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Author (up) Fernando Colmenares; Fernando Silveira doi  openurl
  Title Post-Conflict Non-Aggressive Behaviours may be neither Friendly nor Conciliatory – Conflict Management of Male Hamadryas Baboons Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 114 Issue 11 Pages 1101 - 1112  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The relational model of conflict resolution predicts that after an aggressive conflict there should be a motivational shift from aggression to attraction. Most tests of the reconciliation hypothesis assume, however, that all non-aggressive post-conflict behaviours between former opponents are motivationally homogeneous and qualify as friendly reunions. In fact, although the hypothesis predicts an increased occurrence of friendly contacts after conflicts, in practice, however, post-conflict reunions often include a mixture of contact and non-contact behaviours. Most reconciliation studies either (often) assume a conciliatory function for post-conflict reunions or (less often) test functional predictions. Finally, the valuable relationships hypothesis predicts that conciliatory rates should be relatively higher between friends and allies than between non-friends/allies. In this paper, we use data on non-aggressive interactions following conflicts between adult male hamadryas baboons that are neither friends nor allies to assess the implications of all these important but largely overlooked issues. The analyses of the rate and temporal relation of non-contact greeting (NCTG) to anxiety-related behaviours and side-directed aggression as well as of the behaviours used during non-aggressive interactions with male and female third-parties suggest that the NCTG used by males after conflicts were neither motivationally friendly nor functionally conciliatory. We point out that the gestures exchanged during these post-conflict NCTG can be interpreted as formalized signals of equal status and that the rate and form of the greetings used by male opponents are indicative of high relationship insecurity and incompatibility respectively. We conclude that although male hamadryas' post-conflict NCTG are not conciliatory they may serve to assess their opponents' attitude and to negotiate the restoring of their pre-conflict levels of peaceful but non-amicable co-existence.  
  Address Departamento de Psicobiologa, Facultad de Psicologa, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Higiene, Universidad de la Repblica, Montevideo, Uruguay DOI – 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2008.01559.x  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4950  
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Author (up) Feuerstein, N.; Terkel, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Interrelationships of dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus L.) living under the same roof Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 113 Issue 1-3 Pages 150-165  
  Keywords Cats; Dogs; Shared home; Interrelationship; Aggression; Amicability; Indifference; Adaptation  
  Abstract In the process of domestication, dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) have undergone thousands of years of genetic changes that have adapted them to the human environment. Both species have acquired a global distribution and it has become quite common to find homes with the two living side by side. Nevertheless, there is widespread belief that interspecific communication between dogs and cats is problematic, stemming from their separate evolutionary development and different social structures. Consequently, many people considering possible adoption of both species are concerned about their ability to get along. Interrelationships of dogs and cats living together were studied here in an attempt to determine the main factors influencing the type of relationship likely to develop between the two species. Two approaches were used: (1) a questionnaire completed by owners of both dog(s) and cat(s), which provided a broad database of the animals' behaviors; and (2) observations carried out in participants' homes on their dog-cat interactions. Two separate ethograms for dogs and cats served for analyses of their body language. The findings revealed the following: Both species showed a similar ability to establish a relatively amicable relationship with the other species; the animals' gender had little influence on the nature of their interrelationship; and adoption of the cat prior to the dog appears to conduce to establishing an amicable relationship, as does their first encounter taking place at an early age (up to 6 months of age in cats and up to 1 year in dogs). The findings also suggest that the majority of these dogs and cats understood the particular body language displayed by one animal that has an opposite meaning for the other species; and that the earlier the age of first encounter between the two, the better this understanding. It can be concluded that exposure of both species at an early age to the presence of the other facilitates the learning of each other's body language, and the consequent establishment of an amicable relationship. A better understanding of the various factors that contribute to determining the two species' relationship should not only improve the quality of life of these pets, but also reassure and encourage more people to adopt both cat and dog.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4757  
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Author (up) Flauger, B.; Krueger, K. pdf  openurl
  Title Ecology and evolution of equine cognitive abilities Type Conference Article
