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Author Fuchs, C.; Kiefner, C.; Erhard, M.; Wöhr, A.C. pdf  openurl
  Title Narcolepsy – or REM-deficient? Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords narcolepsy, cataplexy, polysomnography, REM-sleep deficiency  
  Abstract Narcolepsy is a neurological sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (loss of muscle tone), sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations, also called the „tetrad of narcolepsy“. Although the pathogenesis is not completely understood, the disorder is well described in humans and it has been shown that a lack of the hormone hypocretin (orexin) synthesized in the hypothalamus is crucial. Narcolepsy with cataplectic attacks has also been reported in dogs, horses, cattle (STRAIN et al., 1984) and a lamb (WHITE und DE LAHUNTA, 2001).

In dogs up to 17 breeds have been shown to be affected sporadically, while familial forms occur in dobermans, labrador retrievers and dachshounds (TONOKURA et al., 2007). In horses there appear to be two syndroms (HINES, 2005), the first in which animals are affected within a few days after birth (possibly a familial form, reported in Suffolk, Shetland ponies, Fell ponies, Warmbloods, Miniature Horse foals (MAYHEW, 2011), Lipizzaner (LUDVIKOVA et al., 2012) and Icelandic horses (BATHEN‐NÖTHEN et al., 2009)) and the second in which animals are affected as adults (adult-onset narcolepsy).
It has been shown that both forms of canine narcolepsy are associated with a deficit in hypocretin/orexin neurotransmission (LIN et al., 1999). In the horse a similar etiology is suspected, but so far there are no studies to support this hypothesis.

The cataplectic attacks in humans and dogs occur during excitement or emotional stimulation such as laughing in humans or eating and playing in dogs. In contrast, the cataplectic or sleep attacks in adult horses happen almost exclusively while resting. The collapses observed in equines vary from drowsiness with hanging of the head, swaying, buckling at the knees or total collapse (see fig.1). Affected horses often show injuries and scars at the dorsal fetlocks, dorsal knees or at the face and the lips. ALEMAN et al. (2008) describe some of the suspected adult-onset narcolepsy cases as possible examples of sporadic idiopathic hypersomnia instead of true narcolepsy.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Fuchs, C. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5871  
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Author König von Borstel, U.; Kienapfel, K.; McLean, A.; Wilkins, C.; Evans, D.; McGreevy, P. pdf  openurl
  Title Hyperflexing the horse‘s neck: a cost-benefit and meta-analysis Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords horse, head-and-neck posture, hyperflexion, welfare, gymnastics  
  Abstract In ethical discussions, a cost-benefit analysis requires that welfare costs associated with an activity can be reliably estimated and balanced against the potential benefits of the activity to both humans and animals. The current study applies a meta-analysis to the peer-reviewed evidence for costs and benefits of hyperflexion of the neck in horses; a practice that has attracted enormous public and scientific scrutiny over the past 15 years. A literature review identified 55 studies dealing with horses’ head and neck postures. Fourty-two of these studies examined the impact of various postures on equine welfare, for example, by assessing behavior, physiological stress parameters, health or rider-horse interaction. Thirty-five studies examined the impact of various postures on gymnastics (e.g. kinematics, shifts in weight distribution, muscle activity, airway functioning or overall workload). For the meta-analysis a dataset containing information from each of the individual studies was created. Data included information such as type, degree, duration and circumstances of hyperflexion applied in that particular study as well as information on the horses (e.g., sport discipline, level of training, breed) and on the study design (e.g., size of study and experimental or epidemiological research design). The results of the study regarding the impact of hyperflexion on a) welfare and b) gymnastics were coded as positive (1), insignificant or contradictory (0) or negative (-1). The significant majority of studies (88%) concluded that a hyperflexed head and neck posture negatively impacts welfare. Just one study suggested welfare advantages of training in a hyperflexed head and neck posture. An analysis using a generalized linear mixed model to assess the influence of the above factors collated in the dataset revealed that none of these factors significantly influenced the probability of a study to detect negative welfare implications. Thus hyperflexing the neck appears to impair horses’ welfare regardless of, for example, the duration or the way of achieving hyperflexion. A concurrent assessment of the evidence for gymnastic benefits showed that approximately one quarter of studies conclude that there may be benefits, while another quarter of the studies conclude that hyperflexion has detrimental effects on gymnastics. Thus, on the costs-side there is a clear reduction in equine welfare and some undesirable gymnastic effects, as well as likely a compromised profile of the equestrian sports in public. Benefits, on the other hand, include some desirable gymnastic effects, and potentially increased control of the horse for the rider. On balance, it appears that the costs associated with hyperflexion exceed the potential benefits of the activity to both humans and horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author König von Borstel, U. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5872  
