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Author (up) Bourjade, M.; Thierry, B.; Hausberger, M.; Petit, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Is <italic>Leadership</italic> a Reliable Concept in Animals? An Empirical Study in the Horse Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages e0126344  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>Leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. In parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. How leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. Here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. The relevance of the three main definitions of leadership – departing first, walking in front travel position, and eliciting the joining of mates – was tested on the collective movements of two semi-free ranging groups of Przewalski horses (<italic>Equus ferus przewalskii</italic>). We did not find any leader capable of driving most group movements or recruiting mates more quickly than others. Several group members often displayed pre-departure behaviours at the same time, and the simultaneous departure of several individuals was common. We conclude that the decision-making process was shared by several group members a group movement (i.e., partially shared consensus) and that the leadership concept did not help to depict individual departure and leading behaviour across movements in both study groups. Rather, the different proxies of leadership produced conflicting information about individual contributions to group coordination. This study discusses the implications of these findings for the field of coordination and decision-making research.</p>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5992  
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Author (up) Bouskila, A.,; Lourie,E.; de Vries, H.; Hermans, Z.M .; van Dierendonck, M. pdf  openurl
  Title Sex, but not relatedness nor age, affect the social network of horses in a semi-natural reserve Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract For some time now, social network analysis provides tools to describe concisely the social structure of animals. Nevertheless, the factors that shape the social network and determine the frequency of different types of affiliations are often unclear. For example, the effects of relatedness on social networks have been only studied on relatively few species. Both among social or sub-social species the effects ranged from no effect to a substantial effect. Here we test the hypothesis that relatedness has an effect on the social network of horses (Equus caballus) that live freely in semi-natural conditions, and specifically, that individuals with high values of relatedness to their neighbors in the network will have fewer links Wolf et al, 2011). This hypothesis is based on the notion that related individuals have common interests and are likely to assist each other, and may need less links to other, unrelated individuals. In addition, individuals of similar age and sex are likely to have common needs, and thus are more likely to be associated. We thus tested a second hypothesis: homophily to individuals with similar age and sex will have a role in determining the associations within the social network. The field study was conducted on 27 horses in the Blauwe Kamer reserve in the Netherlands (1.1 sq km). We videotaped horses and their groups and used the information from 22 horses, after excluding the five foals from the analysis. Relatedness was calculated from the pedigree, which was based on parentage, determined by DNA analysis. The social network was constructed based on spatial proximity data. We assessed the influence of relatedness, age-homophily and sex-homophily on the network structure with Multiple Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure (MRQAP) (Krackhardt 1988), with the R package sna. The results show that there was no significant effect of relatedness on the network, nor an effect of age-homophily. Nevertheless, we found a significant effect of sex-homophily, the tendency of individuals to associate with individuals of the same sex. We argue that the lack of a relatedness effect is not likely to have been caused due to the inability to detect who is kin. The structured social system in horses includes strong associations between often unrelated individuals, alongside with young individuals leaving their natal harem as part of the inherent inbreeding avoidance (Linklater & Cameron 2009; Boyd et al. in press). The significant effect of sex-homophily could stem from the protection females get from associations with other females, e.g., in the reduction of harassment from males. Previous studies on feral horses showed that mares that were better connected with other females in their harem benefited from higher survival rates to their foals (Cameron et al. 2009). The associations among bachelor males could also contribute to the strength of the sex-homophily effect.

In order to generalize from our results, one needs to examine additional populations of horses, because the conditions in the Blauwe Kamer reserve may not be representative, mainly due to the limited opportunity for dispersal in a restricted area.

Keywords: Long-term affiliation; spatial proximity, kin detection

Boyd, L., Scorolli, A. L., Nowzari, H., & Bouskila, A. (2016). Chapter 2: Social organization. In J. I. Ransom, & P. Kaczensky (Eds.), Wild equids. Baltimore, Maryland (in press): The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Cameron, E. Z., Setsaas, T. H., & Linklater, W. L. (2009). Social bonds between unrelated females increase reproductive success in feral horses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(33), 13850-13853

Krackhardt, D. (1988). Predicting with networks: Nonparametric multiple regression analysis of dyadic data. Social Networks, 10(4), 359-381.

