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Author (up) Gabor, V.; Gerken, M. pdf  openurl
  Title Shetland ponies (Equus caballus) show quantity discrimination Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Cognition, numerical capacity, numerosity judgment, Shetland ponys  
  Abstract The complex housing environment and the close contact between humans and horses in equine sports place high demands on the learning capacity of horses. To date only limited information is available on the learning ability of the horse including higher order cognition. A type of higher order cognition is to perceive and discriminate quantities. Several mammals and birds have shown to be capable of discriminating objects due to their quantity (Brannon and Roitman, 2003). With regard to horses, there are only few studies available concerning their numerosity judgment (Uller and Lewis, 2009) and this ability is discussed controversially (Henselek et al, 2012). Possibly, the legacy of ‘‘Clever Hans’’ overshadowed further research on numerical capacity in horses, a horse to whom several psychologists incorrectly attributed the capacity of symbolic calculation (Pfungst, 1907; Rosenthal, 1965). In the present study we wanted to show whether Shetland ponies are able to transfer a previously learned concept of sameness to a numerosity judgment. The base of the test design was a “matching to sample” task, where the ponies had learned to relate abstract symbols to another which were presented on a LCD screen. Three Shetland ponies, which previously solved the matching to sample task, were tested in two test phases. In the first test phase different quantities of dots were presented (1 vs. 2; 2 vs. 3; 3 vs. 4; 4 vs. 5). To exclude discrimination due to the shape of the stimuli, the dots were varied in size and arrangement. The stimuli were presented in a triangular arrangement on the LCD screen; the sample stimulus was presented in the middle above and the discrimination stimuli in the two lower corners (S+ and S-). The pony received a food reward, by choosing the positive stimulus (S+). When the negative stimulus (S-) was chosen, the pony entered the next trial. Each learning session consisted of 20 decision trials. To investigate whether the numerosity judgment was transferable to mixed geometrical symbols (tri-, rectangle, rhomb, dot and cross) a second test phase was designed. All of the three Shetland ponies met the learning criterion of the first test phase (80% correct responses in two consecutive sessions) within the first eight sessions. One pony could transfer all judgments to the mixed symbols (up to 4 vs. 5), another pony up to 3 vs. 5 and the third on the level 2 vs. 3. These are the first reported findings that ponies are able to discriminate up to five objects. The numerosity judgment seemed to be easier for the ponies when homogenous objects were presented, than in the case of heterogeneous symbols. The reaction of the ponies occurred within few seconds, suggesting that the animals used subitizing for their numerosity judgment.

Keywords:

Cognition, numerical capacity, numerosity judgment, Shetland ponys

References:

Brannon E, Roitman J (2003) Nonverbal representations of time and number in animals and human infants. In: Meck WH (ed) Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 143–182

Henselek Y, Fischer J, Schloegl C (2012) Does the stimulus type influence horses’ performance in a quantity discrimination task? Front Psychol 3:504

Pfungst O (1907) Der Kluge Hans. Ein Beitrag zur nicht-verbalen Kommunikation. 3rd edn. (reprint of the original 1983) Frankfurter Fachbuchhandlung für Psychologie, Frankfurt

Rosenthal R (1965) Clever Hans: the horse of Mr. Von Osten. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York