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Author Vidament. M pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Laterality and emotions : behavioural response to an approach of a novel object by young ridden horses. Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Vidament. M Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor ; Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5905  
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Author Baragli, P.; Demuru, E.; Palagi, E. pdf  openurl
  Title Mirror on the wall, who is the horsest of our all? Self-recognition in Equus caballus Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Domestic horse • Mark test • Socio-cognitive skills • Self-awareness  
  Abstract Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR) is an extremely rare capacity in the animal kingdom that reveals the emergence of complex cognitive capacities (de Waal 2008). So far, MSR has been reported only in humans, chimpanzees (Gallup, 1970), bottlenose dolphins (Reiss and Marino, 2001) and Asian elephants (Plotnik et al, 2006), all species characterized by a highly developed cognition. There is growing evidence that domestic horses posses high cognitive abilities, such as cross-modal individual recognition (Proops et al, 2009), triadic post-conflict reunion to maintain social homeostasis (Cozzi et al, 2010), complex communicative systems (Whatan and McComb, 2014), flexibility in problem-solving (Lovrovich et al, 2015), and long-term memory (Hanggi and Ingersoll, 2009). All these capacities make horses a good candidate to test the ability of MSR in a domestic species. Through a classical MSR experimental paradigm (de Waal 2008) we tested eight horses living in social groups under semi-natural conditions (from the Italian Horse Protection rescue centre). Animals showing MSR typically go through four stages (Plotnik et al, 2006): (i) social response, (ii) physical mirror inspection (e.g., looking behind the mirror), (iii) repetitive mirror-testing behaviour (i.e., the beginning of mirror understanding), and (iv) self-directed behaviour (i.e., recognition of the mirror image as self). The final stage, known as the “mark-test”, is verified when a subject spontaneously uses the mirror to check for a coloured artificial mark on its own body which it cannot perceive otherwise. The horses underwent a three-phase “mark-test”: 1) with sham mark (transparent ultrasound water gel) positioned on both side at jaw level, 2) mark (yellow eye shadow mixed with ultrasound water gel) positioned on left side of jaw (with sham mark on the right), 3) mark (yellow eye shadow mixed with ultrasound water gel) positioned on right side of jaw (with sham mark on the left)
The mirror was one 0.5-cm-thick piece of 140x220-cm plexiglass glue on wood. Each test lasted one hour, horses were tested once a day, in consecutive days and at the same time. Our preliminary result on 1 horse shows some changes in self-directed behaviours which can be attributed to presence of the coloured mark. Firstly, the presence of the coloured mark significantly increased the frequency of scratching on both sides of the muzzle (p < 0.0001). The most intriguing result (p < 0.0001) comes from the comparison of the scratching rates directed towards the coloured mark side (N = 41) and the sham mark side (N = 23). Under the control condition (i.e. sham mark on both sides) no statistical difference was found for the scratching rates directed to the muzzle sides (dx N = 8; sx N = 5). Although further analyses are needed to confirm these preliminary results, our finding opens new scenarios about the evolution of Mirror Self-Recognition. The capacity of horses to recognize themselves in a mirror may be the outcome of an evolutionary convergence process driven by the cognitive pressures imposed by a complex social system and maintained despite thousands years of domestication.
Keywords:
Domestic horse · Mark test · Socio-cognitive skills · Self-awareness

References
De Waal FBM (2008) The thief in the mirror. PloS Biol 6(8):e201
Gallup GG Jr (1970) Chimpanzees: Self-recognition. Science 167: 86-87.
Reiss D, Marino L (2001). Mirror self-recognition in the bottlenose dolphin: A case of cognitive convergence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:5937-5942.
Plotnik J, de Waal FBM, Reiss D (2006) Self-recognition in an Asian elephant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103: 17053-17057.
Proops L, McComb K, Reby D. (2009) Cross-modal individual recognition in domestic horses (Equus caballus). Proc Nat Acad Sci USA;106:947-951.
Cozzi A, Sighieri C, Gazzano A, Nicol CJ, Baragli P. Post-conflict friendly reunion in a permanent group of horses (Equus caballus). Behav Process 2010;85:185-190.
Wathan J, McComb K. The eyes and ears are visual indicators of attention in domestic horses. Curr Biol 2014;24(15): R677-R679.
Lovrovich P, Sighieri C, Baragli P (2015) Following human-given cues or not? Horses (Equus caballus) get smarter and change strategy in a delayed three choice task. Appl Anim Behav Sci, in press.
Hanggi EB, Ingersoll JF. (2009) Long-term memory for categories and concepts in horses (Equus caballus). Anim Cogn; 12:451-462.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Baragli, P. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5874  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hintze, S.;Smith, S.; Patt, A.;Bachmann, I.;Würbel, H. pdf  openurl
  Title What eye wrinkles in horses tell us about their emotional state Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Wrinkles above the eye ball are common in domestic horses but may differ in number and shape both between and within individuals. They are caused by contraction of the inner eye brow raiser, and some people working with horses call them “worry wrinkles”, considering them to reflect emotional states. However, as yet no study has formally investigated the relationship between eye wrinkles and emotional state in horses.