Linklater, W. L., & Cameron, E. Z. (2009). Social dispersal but with philopatry reveals incest avoidance in a polygynous ungulate. Animal Behaviour, 77(5), 1085-1093.

Wolf, J. B., Traulsen, A., & James, R. (2011). Exploring the link between genetic relatedness r and social contact structure k in animal social networks. The American Naturalist, 177(1), 135-142.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Bouskila, A. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5881  
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Author (up) Briard, L.; Dorn, C.; Petit, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Personality and Affinities Play a Key Role in the Organisation of Collective Movements in a Group of Domestic Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal Ethology  
  Volume 121 Issue 9 Pages 888-902  
  Keywords decision-making; equids; hierarchy; leadership; social network  
  Abstract Understanding how groups of individuals with different motives come to daily decisions about the exploitation of their environment is a key question in animal behaviour. While interindividual differences are often seen only as a threat to group cohesion, growing evidence shows that they may to some extent facilitate effective collective action. Recent studies suggest that personality differences influence how individuals are attracted to conspecifics and affect their behaviour as an initiator or a follower. However, most of the existing studies are limited to a few taxa, mainly social fish and arthropods. Horses are social herbivores that live in long-lasting groups and show identifiable personality differences between individuals. We studied a group of 38 individuals living in a 30-ha hilly pasture. Over 200 h, we sought to identify how far individual differences such as personality and affinity distribution affect the dynamic of their collective movements. First, we report that individuals distribute their relationships according to similar personality and hierarchical rank. This is the first study that demonstrates a positive assortment between unrelated individuals according to personality in a mammal species. Second, we measured individual propensity to initiate and found that bold individuals initiated more often than shy individuals. However, their success in terms of number of followers and joining duration did not depend on their individual characteristics. Moreover, joining process is influenced by social network, with preferred partners following each other and bolder individuals being located more often at the front of the movement. Our results illustrate the importance of taking into account interindividual behavioural differences in studies of social behaviours.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1439-0310 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6153  
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Author (up) Briefer Freymond, S.; Piovesana, L.; Briefer. E. F.; Beuret. S.; Zuberbühler, K.; Bshary, R.; Bachmann, I. pdf  openurl
  Title Crib-biting behaviour of horses: stress and learning capacity Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Crib-biting is a stereotypy in horses that is potentially linked to both chronic stress and genetic predisposition. Chronic stress can cause neurobiological changes such as alteration of the dopaminergic modulation of the basal ganglia [1]. These neurobiological changes could alter and modify the learning profile of the horses [2,3]. We tested 19 crib-biters and 18 non-crib-biting horses (controls) in five challenging spatial tasks, in order to test if differences in dopaminergic modulation impair learning capacities. The tests were performed in two time periods, in a small arena (8 x 10 m) that was familiar to the horses. For each trials, the horses were led to the start zone in front of a four-meter-long solid fence and were then left alone in the arena. Their task was then to find a bucket containing food, which was situated in different positions around the fence, depending on the tests. The time to reach the food bucket, the trajectory taken by the horse (left or right side of the fence) and the ECG trace were recorded continuously. Additionally, salivary cortisol was collected before the tests (baseline), after the first time period, and after the second time period. We found that crib-biters and controls behaved similarly during the learning tasks. However crib-biters that did crib-bite on the solid fence during the task (group A; 10 horses) behaved differently than crib-biters that did not crib-bite (group B; 9 horses) and controls (group C; 18 horses) for some tests, in their trajectory or time to reach the bucket. These differences are more likely explained by the time taken to crib-bite, than by differences in learning capacity. We did not find any difference between groups in their heart-rate variability (RMSSD). Yet, we found a difference in salivary cortisol after the first time period between groups A, B and C. Indeed, the crib-biters that did not crib-bite had higher salivary cortisol values than all the other horses (mean±SE: A, 0.51±0.16ng/ml, B, 0.78±0.17ng/ml, C, 0.59±0.20ng/ml; Linear mixed model (LMM), p<0.05). Our results suggest that crib-biting horses that did not crib-bite during the learning tasks were more stressed than all other horses. This difference could be due to higher stress sensitivity in crib-biters, which could be reduced by the opportunity to crib-bite. These results replicate our previous findings testing differences in cortisol levels between crib-biters and control horses during an ACTH challenge test. Therefore, crib-biting behaviour might be a coping strategy helping stereotypic horses to reduce their stress during frustrating situations [4].



