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Author Bouskila, A., ;Lourie,E.; de Vries, H.;Hermans, Z.M .;van Dierendonck, M. pdf  openurl
  Title Sex, but not relatedness nor age, affect the social network of horses in a semi-natural reserve Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract For some time now, social network analysis provides tools to describe concisely the social structure of animals. Nevertheless, the factors that shape the social network and determine the frequency of different types of affiliations are often unclear. For example, the effects of relatedness on social networks have been only studied on relatively few species. Both among social or sub-social species the effects ranged from no effect to a substantial effect. Here we test the hypothesis that relatedness has an effect on the social network of horses (Equus caballus) that live freely in semi-natural conditions, and specifically, that individuals with high values of relatedness to their neighbors in the network will have fewer links Wolf et al, 2011). This hypothesis is based on the notion that related individuals have common interests and are likely to assist each other, and may need less links to other, unrelated individuals. In addition, individuals of similar age and sex are likely to have common needs, and thus are more likely to be associated. We thus tested a second hypothesis: homophily to individuals with similar age and sex will have a role in determining the associations within the social network. The field study was conducted on 27 horses in the Blauwe Kamer reserve in the Netherlands (1.1 sq km). We videotaped horses and their groups and used the information from 22 horses, after excluding the five foals from the analysis. Relatedness was calculated from the pedigree, which was based on parentage, determined by DNA analysis. The social network was constructed based on spatial proximity data. We assessed the influence of relatedness, age-homophily and sex-homophily on the network structure with Multiple Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure (MRQAP) (Krackhardt 1988), with the R package sna. The results show that there was no significant effect of relatedness on the network, nor an effect of age-homophily. Nevertheless, we found a significant effect of sex-homophily, the tendency of individuals to associate with individuals of the same sex. We argue that the lack of a relatedness effect is not likely to have been caused due to the inability to detect who is kin. The structured social system in horses includes strong associations between often unrelated individuals, alongside with young individuals leaving their natal harem as part of the inherent inbreeding avoidance (Linklater & Cameron 2009; Boyd et al. in press). The significant effect of sex-homophily could stem from the protection females get from associations with other females, e.g., in the reduction of harassment from males. Previous studies on feral horses showed that mares that were better connected with other females in their harem benefited from higher survival rates to their foals (Cameron et al. 2009). The associations among bachelor males could also contribute to the strength of the sex-homophily effect.
In order to generalize from our results, one needs to examine additional populations of horses, because the conditions in the Blauwe Kamer reserve may not be representative, mainly due to the limited opportunity for dispersal in a restricted area.
Keywords: Long-term affiliation; spatial proximity, kin detection
Boyd, L., Scorolli, A. L., Nowzari, H., & Bouskila, A. (2016). Chapter 2: Social organization. In J. I. Ransom, & P. Kaczensky (Eds.), Wild equids. Baltimore, Maryland (in press): The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Cameron, E. Z., Setsaas, T. H., & Linklater, W. L. (2009). Social bonds between unrelated females increase reproductive success in feral horses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(33), 13850-13853
Krackhardt, D. (1988). Predicting with networks: Nonparametric multiple regression analysis of dyadic data. Social Networks, 10(4), 359-381.
Linklater, W. L., & Cameron, E. Z. (2009). Social dispersal but with philopatry reveals incest avoidance in a polygynous ungulate. Animal Behaviour, 77(5), 1085-1093.
Wolf, J. B., Traulsen, A., & James, R. (2011). Exploring the link between genetic relatedness r and social contact structure k in animal social networks. The American Naturalist, 177(1), 135-142.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Bouskila, A. Thesis  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5881  
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Author Wolter, R.; Krueger, K. pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title The analysis of social bonds in feral horses Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords social bonds, grooming, nearest neighborhood, rank  
  Abstract In many social mammals, individuals preferentially affiliate with a small subset of available partners instead of distributing their social behaviors equally among all group members. The resulting social bonds have been investigated in several mammalian taxa, especially in primate societies, but also in other taxa such as birds, dolphins, rodents and ungulates. In feral horses, a great number of studies on social bonds can be found, but with a huge variety between methods for the analysis. There seems to be a lack of a clear and common definition of social bonds in horses and of comparable analyses. For example, there are irregularities between the studies regarding the research designs, the selection of recording methods and the interpretation of the measurements. Mutual grooming is used most often for the analysis of social relationships in many species. As mutual grooming is rare in horses, especially measurements of spatial proximity are commonly used for the analysis of social bonds in addition to other behavioral patterns. However, the combination of mutual grooming and nearest neighborhood analyses for the analysis of social bond is debatable, as in contrast to mutual grooming, which must occur deliberately by both grooming partners, the spatial distribution can be influenced by one partner alone, which may even force the other horse to keep a certain distance or to stay in close proximity.