Uller C, Lewis J (2009) Horses (Equus caballus) select the greater of two quantities in small numerical sets. Anim Cogn 12:733–738
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Gabor, V. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor ; Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-95625-000-2 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5894  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Giles, S.L.; Nicol, C.J.; Harris, P.A.; Rands, S.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dominance rank is associated with body condition in outdoor-living domestic horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Equine; fatness; obesity; social behaviour; displacement  
  Abstract Abstract The aim of our study was to explore the association between dominance rank and body condition in outdoor group-living domestic horses, Equus caballus. Social interactions were recorded using a video camera during a feeding test, applied to 203 horses in 42 herds. Dominance rank was assigned to 194 individuals. The outcome variable body condition score (BCS) was recorded using a 9-point scale. The variables age and height were recorded and considered as potential confounders or effect modifiers. Results were analysed using multivariable linear and logistic regression techniques, controlling for herd group as a random effect. More dominant (p = 0.001) individuals generally had a higher body condition score (p = 0.001) and this association was entirely independent of age and height. In addition, a greater proportion of dominant individuals fell into the obese category (BCS >= 7/9, p = 0.005). There were more displacement encounters and a greater level of interactivity in herds that had less variation in age and height, lending strength to the hypothesis that phenotypic variation may aid cohesion in group-living species. In addition there was a strong quadratic relationship between age and dominance rank (p < 0.001), where middle-aged individuals were most likely to be dominant. These results are the first to link behavioural predictors to body condition and obesity status in horses and should prompt the future consideration of behavioural and social factors when evaluating clinical disease risk in group-living animals.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Giles2015 Serial 5864  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Goossens, A.; Schwartz, C.; Barret, B.; Jacquot, M.; Van-Erck-Westergren, E.; Tomberg, C. pdf  openurl
  Title Characterisation of the splenius muscle’s activity (Splenius cervicis) during a walk phase at the warm up onset of ridden horses (Equus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Tomberg, C. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor ; Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-95625-000-2 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5900  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Grönemann, K. openurl 
  Title Konfliktfeld Pferd und Wolf – Eine Untersuchung zu Einstellungen, Erwartungen und Befürchtungen von Pferdehaltern und Reitsportlern in Niedersachsen Type Manuscript
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis Master's thesis  
  Publisher University Hildesheim Place of Publication Hildesheim Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6440  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Hintze, S.; Smith, S.; Patt, A.; Bachmann, I.; Würbel, H. pdf  openurl
  Title What eye wrinkles in horses tell us about their emotional state Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Wrinkles above the eye ball are common in domestic horses but may differ in number and shape both between and within individuals. They are caused by contraction of the inner eye brow raiser, and some people working with horses call them “worry wrinkles”, considering them to reflect emotional states. However, as yet no study has formally investigated the relationship between eye wrinkles and emotional state in horses.

The aim of the present study was to induce states of different emotional valence and to assess whether positive emotional states would reduce the expression of eye wrinkles while negative emotional states would increase it. Sixteen horses were confronted in a balanced order with two presumably positively and two negatively valenced situations each. Positive situations included anticipation of a food reward (FA) and petting (P), negative situations included food competition (FC) and waving a plastic bag (PB). Each situation lasted for 60s (TRT) and was preceded by a 60s control phase (CON). Throughout CON and TRT pictures of the eyes were taken, and for each horse four pictures per situation (FA, P, FC, PB) and phase (CON and TRT) were randomly selected (n = 512) and scored in random order and blind to treatment for six outcome variables: overall impression (qualitative), number, angle and markedness of eye wrinkles, presence of eye white, and shape of eye lid.

Data were analysed separately for the right and left eye using linear mixed effects models (angle, number), generalised linear mixed models (eye white, markedness), and ordered logistic regression (qualitative, shape of eye lid), with “situation” (FA, P, FC, PB), “phase” (CON, TRT) and their two-way interaction as fixed effects.

Expression of eye wrinkles did not vary consistently across “situation” and “phase”. Independent of phase, eye white appeared less frequently during P than during FA (z=-3.15, p=0.009), FC (z=-2.94, p=0.02), and PB (z=4.17, p<0.001) in the left eye and during PB (z=4.10, p 0.001) in the right eye. Similarly, wrinkles were less marked during P compared to the other situations in the left eye (FA: z=3.15, p=0.009; FC: z=-2.94, p=0.017; PB: z=4.17, p<0.001) and compared to PB in the right eye (z=4.10, p=0.001), while no differences between situations occurred in number of wrinkles, overall impression and shape of eye lid for both eyes. Consistent with our hypothesis, P induced relaxation of the underlying muscle in the right eye resulting in a wider angle compared to its control phase (interaction situation*phase: F3,10=3.71, p=0.055; post-hoc comparison: z=-3.57, p=0.009), while FC induced muscle contraction, resulting in a sharper angle in the left eye (interaction situation*phase: F3,11=6.57, p=0.011; z=3.73, p=0.005).

