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Author (up) A. Wiggins; K. Crowston doi  openurl
  Title From Conservation to Crowdsourcing: A Typology of Citizen Science Type Conference Article
  Year 2011 Publication 2011 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences Abbreviated Journal 2011 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-10  
  Keywords groupware; natural sciences computing; research and development; social sciences; crowdsourcing; citizen science typology; research collaboration; scientific research projects; virtual collaboration; Communities; Education; Monitoring; Collaboration; Organizations; Biological system modeling; Production  
  Abstract Citizen science is a form of research collaboration involving members of the public in scientific research projects to address real-world problems. Often organized as a virtual collaboration, these projects are a type of open movement, with collective goals addressed through open participation in research tasks. Existing typologies of citizen science projects focus primarily on the structure of participation, paying little attention to the organizational and macrostructural properties that are important to designing and managing effective projects and technologies. By examining a variety of project characteristics, we identified five types-Action, Conservation, Investigation, Virtual, and Education- that differ in primary project goals and the importance of physical environment to participation.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title 2011 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1530-1605 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6430  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Baragli, P.; Mariti, C.; Petri, L.; De Giorgio, F.; Sighieri, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does attention make the difference? Horses' response to human stimulus after 2 different training strategies Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Abbreviated Journal J Vet Behav Clin Appl Res  
  Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 31-38  
  Keywords attention; exploration; horse; human stimulus; training  
  Abstract We hypothesized that in an open environment, horses cope with a series of challenges in

their interactions with human beings. If the horse is not physically constrained and is free to move

in a small enclosure, it has additional options regarding its behavioral response to the trainer. The

aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of 2 different training strategies on the horse’s behavioral

response to human stimuli. In all, 12 female ponies were randomly divided into the following 2

groups: group A, wherein horses were trained in a small enclosure (where indicators of the level of

attention and behavioral response were used to modulate the training pace and the horse’s control over

its response to the stimuli provided by the trainer) and group B, wherein horses were trained in a closed

environment (in which the trainer’s actions left no room for any behavioral response except for the one

that was requested). Horses’ behavior toward the human subject and their heart rate during 2 standardized

behavioral tests were used to compare the responses of the 2 groups. Results indicated that the

horses in group A appeared to associate human actions with a positive experience, as highlighted by

the greater degree of explorative behavior toward human beings shown by these horses during the tests.

The experience of the horses during training may have resulted in different evaluations of the person, as

a consequence of the human’s actions during training; therefore, it seems that horses evaluate human

beings on daily relationship experiences.
 