In this study, we investigated the comparability of mutual grooming and nearest neighborhood data for social bond analyses in feral horses. Therefore, we observed five groups of semi-wild living Przewalski’s horses and six groups of feral horses.
We analysed the horses’ social ranks by applying an Average Dominance Index, we recorded the distances between the animals and observed the number of mutual grooming events as well as friendly approaches.
Our results show that there was only a weak correlation between the frequency of staying in nearest neighborhood and mutual grooming in all observed horse groups. In contrast to this, the correlation between the number of friendly approaches and mutual grooming events was higher in most groups.
Hierarchies did not affect social bonds, as mutual grooming was similarly induced by higher and lower ranking animals and the social rank did not affect the choice of the grooming partner. Similarly, likelihoods of staying in the neighborhood of particular animals were not affected by the animals’ social rank.
The grooming frequencies differed between the different horse groups and between the individual horses living in the particular groups. They seem to be effected by individual predisposition.
Altogether we suggest that the ratio of mutual grooming seems to be a better indicator for social bonds in feral horses than the frequency of staying in the nearest neighborhood. Mutual grooming occurs deliberately and is bidirectional, whereas nearest neighborhoods could be enforced and unidirectional. For the calculation of social bonds in horses, we consider it to be more reliable to combine the frequency of mutual grooming with the frequency of friendly approaches.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Wolter, R. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5882  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Krause, J.; James, R.; Franks, D.W.; Croft, D. P. openurl 
  Title Animal Social Networks. Type Book Whole
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Oxford Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5883  
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Author Rubenstein D.I. openurl 
  Title Networks of terrestrial ungulates: linking form and function Type Book Chapter
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Animal Social Networks Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Oxford Editor Krause, J., James, R., Franks, D. W., & Croft, D. P.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5884  
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Author Merola, I.; Lazzaroni, M.; Marshall-Pescini, S.; Prato-Previde, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social referencing and cat–human communication Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 3 Pages 639-648  
  Keywords Social referencing; Cats; Gaze alternation; Social learning; Human–cat communication  
  Abstract Cats’ (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner’s emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner’s actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats’ social organization and domestication history.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5885  
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Author Defolie, C.; Malassis, R.; Serre, M.; Meunier, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) adapt their communicative behaviour to human’s attentional states Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 3 Pages 747-755  
  Keywords Gestural communication; Intentionality; Non-human primates; Social cognition; Attention; Pointing  
  Abstract Animal communication has become a widely studied field of research, especially because of the associated debates on the origin of human language. Due to their phylogenetic proximity with humans, non-human primates represent a suitable model to investigate the precursors of language. This study focuses on the perception of the attentional states of others, an important prerequisite to intentional communication. We investigated whether capuchins (Cebus apella) produce a learnt pointing gesture towards a hidden and unreachable food reward as a function of the attentional status of the human experimenter. For that purpose, we tested five subjects that we first trained to indicate by a pointing gesture towards the human partner the position of a reward hidden by an assistant. Then, capuchins were tested in two experimental conditions randomly ordered. In the first condition—motivation trial—the experimenter was attentive to the subject gestures and rewarded him immediately when it pointed towards the baited cylinder. During the second condition—test trial—the experimenter adopted one of the following attention states and the subject was rewarded after 10 s has elapsed, regardless of the subject’s behaviour. Five attentional states were tested: (1) experimenter absent, (2) experimenter back to the monkey, (3) experimenter’s head away, (4) experimenter watching above the monkey, and (5) experimenter watching the monkey face. Our results reveal a variation in our subjects’ communicative behaviours with a discrimination of the different postural clues (body and head orientation) available in our experimental conditions. This study suggests that capuchins can flexibly use a communicative gesture to adapt to the attentional state of their partner and provides evidence that acquired communicative gestures of monkeys might be used intentionally.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5886  
