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Author (up) Li, W.; Howard, J.D.; Parrish, T.B.; Gottfried, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Supporting Online Material to: Aversive Learning Enhances Perceptual and Cortical Discrimination of Indiscriminable Odor Cues Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2008 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 319 Issue 5871 Pages 1842-1845  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Learning to associate sensory cues with threats is critical for minimizing aversive experience. The ecological benefit of associative learning relies on accurate perception of predictive cues, but how aversive learning enhances perceptual acuity of sensory signals, particularly in humans, is unclear. We combined multivariate functional magnetic resonance imaging with olfactory psychophysics to show that initially indistinguishable odor enantiomers (mirror-image molecules) become discriminable after aversive conditioning, paralleling the spatial divergence of ensemble activity patterns in primary olfactory (piriform) cortex. Our findings indicate that aversive learning induces piriform plasticity with corresponding gains in odor enantiomer discrimination, underscoring the capacity of fear conditioning to update perceptual representation of predictive cues, over and above its well-recognized role in the acquisition of conditioned responses. That completely indiscriminable sensations can be transformed into discriminable percepts further accentuates the potency of associative learning to enhance sensory cue perception and support adaptive behavior.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1126/science.1152837 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4409  
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Author (up) Lloyd, A.S.; Martin, J.E.; Bornett-Gauci, H.L.I.; Wilkinson, R.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Horse personality: Variation between breeds Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 112 Issue 3-4 Pages 369-383  
  Keywords Horse personality; Breed; Assessment; Questionnaire survey; Animal  
  Abstract Anecdotal evidence from horse owners and handlers suggests the existence of breed typical behaviour and personality in horses. This is further supported by current research on heritability of personality characteristics in a range of species. The Horse Personality Questionnaire (HPQ) is a 25-item rating method that has previously been shown to be reliable for the assessment of personality in horses. Principal component analysis on HPQ data has identified six underlying personality components in horses. These are Dominance, Anxiousness, Excitability, Protection, Sociability and Inquisitiveness. Using the HPQ a survey of 1223 horses of eight different breeds was completed. Data were analysed to explore any differences in personality between breeds across the six personality components. Breed differences in personality were identified, and it was noted that variability between breeds varied between personality components. Anxiousness and Excitability showed the most variation between breeds, whilst Dominance and Protection showed the least variance. The results identified breed typical personalities that were comparable to results from previous studies as well as anecdotal evidence provided by the popular equine literature. The results are discussed in terms of the potential selection pressures that may have resulted in these differences.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4279  
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Author (up) Lojek, J., Gorska, B. pdf  openurl
  Title Day-Time Budgets of Konik Polski Horses (Equus caballus) Maintained in two Housing Systems Type Conference Article
  Year 2008 Publication IESM 2008 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract A comparison of day-time time budgets of the konik polski horses kept in two different housing systems: free-roaming and in a limited area, was the aim of the study. The observations were carried out in the Biebrza National Park from January to June 2006 on a total of 12 horses (7 females and 5 males) aged from 2 to 5 years. The horses were kept for one year in a free-roaming system on a area of 200 ha where they formed two family bands. Later, during the winter the horses were grouped together in 1 ha enclosure with free access to water, hay given 3 times per day and oats given irregularly mainly in the winter. In the spring horses were let out again into the free-roaming system. A comparison was made of the horses“ behavior characterizing their daily activity in both housing systems. Behavioral