  Address attention; exploration; horse; human stimulus; training  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1558-7878 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5286  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Baragli, P.; Paoletti, E.; Vitale, V.; Sighieri, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Looking in the correct location for a hidden object: brief note about the memory of donkeys (Equus asinus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Ethology Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ethology Ecology & Evolution  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 187-192  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In recent years, considerable literature has been published on cognition in horses; however, much less is known about the cognitive abilities of domestic donkey (Equus asinus). This study aimed to expand our knowledge of donkey cognition by assessing their short-term memory capacity. We employed a detour problem combined with the classic delayed-response task, which has been extensively used to compare working memory duration in a variety of different species. A two-point choice apparatus was used to investigate location recall and search behaviour for a food target, after a short delay following its disappearance. Four donkeys completed the task with a 10 sec delay, while four others were tested with a 30 sec delay. Overall, each group performed above chance level on the test, showing that subjects had successfully encoded, maintained, and retrieved the existence and location of the target despite the loss of visual contact.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0394-9370 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1080/03949370.2011.554885 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6177  
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Author (up) Baragli, P.; Vitale, V.; Paoletti, E.; Mengoli, M.; Sighieri, C. url  openurl
  Title Encoding the Object Position for Assessment of Short Term Spatial Memory in Horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication International Journal of Comparative Psychology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In this study, the detour problem was combined with the classic delayed-response task to investigate equine short-term spatial memory. Test subjects were eight female horses, divided into two groups (A and B) of four subjects each. The motivating object was made to move and disappear behind one oftwo identical obstacles in a two-point-choice apparatus. After a 10 s (Group A) or 30 s (Group B) delay the animal was released to seek the object. Both groups made more correct (14.8 ± 1.3 forGroup A and 13.5 ± 3.1 for Group B, mean ± SD) than incorrect choices (5.3 ± 1.3 for Group A and6.5 ± 3.1 for Group B, mean ± SD) and the performance of each group was significantly above chance level (z = 4.14,  p = 0.000, for Group A and z = 3.02, p = 0.002, for Group B). Therefore, tested animals were able to recover the object by approaching the correct obstacle after 10 s or 30 s delays, showing that they had encoded and recovered from memory the existence of the target object and its location.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2168-3344 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6178  
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Author (up) Baragli, P.; Vitale, V.; Paoletti, E.; Sighieri, C.; Reddon, A.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Detour behaviour in horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Abbreviated Journal Journal of Ethology  
  Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 227-234  
  Keywords Detour behaviour; Equus caballus; Horses; Lateralization; Spatial reasoning  
  Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of horses (Equus caballus) to detour around symmetric and asymmetric obstacles. Ten female Italian saddle horses were each used in three detour tasks. In the first task, the ability to detour around a symmetrical obstacle was evaluated; in the second and third tasks subjects were required to perform a detour around an asymmetrical obstacle with two different degrees of asymmetry. The direction chosen to move around the obstacle and time required to make the detour were recorded. The results suggest that horses have the spatial abilities required to perform detour tasks with both symmetric and asymmetric obstacles. The strategy used to perform the task varied between subjects. For five horses, lateralized behaviour was observed when detouring the obstacle; this was consistently in one direction (three on the left and two on the right). For these horses, no evidence of spatial learning or reasoning was found. The other five horses did not solve this task in a lateralized manner, and a trend towards decreasing lateralization was observed as asymmetry, and hence task difficulty, increased. These non-lateralized horses may have higher spatial reasoning abilities.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Japan Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0289-0771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5686  
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Author (up) Bartal, I.B.-A.; Decety, J.; Mason, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Empathy and Pro-Social Behavior in Rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 334 Issue 6061 Pages 1427-1430  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Whereas human pro-social behavior is often driven by empathic concern for another, it is unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience a similar motivational state. To test for empathically motivated pro-social behavior in rodents, we placed a free rat in an arena with a cagemate trapped in a restrainer. After several sessions, the free rat learned to intentionally and quickly open the restrainer and free the cagemate. Rats did not open empty or object-containing restrainers. They freed cagemates even when social contact was prevented. When liberating a cagemate was pitted against chocolate contained within a second restrainer, rats opened both restrainers and typically shared the chocolate. Thus, rats behave pro-socially in response to a conspecific�s distress, providing strong evidence for biological roots of empathically motivated helping behavior.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1126/science.1210789 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5725  
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Author (up) Bartoš, L.; Bartošová, J.; Pluhácek, J.; Šindelárová, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Promiscuous behaviour disrupts pregnancy block in domestic horse mares Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology  
  Volume 65 Issue 8 Pages 1567-1572  
  Keywords Foetal loss; Domestic horse; Bruce effect; Sexual behaviour  
  Abstract Based on questionnaires from horse breeders, we found that bringing a pregnant mare which had been mated away from home into a vicinity of a familiar male who was not the father of her foetus increased probability of pregnancy disruption. These mares aborted in 31% of cases, while none of those mated within the home stable aborted. Repeated sexual activity either by a stallion or dominant gelding from the normal home group was observed shortly after the mare came from away-mating. Pregnant mares isolated from home males by a fence were even seen soliciting them over the fence. We speculate that, once returned to the home “herd”, and introduced to familiar males, mares were more likely to terminate their pregnancy to save energy and avoid likely future infanticidal loss of their progeny by dominant male(s) of the home social group. This is a newly discovered phenomenon where a mare manipulates the male’s paternity assessment by promiscuous mating. It may explain a common increased incidence of foetal loss in domestic horses occurring in nearly 40% of pregnancies. We conclude that the common practice of transporting the mare for mating and then bringing her back to an environment with males, stallions or geldings, which did not sire the foetus, is the main cause of high percentages of pregnancy disruption in domestic horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5834  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bode, N.W.F.; Wood, A.J.; Franks, D.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The impact of social networks on animal collective motion Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 82 Issue 1 Pages 29-38  
  Keywords collective motion; group cohesion; group position; hierarchical dynamics; social network  
  Abstract Many group-living animals show social preferences for relatives, familiar conspecifics or individuals of similar attributes such as size, personality or sex. How such preferences could affect the collective motion of animal groups has been rather unexplored. We present a general model of collective animal motion that includes social connections as preferential reactions between individuals. Our conceptual examples illustrate the possible impact of underlying social networks on the collective motion of animals. Our approach shows that the structure of these networks could influence: (1) the cohesion of groups; (2) the spatial position of individuals within groups; and (3) the hierarchical dynamics within such groups. We argue that the position of individuals within a social network and the social network structure of populations could have important fitness implications for individual animals. Counterintuitive results from our conceptual examples show that social structures can result in unexpected group dynamics. This sharpens our understanding of the way in which collective movement can be interpreted as a result of social interactions.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5393  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bugnyar, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Knower–guesser differentiation in ravens: others' viewpoints matter Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci.  
  Volume 278 Issue 1705 Pages 634-640  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Differentiating between individuals with different knowledge states is an important step in child development and has been considered as a hallmark in human evolution. Recently, primates and corvids have been reported to pass knower–guesser tasks, raising the possibility of mental attribution skills in non-human animals. Yet, it has been difficult to distinguish ‘mind-reading’ from behaviour-reading alternatives, specifically the use of behavioural cues and/or the application of associatively learned rules. Here, I show that ravens (Corvus corax) observing an experimenter hiding food are capable of predicting the behaviour of bystanders that had been visible at both, none or just one of two caching events. Manipulating the competitors' visual field independently of the view of the test-subject resulted in an instant drop in performance, whereas controls for behavioural cues had no such effect. These findings indicate that ravens not only remember whom they have seen at caching but also take into account that the other's view was blocked. Notably, it does not suffice for the birds to associate specific competitors with specific caches. These results support the idea that certain socio-ecological conditions may select for similar cognitive abilities in distantly related species and that some birds have evolved analogous precursors to a human theory-of-mind.  
  Address raven; Corvus corax; knowledge attribution; perspective; competitive food retrieval; caching  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5287  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Burgon, H.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title ‘Queen of the world’: experiences of ‘at-risk’ young people participating in equine-assisted learning/therapy Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Social Work Practice Abbreviated Journal Journal of Social Work Practice  
  Volume 25 Issue 02 Pages 165-183  
  Keywords  
  Abstract There is a significant body of research into the benefits of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) but less into the fields known as equine-assisted learning and therapy (EAL/EAT) where horses are incorporated in therapeutic and learning interventions. This paper explores the experiences of seven ?at-risk? young people who participated in a therapeutic horsemanship (TH) programme. The study followed a practice-near approach seeking to capture the young people's experiences within a participative ethnography. Themes related to the risk and resilience literature such as self-confidence, self-esteem, self-efficacy and a sense of mastery, empathy and the opening of positive opportunities are explored in this paper.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Routledge Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0265-0533 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1080/02650533.2011.561304 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6032  
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