The aim of the present study was to induce states of different emotional valence and to assess whether positive emotional states would reduce the expression of eye wrinkles while negative emotional states would increase it. Sixteen horses were confronted in a balanced order with two presumably positively and two negatively valenced situations each. Positive situations included anticipation of a food reward (FA) and petting (P), negative situations included food competition (FC) and waving a plastic bag (PB). Each situation lasted for 60s (TRT) and was preceded by a 60s control phase (CON). Throughout CON and TRT pictures of the eyes were taken, and for each horse four pictures per situation (FA, P, FC, PB) and phase (CON and TRT) were randomly selected (n = 512) and scored in random order and blind to treatment for six outcome variables: overall impression (qualitative), number, angle and markedness of eye wrinkles, presence of eye white, and shape of eye lid.
Data were analysed separately for the right and left eye using linear mixed effects models (angle, number), generalised linear mixed models (eye white, markedness), and ordered logistic regression (qualitative, shape of eye lid), with “situation” (FA, P, FC, PB), “phase” (CON, TRT) and their two-way interaction as fixed effects.
Expression of eye wrinkles did not vary consistently across “situation” and “phase”. Independent of phase, eye white appeared less frequently during P than during FA (z=-3.15, p=0.009), FC (z=-2.94, p=0.02), and PB (z=4.17, p<0.001) in the left eye and during PB (z=4.10, p 0.001) in the right eye. Similarly, wrinkles were less marked during P compared to the other situations in the left eye (FA: z=3.15, p=0.009; FC: z=-2.94, p=0.017; PB: z=4.17, p<0.001) and compared to PB in the right eye (z=4.10, p=0.001), while no differences between situations occurred in number of wrinkles, overall impression and shape of eye lid for both eyes. Consistent with our hypothesis, P induced relaxation of the underlying muscle in the right eye resulting in a wider angle compared to its control phase (interaction situation*phase: F3,10=3.71, p=0.055; post-hoc comparison: z=-3.57, p=0.009), while FC induced muscle contraction, resulting in a sharper angle in the left eye (interaction situation*phase: F3,11=6.57, p=0.011; z=3.73, p=0.005).
We conclude that emotional valence may affect characteristics of eye winkle expression in horses which might therefore be a promising indicator of horses’ emotional states, but further research is needed to validate the relevant outcome variables.
 
  Address eye wrinkles, emotional valence, positive and negative emotions, welfare assessment  
  Corporate Author Hintze, S. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5875  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Malavasi, R.; Huber, L. pdf  openurl
  Title Referential communication in the domestic horse (Equus caballus): first exploration in an ungulate species Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords domestic horse, referential communication, human-horse communication, intentionality  
  Abstract An important question in the study of animal communication is whether non-human animals are able to produce communicative gestures, i.e. nonvocal bodily actions directed to a recipient, physically ineffective but with a meaning shared in the social group [1]. Passive gestures are instrumental, tuned to the mere presence/absence of others, whereas active informers recognize receivers as communicative agents and activate shared-attention mechanisms for identifying their attentional state (SAM [2]; e.g. Schwab and Huber [3]). Six operational criteria must be evaluated to classify a signal as referential and intentional [4]: (1) alternative gazes between the partner and the target; (2) apparent attention-getting behaviours are deployed; (3) an audience is required to exhibit the behaviour; (4) the attentional status of an observer influences the propensity to exhibit behaviours; (5) communication is persistent and (6) there is elaboration of communicative behaviour when apparent attempts to manipulate the partner fail. Dogs [5] and non-human primates (reviewed in Liebal and Call [6]) can tune a human receiver’s attention to the object of interest by combining directional and attention-getting signals, such as turning the head or body, gazing to the receiver, and/or establishing eye contact. Research on other species is scarce.