data were collected during 122 h of direct observations in 1 hour focal samples in three periods of the day: morning (from dawn to 11:00 am), afternoon (from 11:00 am to 4:00 pm) and in the evening (from 4:00 pm until dusk). The proportion of time spent on feeding and resting behavior and locomotion activity in the total time of the observations, depending on the time of day and sex of the horses, was determined. For the evaluation of the frequency of drinking, comfort, eliminative, sexual and exploratory behavior the number of appeared cases in all horses was added up and divided by the number of observation hours. In spite of significant differences in the intensity of feeding and in the time spent on recumbency found in both housing systems depending on the time of day and sex of the horses, it seems that konik polski horses kept in different housing systems have a tendency to maintain the stable day-time time budgets, which was demonstrated by the similar time of their daily activity spent on feeding (75.9 % of total time in limited area and 71,2 % free-roaming) and resting upright (respectively 16.9 % and 15.8%) as well as cases of urination (0.18 cases/1 hour of observation in limited area and 0.17 in free-roaming in total), self- grooming (respectively 0.40 and 0.56) and mutual-grooming (0.17 and 0.12). But other signs of comfort behavior were observed nearly twice as often in the horses in the limited area (0,42) than in the free roaming system (0,22). The patterns of exploratory behavior were observed decisively more often in the case of horses in limited area (0,5 cases/1 hour of observation) than in the free-roaming system (0,07). The different housing system affected the konik polski horses” time-budget, with decreased time spent in limited area as compared to free-roaming horses in recumbent rest (respectively 2.5 % and 7,0 % of total time), locomotion activity in walk (4.9 % and 8,2 %) and trot (0.006 % and 2,3 %). Due to delivering forage to the paddock the locomotion of the horses related with searching, choosing and eating also decreased. Key words: housing systems, day-time time budgets, konik polski horses  
  Address Warsaw Agricultural University, Horse Breeding Department  
  Corporate Author Lojek, J. Thesis  
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  Area Expedition Conference IESM 2008  
  Notes Poster IESM 2008 Approved yes  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4478  
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Author (up) Lusseau, D.; Whitehead, H.; Gero, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Incorporating uncertainty into the study of animal social networks Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 75 Issue 5 Pages 1809-1815  
  Keywords bootstrap; social behaviour; social network; social structure  
  Abstract  
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5173  
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Author (up) Malara, L.; De Pasquale, A.; Ingala, A.; Innella, G. pdf  openurl
  Title The influence of management on horse behavioural reactivity in therapeutic riding programs. Type Conference Article
  Year 2008 Publication IESM 2008 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Management; Horses; Therapeutic Riding; Behaviour; Reactivity  
  Abstract We investigated 8 horses in five therapeutic riding centres situated in San Cataldo (Caltanissetta – I), Nicosia (Catania – II), Pellaro (Reggio Calabria – III), San Gregorio (Catania – IV), Niguarda Hospitals (Milan – V). The managements of the animals were of different typologies: Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3. In type 1 the horses were used for therapeutic riding only. Furthermore intra and interspecific social interactions were not allowed. In type 2 the horses played kinetic activities and made social interactions. In type 3 the horses were free in paddock, as intra and interspecific social interactions were allowed. The centre I, with a management of type 1, housed 1 horse (A1); the centre II, with a management of type 2, housed 1 horse (B2); the centre III, with a management of type 1, housed 1 horse (C1); the centre IV, with a management of type 2, housed 2 horses (D2 and E2); the centre V, with a management of type 3, housed 3 horses (F3, G3 and H3). Breeds of horses were: Anglo-Arab (n°1), Avelignese (n°3), Italian Selle (n°3), draught-horse crossbreed (n°1). They were 2 geldings and 6 females. Their ages ranged from 12 to 23 years. We observed a total of 64 patients affected by different pathologies: autism, motory handicap, blindness and deafness, children“s cerebral paralysis, relational problems, mental deficiency, Down”s syndrome.

