system and although the GPS data does not allow for a direct comparison of the husbandry systems and does not cover the entire 24 hours of a day, these data indicate along with the behavioural observations that the PT system stimulates the horses to increase their locomotory behaviour.
Keywords horse, husbandry, paddock trail, locomotion, behaviour
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author König von Borstel, U. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor ; Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-95625-000-2 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5898  
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