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Author Oliva, J.L.; Rault, J.-L.; Appleton, B.; Lill, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Oxytocin enhances the appropriate use of human social cues by the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) in an object choice task Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 3 Pages 767-775  
  Keywords Cognition; Cues; Dog; Oxytocin; Social  
  Abstract It has been postulated that the neuropeptide, oxytocin, is involved in human–dog bonding. This may explain why dogs, compared to wolves, are such good performers on object choice tasks, which test their ability to attend to, and use, human social cues in order to find hidden food treats. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration, which is known to increase social cognition in humans, on domestic dogs’ ability to perform such a task. We hypothesised that dogs would perform better on the task after an intranasal treatment of oxytocin. Sixty-two (31 males and 31 females) pet dogs completed the experiment over two different testing sessions, 5–15 days apart. Intranasal oxytocin or a saline control was administered 45 min before each session. All dogs received both treatments in a pseudo-randomised, counterbalanced order. Data were collected as scores out of ten for each of the four blocks of trials in each session. Two blocks of trials were conducted using a momentary distal pointing cue and two using a gazing cue, given by the experimenter. Oxytocin enhanced performance using momentary distal pointing cues, and this enhanced level of performance was maintained over 5–15 days time in the absence of oxytocin. Oxytocin also decreased aversion to gazing cues, in that performance was below chance levels after saline administration but at chance levels after oxytocin administration.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5887  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Takaoka, A.; Maeda, T.; Hori, Y.; Fujita, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do dogs follow behavioral cues from an unreliable human? Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim.Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 475-483  
  Keywords Dog; Dog–human interaction; Selective trust; Pointing; Object choice task  
  Abstract Dogs are known to consistently follow human pointing gestures. In this study, we asked whether dogs “automatically” do this or whether they flexibly adjust their behavior depending upon the reliability of the pointer, demonstrated in an immediately preceding event. We tested pet dogs in a version of the object choice task in which a piece of food was hidden in one of the two containers. In Experiment 1, Phase 1, an experimenter pointed at the baited container; the second container was empty. In Phase 2, after showing the contents of both containers to the dogs, the experimenter pointed at the empty container. In Phase 3, the procedure was exactly as in Phase 1. We compared the dogs’ responses to the experimenter’s pointing gestures in Phases 1 and 3. Most dogs followed pointing in Phase 1, but many fewer did so in Phase 3. In Experiment 2, dogs followed a new experimenter’s pointing in Phase 3 following replication of procedures of Phases 1 and 2 in Experiment 1. This ruled out the possibility that dogs simply lost motivation to participate in the task in later phases. These results suggest that not only dogs are highly skilled at understanding human pointing gestures, but also they make inferences about the reliability of a human who presents cues and consequently modify their behavior flexibly depending on the inference.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5888  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bartos, A.; Bányai, A.; Koltay, I.; Mándó, Zs pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Effect of mud treatment from Heviz Spa Lake on the joints and locomotion activities of horses Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords mud treatment, Heviz Spa Lake, maximal flexibility of joints, locomotion activities  
  Abstract Medical research on the effects of thermal mud in the human medical field already retrospect for many years (Gyarmati és Kulisch 2008). As a result, the thermal sludge product is successfully applied more widely, especially in the rehabilitation of rheumatic diseases (Gyarmati és mtsai., 2012). Research results related to the management of horses for the time being, however, are not available.
The aim of our study was to investigate how a mud treatment from Heviz Spa Lake affects the movement quality and flexibility of certain joints in horses. An experiment was carried out with 10 male and female school and sport horses. All of the horses had been ridden longer period than 3 years and had correct and healthy movement. Horses were treated with mud ten times, respectively, daily in the evenings. Wet sludge was blamed on the knee, hock, elbow, shoulder, back, stifle, front and hind cannons and fetlock joints. The sludge used for treatments was washed off in the morning. At the beginning of the experiment, after the treatment and 8 weeks following the average stride length and the longest distance between the print of hind and front foot during walking and trotting, maximal flexibility of knee, hock and fetlock joints were measured. To calculate the number of steps horses were lead straight during walking and trotting on 30 m flat distance. Following this the stride length was determined. To determine the longest distance between the print of hind and front foot on flat, sandy soil, the distance between hind and front prints was measured three times. The maximal flexibility of each joint was measured with a joint protractor. Statistical analysis was carried out with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPSS 7.0 program.