  Year 2008 Publication IESM 2008 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The cognitive abilities of social ungulates, in particular horses, have widely been neglected. Preliminary results suggest that horses are capable of social cognition which they acquire through social learning. They gain information from the observation of the interaction of a conspecific and a human experimenter, and adjust their own behaviour towards the experimenter with respect to the observed horse"s reaction and relative dominance status (Krueger and Heinze, 2007). Horses are a highly social species that still exists in different evolutionary stages: domestic horses, feral horses and wild horses (Przewalski horses). Additionally, domestic and wild horses differ in their individual social behaviour. For example, in social interactions Przewalski horses appear to act significantly more aggressively than domestic horses. Therefore studies on horses are particularly suitable to investigate whether convergent social evolution favours convergent cognitive evolution. By a comparative study concerning their reasoning abilities in a specific situation, we will attempt to determine the influence of domestication and feralisation on the evolution of social cognition and to investigate possible differences in their abilities to cope with stressful situations. We started to observe the behaviour of domestic and wild horses, in particular during the integration into new social groups, especially in relation with their knowledge of the social structure of new groups and their own relative social status. Selected agonistic interactions will be measured and statistically evaluated. Additionally, the stress level of the horses will be determined by an analysis of stress hormone levels, particularly cortisol metabolites, in plasma, saliva and faeces.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Flauger, B. Thesis  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference IESM 2008  
  Notes Poster IESM 2008 Approved yes  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4500  
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Author (up) Fraser, N.O.; Schino,G.; Aureli, F.F doi  openurl
  Title Components of Relationship Quality in Chimpanzees Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal Ethology  
  Volume 114 Issue 9 Pages 834-843  
  Keywords  
  Abstract A novel approach to studying social relationships in captive adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) was taken by using principal components analysis (PCA) to extract three key components of relationship quality from nine behavioural variables. Based on the loadings of the behavioural variables, the components appeared to match previously hypothesized critical aspects of social relationships and were therefore labelled Value, Compatibility and Security. The effects of kinship, sex combination, age difference and time spent together on each of the relationship quality components were analysed. As expected, kin were found to have more valuable, compatible and secure relationships than non-kin. Female2013female dyads were found to be more compatible than male2013male or mixed-sex dyads, whereas the latter were found to be most secure. Partners of a similar age were found to have more secure and more valuable relationships than those with a larger age gap. Individuals that were together in the group for longer were more valuable and more compatible, but their relationships were found to be less secure than individuals that were together in the group for a shorter time. Although some of the results may be unexpected based on chimpanzee socio-ecology, they fit well overall with the history and social dynamics of the study group. The methods used confer a significant advantage in producing quantitative composite measures of each component of relationship quality, obtained in an objective manner. These findings therefore promote the use of such measures in future studies requiring an assessment of the qualities of dyadic social relationships.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4936  
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Author (up) Gaunet, F. doi  openurl
  Title How do guide dogs of blind owners and pet dogs of sighted owners ( Canis familiaris ) ask their owners for food? Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 475-483  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Abstract  Although there are some indications that dogs (Canis familiaris) use the eyes of humans as a cue during human–dog interactions, the exact conditions under which this holds true are unclear. Analysing whether the interactive modalities of guide dogs and pet dogs differ when they interact with their blind, and sighted owners, respectively, is one way to tackle this problem; more specifically, it allows examining the effect of the visual status of the owner. The interactive behaviours of dogs were recorded when the dogs were prevented from accessing food that they had previously learned to access. A novel audible behaviour was observed: dogs licked their mouths sonorously. Data analyses showed that the guide dogs performed this behaviour longer and more frequently than the pet dogs; seven of the nine guide dogs and two of the nine pet dogs displayed this behaviour. However, gazing at the container where the food was and gazing at the owner (with or without sonorous mouth licking), gaze alternation between the container and the owner, vocalisation and contact with the owner did not differ between groups. Together, the results suggest that there is no overall distinction between guide and pet dogs in exploratory, learning and motivational behaviours and in their understanding of their owner’s attentional state, i.e. guide dogs do not understand that their owner cannot see (them). However, results show that guide dogs are subject to incidental learning and suggest that they supplemented their way to trigger their owners’ attention with a new distal cue.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5008  
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Author (up) Geutjens, C.A.; Clayton, H.M.; Kaiser, L.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Forces and pressures beneath the saddle during mounting from the ground and from a raised mounting platform Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication The Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 175 Issue 3 Pages 332-337  
  Keywords Electronic saddle mat; Total force; Peak pressure; Equestrian; Kinetics  