We conclude that emotional valence may affect characteristics of eye winkle expression in horses which might therefore be a promising indicator of horses’ emotional states, but further research is needed to validate the relevant outcome variables.
 
  Address eye wrinkles, emotional valence, positive and negative emotions, welfare assessment  
  Corporate Author Hintze, S. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5875  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Hinz, K.; Sennet, S.; Maros, K.; Krueger, K. isbn  openurl
  Title Waiting behaviour in front of a computerized feeding system in an active stable – Effects on heart rate, heart rate variability and sensory laterality in horses Type Book Chapter
  Year 2015 Publication Current research in applied ethology [Aktuelle Arbeiten zur artgemäßen Tierhaltung Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords computerized feeding, waiting situation, stress, horse  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher KTBL-Schrift 510 Place of Publication Darmstadt Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-945088-13-5 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5927  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Hollenhorst, H.; Weil, S.; Krueger, K. pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Innovative behavour in horses (Equus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords innovative behavior, age, housing system, horse (Equus caballus)  
  Abstract Contrary to the widely-spread assumption that horses just have restricted cognitive capacities and are not very flexible in their behaviors, we showed that horses display innovative behavior and even make use of tools (Krueger 2015, Krueger et al. 2015). These findings derive from a database (http://innovative-behaviour.org/) the Equine behavior team managed in the past two years. Some horses did not only show single innovations, but several different innovations. The number of innovations per individual varied from 1 to 10. 20 % of all innovative horses in the database showed more than one innovation. These individuals can be called the ‘true innovators’. Moreover innovations were dependent on age. Young horses were more innovative than older ones, whereby horses at the age of five to nine years were the most innovative. When considering the housing system innovative horses in a single housing (inside box, outside box, paddock box) had a slight majority towards horses in group housing (open stable, active stable, pasture day and night). But given the fact that ratings on housing system frequencies state 95% of the horses to be kept in individual housing, innovations in individual housing are rare. Nevertheless, horses kept in inside boxes without a window, opened doors more often than all other horses. Aside from this effect, housing systems did not trigger the frequency of innovative behavior. Innovations for gaining freedom and innovations in general were widespread among horses with daily access to pasture and daily contact with conspecifics. Innovations for gaining food were not more likely to occur in horses that were fed little amounts of roughage. In conclusion, the housing of horses does not seem to be the primary catalyst for developing innovative behavior in horses. What makes a “true innovator” in horses, in addition to age, remains to be seen.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Hollenhorst, H. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor ; Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5896  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Huebner, F.; Fichtel, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Innovation and behavioral flexibility in wild redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim.Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 3 Pages 777-787  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Innovations and problem-solving abilities can provide animals with important ecological advantages as they allow individuals to deal with novel social and ecological challenges. Innovation is a solution to a novel problem or a novel solution to an old problem, with the latter being especially difficult. Finding a new solution to an old problem requires individuals to inhibit previously applied solutions to invent new strategies and to behave flexibly. We examined the role of experience on cognitive flexibility to innovate and to find new problem-solving solutions with an artificial feeding task in wild redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons). Four groups of lemurs were tested with feeding boxes, each offering three different techniques to extract food, with only one technique being available at a time. After the subjects learned a technique, this solution was no longer successful and subjects had to invent a new technique. For the first transition between task 1 and 2, subjects had to rely on their experience of the previous technique to solve task 2. For the second transition, subjects had to inhibit the previously learned technique to learn the new task 3. Tasks 1 and 2 were solved by most subjects, whereas task 3 was solved by only a few subjects. In this task, besides behavioral flexibility, especially persistence, i.e., constant trying, was important for individual success during innovation. Thus, wild strepsirrhine primates are able to innovate flexibly, suggesting a general ecological relevance of behavioral flexibility and persistence during innovation and problem solving across all primates.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Huebner2015 Serial 5938  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ihle, M.; Kempenaers, B.; Forstmeier, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PLoS Biol Abbreviated Journal PLoS Biol  
  Volume 13 Issue 9 Pages e1002248  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Research on mate choice has primarily focused on preferences for quality indicators, assuming that all individuals show consensus about who is the most attractive. However, in some species, mating preferences seem largely individual-specific, suggesting that they might target genetic or behavioral compatibility. Few studies have quantified the fitness consequences of allowing versus preventing such idiosyncratic mate choice. Here, we report on an experiment that controls for variation in overall partner quality and show that zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) pairs that resulted from free mate choice achieved a 37% higher reproductive success than pairs that were forced to mate. Cross-fostering of freshly laid eggs showed that embryo mortality (before hatching) primarily depended on the identity of the genetic parents, whereas offspring mortality during the rearing period depended on foster-parent identity. Therefore, preventing mate choice should lead to an increase in embryo mortality if mate choice targets genetic compatibility (for embryo viability), and to an increase in offspring mortality if mate choice targets behavioral compatibility (for better rearing). We found that pairs from both treatments showed equal rates of embryo mortality, but chosen pairs were better at raising offspring. These results thus support the behavioral, but not the genetic, compatibility hypothesis. Further exploratory analyses reveal several differences in behavior and fitness components between “free-choice” and “forced” pairs.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5959  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Jacquot, M.; Grosjean, A., Emrot, C.; Van-Erck-Westergem, E.; Schwartz, C.; Tomberg, C. pdf  openurl
  Title Effects of a walk phase at the warm up onset on physiological and behavioural parameters of ridden horses (Equus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract For human athletes, any physical performance classically begins with a warm-up including a phase of cardio-respiratory activation as well as a phase of neuro-muscular mobilization. For the equine athletes similar routines are widely followed despite limited scientific studies addressing its effectiveness. Although physiological bases are of a similar nature in humans and horses, the latter are showing a different “telos” related to their status of prey. Indeed, their survival depends on their ability to detect any predator or potential danger in their environment and to estimate the need to run away. Therefore warm-up techniques should be adapted to this specificity and we added a walk phase preceding the usual warm-up during which the horse was allowed to visually assess its environment without constraint imposed by its rider, reins being long. We assumed that this walk phase would allow a more relaxed mental state and then a decrease in cognitive resources involved in environmental monitoring. Consequently this would release cognitive resources then available for the communication between the horse and the rider.