The horses“ behaviour was observed at rest and during therapeutic activities with these patients. The Heart Rate (HR) was used as physiological parameter for an ethological evaluation, measured by a telemetric heart rate monitor (Polar Horse Trainer). Horses were analysed with a reactivity test for emotional homeostasis evaluation, too. Heart rate values were studied with non parametrical statistical analysis methods.

Distinct management typologies provided statistically different basal mean values of heart rate (intergroup and intragroup): Type 1 vs Type 2 (P~0.05) and Type 1 vs Type 3 (P<0.05). The comparison of heart rate during therapeutic activities of diverse management showed the following results: A1 vs B2 (P<0.05), B2 vs C1 (P<0.05), Type 1 vs Type 2 (P<0.01). Different managements, both in the same or different typologies, gave significantly diverse results (A1 vs E2: P~0.05; C1 vs E2: P~0.05; B2 vs E2: P~0.05).

This study shows that the statistic differences obtained by therapies with autistic patients derive from management conditions of Type 1. In reactivity test there aren”t any significant differences among the three management typologies. However, we recorded strong variation between medium and maximum values of heart rate, especially in Type 1 and Type 2 of management.

These high variations of heart rate indicated fear reaction of the horse to new stimuli.

This reaction could lead to dangerous accidents for patients during therapeutic activities.

Horses used in therapeutic riding programs must be evaluated before this employment. Horse's behaviour can be assessed by an ethological observation and a reactivity test. Furthermore, the horses must be guaranteed welfare conditions and must live in an environment enriched with sensorial stimuli and respectful of their physiological and ethological needs.
 
  Address Dept. of Experimental Sciences and Applied Biotechnologies, Unit of Applied Physiology and Comparative Ethology , Faculty of Veterinary Medicine – University of Messina, Italy.  
  Corporate Author Innella, G. Thesis  
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  Area Expedition Conference IESM 2008  
  Notes Poster IESM 2008 Approved yes  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4491  
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Author (up) Maros, K.; Dóka, A.; Miklósi, Á. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behavioural correlation of heart rate changes in family dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 109 Issue 2 Pages 329-341  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Fourteen dogs (7 males and 7 females) were tested for their heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) responses in different activities and environmental challenges while their movement was controlled. First, we wanted to compare the dogs? cardiac responses in different body positions (lying, sitting and standing) and during slow walking to reveal their possible influence on HR and HRV. Second, we tested the HR response during an attentive state when the dog was gazing at its favourite toy while remaining in a steady body position. Finally we investigated the heart activity during separation from the owner. We also analysed the individual differences and the influence of gender on the heart responses. We found that the HR increased during periods of increased activity (walking) and was lowest during lying, while it did not differ between sitting and standing. At the same time no changes in HRV were found in the case of different body positions and walking. In contrast, HRV significantly increased when dogs oriented towards their favourite toy, and we found a distinct individual characteristic HR change in this situation compared to the similar body position without the toy being shown. Interestingly during separation from the owner the HR did not increase, but when a strange person was petting the dog, a significant increasing effect was seen in the HR. However the HRV increased only when the petting was discontinued. In general, large individual variation was found with regard to the HR and HRV, while gender did not influence the cardiac activity of the dogs.These results show that body position affected HR significantly in dogs. Further it seems that HRV could be a good indicator of the dog's attentive state. Thus in future studies both the physical and cognitive factors should be given more attention when HR or HRV is investigated as a dependent variable.  
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  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2007.03.005 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5846  
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Author (up) Maros, K.; Gácsi, M.; Miklósi, Á doi  openurl
  Title Comprehension of human pointing gestures in horses ( Equus caballus ) Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 457-466  
  Keywords Human-animal communication – Pointing – Horse  
  Abstract Abstract Twenty domestic horses (Equus caballus) were tested for their ability to rely on different human gesticular cues in a two-way object choice task. An experimenter hid food under one of two bowls and after baiting, indicated the location of the food to the subjects by using one of four different cues. Horses could locate the hidden reward on the basis of the distal dynamic-sustained, proximal momentary and proximal dynamic-sustained pointing gestures but failed to perform above chance level when the experimenter performed a distal momentary pointing gesture. The results revealed that horses could rely spontaneously on those cues that could have a stimulus or local enhancement effect, but the possible comprehension of the distal momentary pointing remained unclear. The results are discussed with reference to the involvement of various factors such as predisposition to read human visual cues, the effect of domestication and extensive social experience and the nature of the gesture used by the experimenter in comparative investigations.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4388  
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Author (up) McDonnell, S.M. pdf  openurl
  Title Human-horse interactions: Where are the behaviorists in 2008? Type Conference Article
  Year 2008 Publication IESM 2008 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Havemeyer Equine Behavior Program, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, New Bolton Center, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania USA 19348  
  Abstract This presentation will include commentary on work presented at this meeting as representative of the rapidly growing body of equine behavior science evidence relevant to human-horse interaction and the welfare of domestic, feral, and wild horses.