According to the results (table 1.), the horses responded positively to the treatments. The most positive results were detected by the average stride lenght during walking, maximal flexibility of the front fetlock, knee and hock. This is partly explicable with the beneficial effects of sulphur on the joints, which is well-known in human field (Kovács és mtsai., 2012). The stride length and longest distance between the print of hind and front foot were lower but positively influenced by the mud treatment. Eight weeks after the treatments, most of the parameters similar to human therapeutic results (Kulisch és mtsai., 2012), compared to directly after the mud baths completion values ​​were further improved, a slight negative effect was observed only for a few test values, but the results obtained here were more favourable, as at the beginning of the experiment. The results seem to confirm that the treatment effects can be considered long term. This is also explained by the slurry preparation from which absorbed elemental sulphur and sulphur oxidizing hydrogen sulfide absorbed in the body may be another source of hydrogen sulphide formation at the skin (Gyarmati,1982).
Our results show, that the mud treatment from Heviz Spa Lake may have benifical effects on the joints, playing an important role in the locomotion of horses.

The results are remarkable as well, also because of the evidence of the chemical impact of mud also can help. Such modes of action are still under research and only partly demonstrated in human medicine (Odabasi és mtsai., 2008). Further veterinarian research has to be carried out to confirm the results. The results of the present experiment and the prospect of further research could be pioneer, as the Heviz mud, as well as the thermal effect of water even before in the equine medicine has not been demonstrated experimentally, only individual observations are aviable. So the veterinary use of Heviz mud, which has been proven many times in human medicine, seems to be a new research field.
Key words: mud treatment, Heviz Spa Lake, maximal flexibility of joints, locomotion activities
References
Gyarmati, J. (1982): Experiences of Heviz mud treatments. FITEC Congress, Budapest
Gyarmati N, Ms. – Kulisch Á., Ms. (2008): History and description of héviz spa with special emphasis on weight-bath. La Presse thermale et climatique 2008;145:233-242.
Gyarmati N., Ms. – Mándó Zs., Ms. – Bergmann A., Ms. – Mózes M., Ms. (2012.): The role of mud treatment int he rehabilitation of reumatic illnesses. XXXI: Conference of The Hungarian Society for Medical Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine 6-8. september. Szombathely, Hungary
Kovács C, – Pecze M, – Tihanyi Á, – Kovács L, – Balogh S, – Bender T. (2012): The effect of sulphurous water in patients with osteoarthritis of hand. Double-blind, randomized, controlled follow-up study. Clinical Rheumatology Oct;31(10):1437-42.
Kulisch Á. and her medical team (2012): Survey of Heviz thermal-mineralwater on patienten suffering from primer knee-arthrosis. As medicinal declaration of human research.
Essay, Saint Andrew Hospital for Reumatic Diseases, Heviz, Hungary
Odabasi, Ersin; Turan, Mustafa; Erdem, Hakan; Tekbas, Faruk (2008): Does Mud Pack Treatment Have Any Chemical Effect? A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine; Jun, Vol. 14 Issue 5, p559
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Bartos, A. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger. K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5903  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ahmadinejad , S.M.; Pishkar, J.; Anisi, T.; Babayee, B. pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Verbal expressions of the horses to the pain Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract For communicating with the environment (other horses, foals, owner, etc.), horses have to use different methods. In contrast with the human, for whom talking is the most important way of communication, the horses can’t talk. In the years 1990s and before, the imagination was such that the infants do not express verbally to the pain either (like horses).
To communicate, horses use their body language. Vocalization (if not the body language), seems to be the most important way of communication in horses, though it seems they use the same tone when exposing to different events.
In this study which was performed in collaboration with the electronic institute of Sharif technical university (the top most technical university of the country), totally 25 horses were used. The horses were exposed to different events (hunger, pain, loneliness, mating, parturition and separation of the 1-2 weeks old foals from their dams). The verbal expressions of the horses were studied using spectrogram.
The results of this study showed that there were significant differences between the spectrograph of the voices of the horses, exposed to hunger, and the separation of the foals from dams. This was the same (no significant differences) when horses were exposed to loneliness, separation and hunger. There were no significant differences between the verbal expressions of the horses while exposed to mating, parturition.
One of the most important reasons why the horses do not have verbal expressions when exposing to the pain, might be the absence of the part of the brain, responsible for the pain interpretation. Morse research has to be performed to prove this.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Ahmadinejad , S.M. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger. K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5890  
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