The autonomous nervous system (ANS) regulates the heart rate via the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathovagal balance and the heart rate variability are considered as good indicators of an acute stress state as well as emotional states. These measures are frequently used to estimate well-being in animals. During the walk phase, we observed a significant decrease of the heart rate (HR), a significant increase of its variability and a significant modification of the sympathovagal balance in favour of a higher contribution of the parasympathetic control. We also measured the non-linear correlation dimension which reflects the degree of freedom of a system. To the best of our knowledge, this method was used until now only in humans to whom it was shown that its decrease is related to stressful events and is associated with a bad prognosis for survival. During the walk phase in horses, the dimension of correlation of cardiac activity was increased.

From a behavioural point of view, we observed a significant decrease of side movements related to head orientation as well as significant changes in ears position, the latter being preferentially directed forwards at the beginning of the walk phase and laterally at the end. As previous research suggests that ears position and head orientation can be involved in attentional mechanisms in horses, our results suggest a decrease of the attention focused on the environment. Furthermore, a significant lowering of the neck was observed as well as a significant decrease of behaviours related to stress.

To conclude our results suggest that a walk phase preceding the usual warm-up of horses would contribute to improve their mental state in favour of more relaxation and of a decrease of the attentional resources invested in environmental monitoring.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Jacquot, M. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor ; Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-95625-000-2 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5897  
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