Keyword:

stereotypy, chronic stress, learning task
 
  Address stereotypy, chronic stress, learning task  
  Corporate Author Briefer Freymond, S. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5878  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Brinkmann, L.; Gerken, M.; Riek, A. pdf  openurl
  Title Energetic adaptations of Shetland pony mares Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Body temperature, Energy expenditure, Food restriction, Hypometabolism, Locomotor activity, Shetland pony  
  Abstract Recent results suggest that wild Northern herbivores exhibit signs of a hypometabolism during times of low ambient temperature and food shortage in order to reduce their energetic needs. However, there are speculations that domestic animals lost the ability to reduce energy expenditure. To examine energetic and behavioural responses 10 Shetland pony mares were exposed to different environmental conditions (summer and winter). During winter ponies were allocated into two groups receiving two different food quantities (60% and 100% of maintenance energy requirement). We measured the field metabolic rate, water turn over, body temperature, locomotor activity, lying time, resting heart rate, body mass and body condition score.

In summer, the field metabolic rate of all ponies (FMR; 63.4±15.0 MJ/day) was considerably higher compared with food restricted and control animals in winter (24.6±7.8 and 15.0±1.1 MJ/day, respectively). Furthermore, during summer, locomotor activity, resting heart rate and total water turnover were significantly elevated (P<0.001) compared with winter. Animals receiving a reduced amount of food (N=5) reduced their FMR by 26% compared with control animals (N=5) to compensate for the decreased energy supply. Furthermore, resting heart rate, body mass and body condition score were lower(29.2±2.7 beats/min, 140±22 kg and 3.0±1.0 points, respectively) than in control animals (36.8±41 beats/min, 165±31 kg, 4.4±0.7 points; P<0.05). While no difference could be found in the observed behaviour, nocturnal hypothermia was elevated in restrictively fed animals. Our results indicate that ponies adapt to different climatic conditions by changing their metabolic rate, behaviour and some physiological parameters. When exposed to energy shortage, ponies, like wild herbivores, exhibited hypometabolism and nocturnal hypothermia.

Keywords:

Body temperature, Energy expenditure, Food restriction, Hypometabolism, Locomotor activity, Shetland pony
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Brinkmann, L. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5893  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Brust, V.; Guenther, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Domestication effects on behavioural traits and learning performance: comparing wild cavies to guinea pigs Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 99-109  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The domestication process leads to a change in behavioural traits, usually towards individuals that are less attentive to changes in their environment and less aggressive. Empirical evidence for a difference in cognitive performance, however, is scarce. Recently, a functional linkage between an individual's behaviour and cognitive performance has been proposed in the framework of animal personalities via a shared risk-reward trade-off. Following this assumption, bolder and more aggressive animals (usually the wild form) should learn faster. Differences in behaviour may arise during ontogeny due to individual experiences or represent adaptations that occurred over the course of evolution. Both might singly or taken together account for differences in cognitive performance between wild and domestic lineages. To test for such possible linkages, we compared wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs, both kept in a university stock for more than 30 years under highly comparable conditions. Animals were tested in three behavioural tests as well as for initial and reversal learning performance. Guinea pigs were less bold and aggressive than their wild congeners, but learnt an association faster. Additionally, the personality structure was altered during the domestication process. The most likely explanation for these findings is that a shift in behavioural traits and their connectivity led to an altered cognitive performance. A functional linkage between behavioural and cognitive traits seems to exist in the proposed way only under natural selection, but not in animals that have been selected artificially over centuries.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Brust2015 Serial 6194  
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Author (up) Burla,J.B.; Rufener, C.; Bachmann, I.; Gygax, L.; Patt, A.; Hillmann, E. pdf  openurl
  Title Effect of varying dimensions of the littered lying area on the lying behaviour of group-housed horses (Equus ferus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords group housing, lying behaviour, littered lying area, rubber mats  
  Abstract Although horses can sleep while standing, recumbency is required for REM sleep and since all sleep stages must be completed for an entire sleep cycle, the opportunity for recumbency is essential for animal welfare. Observations on feral horses indicate a minimal lying duration of 30 min, preferably on a deformable and dry ground. In contrast to feral horses, lying behaviour in stabled horses is often affected by the dimensions of the provided lying area and rank.