A substantial literature has accumulated detailing the behavior patterns of wild and feral equid populations, and to some extent the behavior of horses in various domestic environments. Professor Klingel“s and Professor Houpt”s work, begun nearly 40 years ago, continues to inspire colleagues around the world to qualitatively and quantitatively describe behavior of equids in a variety of environments. Several examples of the importance of this type of work to human-horse interaction and horse welfare are evident in throughout the meeting. It forms the basis for assessing the disturbance of behavior in wildlife management projects such as fertility manipulations (Hopkins; Ransom & Cade) or species reintroduction (Kaczensky et al). Study of the apparent variability in observations among the populations will lead to a better understanding of environmental and other factors, which will have fruitful application to welfare of horses both in domestic and natural environments. Unfortunately, this work always brings to mind what I perceive as a nagging threat to horse welfare and quality of human-horse interaction is misinformation concerning natural horse behavior. Natural horse behavior seems to be of great general interest, but unfortunately inaccuracies and misinterpretations are pervasive in popular “horse culture” and continue to be a conspicuous influence on management and training of domestic horses. Unfortunately, this misinformation often makes its way and influences equine education, both lay and equine science/veterinary education. Comparative observational study of behavior of horses in all settings by trained behaviorists, along with research designed to address purported implications for management of domestic horses, along with initiatives to transfer knowledge to educators at all levels should be encouraged.



Included in this meeting is considerable work addressing questions of domestic management practices such as forced weaning, transportation, stabling, and arbitrary grouping and regrouping of horses. This adds to a growing body of applied physiology and behavior research that has established trained behaviorists as a critical resource on teams making decisions on humane management.

Also well represented in work presented at this meeting is the exploration of cognition, perception, and temperament in horses. It is personally pleasing to see examples of direct investigation of the ability of the horse to respond to subtle human posture and gesture, which for many of us has represented just annoying possible confounders of earlier cognition studies. Behaviorists trained in perception and learning will no doubt contribute enormously to this exciting area of investigation.
 
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  Corporate Author McDonnell, S.M. Thesis  
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  Area Expedition Conference IESM 2008  
  Notes Invited speaker IESM 2008 Approved yes  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4460  
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Author (up) McGrogan, C.; Hutchison, M.D.; King, J.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dimensions of horse personality based on owner and trainer supplied personality traits Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 113 Issue 1 Pages 206-214  
  Keywords Horse; Personality; Domestication; Five-factor model  
  Abstract Ratings on 36 personality descriptive adjectives were made on 100 companion horses by owners, trainers, and stable managers. The descriptors had been previously provided by a subset of 30 raters based on their own experience with horses. Principal components analysis revealed three statistically significant factors accounting for 59% of the variance. The first was a large, complex factor resembling the human Agreeableness factor. This factor contained four clusters of items reflecting obedience, kindness, sociality, and non-aggressiveness. The second factor resembled human Extraversion, although it also contained items reflecting intellect and curiosity. The third factor reflected Neuroticism or Emotionality. Factors similar to Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Emotionality are frequently observed in other taxa. The diverse composition of the Agreeableness factor indicating covariation among obedience, kindness, sociality, and non-aggressiveness may be a result of the intense artificial selection for all four components during the 6000 years of horse domestication.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 4337  
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Author (up) Mehlis, M.; Bakker, T.; Frommen, J. doi  openurl
  Title Smells like sib spirit: kin recognition in three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) is mediated by olfactory cues Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 643-650  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Abstract: The ability to recognise kin has been demonstrated in several animal species. However, the mechanisms of kin recognition often remain unknown. The most frequently discussed sensory modalities to recognise kin are visual, olfactory and acoustical cues. Three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are able to differentiate between kin and non-kin when presented visual and olfactory cues combined. To elucidate, which cues they use to recognise kin female sticklebacks were given the choice between two identical computer animations of courting stickleback males. Next to one animation, water conditioned by a brother was added, while near the other, water from an unrelated male was added. In half of the experiments, the brother was familiar while in the other half he was unfamiliar to the female. Both scenarios were carried out with both outbred and inbred fish. The results showed that the females adjusted their choice behaviour according to relatedness. Furthermore, they were able to recognise both familiar as well as unfamiliar brothers. Inbreeding did not affect this ability. Hence, three-spined sticklebacks are able to recognise their relatives using olfactory cues alone. The cognitive mechanisms underlying this ability were independent from familiarity and not impaired by inbreeding.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4645  
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