  Abstract The objective was to use an electronic pressure mat to measure and compare forces and pressures of the saddle on a horse's back when riders mounted from the ground and with the aid of a mounting platform. Ten riders mounted a horse three times each from the ground and from a 35 cm high mounting platform in random order. Total force (summation of forces over all 256 sensors) was measured and compared at specific points on the force-time curve. Total force was usually highest as the rider's right leg was swinging upwards and was correlated with rider mass. When normalized to rider mass, total force and peak pressure were significantly higher when mounting from the ground than from a raised platform (P < 0.05). The area of highest pressure was on the right side of the withers in 97% of mounting efforts, confirming the importance of the withers in stabilizing the saddle during mounting.  
  Address  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 4344  
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Author (up) Giada Cordoni; Elisabetta Palagi doi  openurl
  Title Reconciliation in Wolves (Canis lupus) – New Evidence for a Comparative Perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal Ethology  
  Volume 114 Issue Pages 298 - 308  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Social animals gain benefits from cooperative behaviours. However, social systems also imply competition and conflict of interest. To cope with dispersal forces, group-living animals use several peace-keeping tactics, which have been deeply investigated in primates. Other taxa, however, have been often neglected in this field research. Wolves (Canis lupus) with their high sociality and cooperative behaviour may be a good model species to investigate the reconciliation process. In this study, we provide the first evidence for the occurrence of reconciliation in a group of zoo-kept wolves. The conciliatory contacts were uniformly distributed across the different sex-class combinations. We found a linear dominance hierarchy in the colony under study, although the hierarchical relationships did not seem to affect the reconciliation dynamics. Moreover, both aggressors and victims initiated first post-conflict affinitive contact with comparable rates and both high- and low-intensity conflicts were reconciled with similar percentages. Finally, we found that coalitionary support may be a good predictor for high level of conciliatory contacts in this species.  
  Address Centro Interdipartimentale Museo di Storia Naturale e del Territorio, Universit di Pisa, Pisa, Italy; Giardino Zoologico di Pistoia, Pistoia, Italy DOI – 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2008.01474.x  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication © 2008 The Authors Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4937  
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Author (up) Goodwin, D.; McGreevy, P.D.; Heleski, C.; Randle, H.; Waran, N. doi  openurl
  Title Equitation science: The application of science in equitation Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 185-190  
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  Abstract  
  Address School of Natural Sciences, Unitec, New Zealand  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Export Date: 13 November 2008; Source: Scopus Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4656  
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Author (up) Gould, J.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Animal Navigation: The Evolution of Magnetic Orientation Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 18 Issue 11 Pages R482-R484  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Summary Animals have several types of magnetic organ, often separately specialized for determining direction versus location. Recent results offer hints about how these once-unimaginable detectors may have evolved.  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4770  
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Author (up) Granquist,S.M.; Sigurjónsdóttir, H; Thórhallsdóttir, A.G. pdf  openurl
  Title Social structure and interactions within groups of horses containing a stallion Type Conference Article
  Year 2008 Publication IESM 2008 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Social interactions,, Stallions, Hierarchy, Icelandic horses  
  Abstract Earlier research indicates that stallions might either prevent social interactions between mares in their

herds directly or indirectly by their presence (Feist and McCullough, 1976; Sigurjonsdottir et al.,

2003) The impact of stallions on the social interactions between harem members was studied in 6

groups of Icelandic horses in 2004, 2006 and 2007 for altogether 525 hours. Four of the groups were

permanently living together under semi-feral conditions, while two were temporary breeding groups. In

addition, temporary and permanent groups were compared and the effect of the stability of the group

on the social behaviour of horses was investigated .

The results show that stallions seldom intervene directly in social interactions between harem

members. However, the hierarchies were less rigid and fewer friendship bonds were found in the

groups compared to what has been found in groups without stallions in Iceland. These results give

some support to our prediction that the stallion does indirectly suppress social interactions of herd

members.

The stability of the group was found to affect the aggression rate, since a higher aggression rate was

found in the temporary groups compared to the permanent groups. The number of preferred

allogrooming partners of the horses was also affected to some extent, as a significantly lower number

of allogrooming partners was found in the most unstable group compared to all the other groups. The

results have significance for further research in the field of social structure of mammals, and may also

be applied in the management of horses and other domestic animals.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Sigurjónsdóttir, H Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference IESM 2008  
  Notes Talk 15 min IESM 2008 Fullpaper Approved yes  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4487  
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