In Switzerland, minimum requirements (MR) for the littered lying area are established by law to ensure animal welfare (BLV, 2008) (A/N: approximately match German recommendations (BMEL, 2009)). The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of the dimensions of the minimum requirements for group-housed horses by investigating 38 horses in 8 groups. Further, hard rubber mats were provided supplementary in order to assess their suitability as an alternative to litter. Four treatments were each applied in randomised order:

– 0x MR: no litter + 1.5x MR with rubber mats

– 0.5x MR: 0.5x MR with litter + 1x MR with rubber mats

– 1x MR: 1x MR with litter; 0.5x MR with rubber mats

– 1.5x MR: 1.5x MR with litter + no rubber mats

For each treatment, after a habituation period of 8 days, lying behaviour was recorded (video, accelerometers) continuously for 72 hrs. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed effects models.

Regardless of the ground chosen, the duration of recumbency per 24 hrs was increasing with increasing dimensions of the littered area (F1,93 = 12.9, p = 0.0005; Fig. 1). Whereas the effect flattened from 1x to 1.5x MR, the duration spent on litter – a deformable ground – was increasing continuously (F1,62 = 23.1, p < 0.0001). Further, the proportion of lateral recumbency was increased with increased dimensions of the littered area (F1,79 = 12.3, p = 0.0007). Regarding the number of lying bouts, no differences were apparent between treatments providing litter, but recumbency occurred very seldom if only rubber mats were provided (F1,93 = 14.7, p = 0.0002). Further, low-ranking horses spent more lying bouts on rubber mats than high-ranking horses (F1,29 = 4.4, p = 0.04). Additionally, the larger the dimensions of the littered area the more horses were present in the lying area at the moment of lying down (F1,79 = 6.6, p = 0.01). Moreover, low-ranking horses showed considerably higher percentages of involuntarily terminated lying bouts than high-ranking horses if 0.5x and 1x MR were littered (F1,76 = 8.43, p = 0.005).

Although the indicated minimal lying duration was averagely performed, large individual differences occurred and at least 8% were lying down less than 30 min per 24 hrs in every treatment. Further, the inclusion of social parameters indicated a beneficial effect of an exceedance of the minimum requirements especially for low-ranking horses. Therefore, the minimum requirements established by Swiss law can be stated as adequate but should be perceived as minimum and not optimum dimensions.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Burla,J.B. Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5879  
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Author (up) Cinková, I.; Policht, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 385-392  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Communication in rhinos is primarily mediated by the vocal and olfactory signals as they have relatively poor eyesight. White rhinos are the most social of all the rhinoceros species, they defecate at common dungheaps and the adult bulls use dung and urine to mark their territory. Chemical communication may therefore be particularly important in the social interactions of white rhinos, and its knowledge could be very helpful in their management and conservation. However, no studies have investigated up until now the olfactory discrimination in any rhinoceros species in the wild. We have experimentally studied the reactions of the wild southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) to the dung of familiar and unfamiliar adult females and adult territorial males. We registered the number of sniffing events, the duration of sniffing and the latency of the vigilance posture from the onset of sniffing. The dung of unfamiliar rhinos was sniffed longer than that of familiar rhinos. The rhinos showed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to the familiar dung of males than that of females. For unfamiliar dung, they displayed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to female than male dung. Our results indicate that the rhinos are able to discriminate the familiarity and sex of conspecifics from the smell of their dung. Olfactory cues could therefore play an important role in the social relationships and spatial organization of the southern white rhinoceros.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Cinková2015 Serial 6143  
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Author (up) Defolie, C.; Malassis, R.; Serre, M.; Meunier, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) adapt their communicative behaviour to human’s attentional states Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 3 Pages 747-755  
  Keywords Gestural communication; Intentionality; Non-human primates; Social cognition; Attention; Pointing  
  Abstract Animal communication has become a widely studied field of research, especially because of the associated debates on the origin of human language. Due to their phylogenetic proximity with humans, non-human primates represent a suitable model to investigate the precursors of language. This study focuses on the perception of the attentional states of others, an important prerequisite to intentional communication. We investigated whether capuchins (Cebus apella) produce a learnt pointing gesture towards a hidden and unreachable food reward as a function of the attentional status of the human experimenter. For that purpose, we tested five subjects that we first trained to indicate by a pointing gesture towards the human partner the position of a reward hidden by an assistant. Then, capuchins were tested in two experimental conditions randomly ordered. In the first condition—motivation trial—the experimenter was attentive to the subject gestures and rewarded him immediately when it pointed towards the baited cylinder. During the second condition—test trial—the experimenter adopted one of the following attention states and the subject was rewarded after 10 s has elapsed, regardless of the subject’s behaviour. Five attentional states were tested: (1) experimenter absent, (2) experimenter back to the monkey, (3) experimenter’s head away, (4) experimenter watching above the monkey, and (5) experimenter watching the monkey face. Our results reveal a variation in our subjects’ communicative behaviours with a discrimination of the different postural clues (body and head orientation) available in our experimental conditions. This study suggests that capuchins can flexibly use a communicative gesture to adapt to the attentional state of their partner and provides evidence that acquired communicative gestures of monkeys might be used intentionally.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5886  
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Author (up) Fuchs, C.; Kiefner, C.; Erhard, M.; Wöhr, A.C. pdf  openurl
  Title Narcolepsy – or REM-deficient? Type Conference Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords narcolepsy, cataplexy, polysomnography, REM-sleep deficiency  
  Abstract Narcolepsy is a neurological sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (loss of muscle tone), sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations, also called the „tetrad of narcolepsy“. Although the pathogenesis is not completely understood, the disorder is well described in humans and it has been shown that a lack of the hormone hypocretin (orexin) synthesized in the hypothalamus is crucial. Narcolepsy with cataplectic attacks has also been reported in dogs, horses, cattle (STRAIN et al., 1984) and a lamb (WHITE und DE LAHUNTA, 2001).

In dogs up to 17 breeds have been shown to be affected sporadically, while familial forms occur in dobermans, labrador retrievers and dachshounds (TONOKURA et al., 2007). In horses there appear to be two syndroms (HINES, 2005), the first in which animals are affected within a few days after birth (possibly a familial form, reported in Suffolk, Shetland ponies, Fell ponies, Warmbloods, Miniature Horse foals (MAYHEW, 2011), Lipizzaner (LUDVIKOVA et al., 2012) and Icelandic horses (BATHEN&#8208;NÖTHEN et al., 2009)) and the second in which animals are affected as adults (adult-onset narcolepsy).

It has been shown that both forms of canine narcolepsy are associated with a deficit in hypocretin/orexin neurotransmission (LIN et al., 1999). In the horse a similar etiology is suspected, but so far there are no studies to support this hypothesis.

The cataplectic attacks in humans and dogs occur during excitement or emotional stimulation such as laughing in humans or eating and playing in dogs. In contrast, the cataplectic or sleep attacks in adult horses happen almost exclusively while resting. The collapses observed in equines vary from drowsiness with hanging of the head, swaying, buckling at the knees or total collapse (see fig.1). Affected horses often show injuries and scars at the dorsal fetlocks, dorsal knees or at the face and the lips. ALEMAN et al. (2008) describe some of the suspected adult-onset narcolepsy cases as possible examples of sporadic idiopathic hypersomnia instead of true narcolepsy.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Fuchs, C. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5871  
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