Horses rely on humans to survive in domestic settings and may have evolved skills for communicating flexibly with them [7]. Horses understand human attentional cues (such as body and head orientation, eyes opened/closed) [8], permanent pointing [9] and, to some extent, gazing [10]. Here we tested the ability of 14 outdoor, herd-living domestic horses to communicate referentially with a human partner about the location of a desired target, a bucket of food out of reach. After the baiting of two buckets placed in opposite, unreachable locations were shown by the experimenter, the subject would walk to one of the two buckets. Because approaching a bucket would reveal that the food is out of reach, we expected the horse to look back to the experimenter, then to the bucket, and alternate this gazing several times to indicate its intention. To test whether our prediction is correct and alternate gazing is indeed the result of the horse's referential communication, we video-recorded the behaviour of the subjects in the test (FORWARD) and three control conditions: (1) FORWARD: experimenter oriented to the center of the arena, (2) BACK: experimenter backward oriented in respect to the arena, (3) ALONE: experimenter absent, (4) MANY: as FORWARD plus a familiar human oriented to the subject behind the bucket (Figure 1). We used a conservative criterion of back gazing by considering only turning the head back more than 90 degrees. The results confirmed our prediction. The horses alternated gazes between the partner and the buck significantly more often in the FORWARD than in all the other conditions (Table 1), thus satisfying operational criteria #1, #3 and #4. They also alternated head nods with gazes to the partner significantly more often during the FORWARD condition. We thus considered head nods not an instrumental signal of arousal, but an attention-getting behaviour with communicative function. Subjects used both head nods and neck stretched toward the buck more often in the FORWARD than in the BACK and the ALONE conditions, thus satisfying criteria #2, #3 and #4. In condition MANY, the frequency of head nods did not differ from condition FORWARD, probably because nods were directed to the additional partner behind the buck. This also satisfies criteria #4. The horses gazed to the partner most often in the FORWARD than in the BACK and the MANY conditions, but not in the ALONE. In this condition, subjects could observe the partner walking further from the test arena. To test for the different functions of gazes in presence and in absence of the partner, we compared their average duration between the two conditions: the significantly longer duration of gazes when the subject was alone suggests the instrumental monitoring function of gazes in this experimental condition.
Altogether, the findings suggest that domestic horses possess the ability to use referential communication in an interspecific context, but additional analyses are needed to test for operational criteria #5 and #6. Flexible and voluntary use of communicative signals reveal sophisticated cognitive processes involved in the strategic emission of these signals, and the finding of referential communication skills in an ungulate species forces us to reconsider the evolutionary path of intelligence. Furthermore, ungulates are used intensively by humans (transportation, meat, agriculture, leisure activities), and their welfare is often compromised. Determining whether ungulates can communicate their needs and preferences is paramount to a proper ethical management.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Malavasi, R. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5876  
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Author Ahmadinejad , S.M.; Asgari, Z. pdf  openurl
  Title Facial expressions of the Caspian pony to its own picture, mirror and a combination of these two Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Abnormal behaviors of the horses are among the most important problems, in the ridding clubs. Digestive and somatic abnormal behaviors are the two most important abnormal behaviors in the horses, with the loneliness and boredom the two most important causes of these abnormal behaviors. Many study showed that spending times ( increasing the exercise and training time) would stop such abnormal behaviors. The man power scarcity is the important reason many ridding clubs face and this is the reason why the abnormal behavior are mostly observed in such clubs.
Current study is the first report regarding facial expressions of the Caspian Pony to different objects. Totally 10 Caspian ponies were used in this study. The pictures were taken both in the calm and in the furious (nervous) situation The pony’s pictures were the alternatives we used in this research to combat the man power scarcity!. We also used mirror to compare the expressions of the ponies to the pictures and mirror. The results of this study showed that the ponies showed more attention to the picture in calm position when compared with the picture in nervous position. In the box with the mirror and the picture (in calm position) in it, the ponies paid much more attention to the mirror than the picture.
We conclude that despite of resistant of ponies for leaving outdoor and entering to indoor (paddock to box), installing mirror can prevent (almost completely) the horse’s boredom and loneliness, a very cheap (but not wise! alternative for manpower). The results of this research were applicable and were suggested to many ridding clubs with the horses with stereotypic behaviors, received almost completely positive results.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Ahmadinejad , S.M. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5877  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Briefer Freymond, S.; Piovesana, L. ; Briefer. E. F. ; Beuret. S.; Zuberbühler, K.; Bshary, R. ;Bachmann, I. pdf  openurl
  Title Crib-biting behaviour of horses: stress and learning capacity Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Crib-biting is a stereotypy in horses that is potentially linked to both chronic stress and genetic predisposition. Chronic stress can cause neurobiological changes such as alteration of the dopaminergic modulation of the basal ganglia [1]. These neurobiological changes could alter and modify the learning profile of the horses [2,3]. We tested 19 crib-biters and 18 non-crib-biting horses (controls) in five challenging spatial tasks, in order to test if differences in dopaminergic modulation impair learning capacities. The tests were performed in two time periods, in a small arena (8 x 10 m) that was familiar to the horses. For each trials, the horses were led to the start zone in front of a four-meter-long solid fence and were then left alone in the arena. Their task was then to find a bucket containing food, which was situated in different positions around the fence, depending on the tests. The time to reach the food bucket, the trajectory taken by the horse (left or right side of the fence) and the ECG trace were recorded continuously. Additionally, salivary cortisol was collected before the tests (baseline), after the first time period, and after the second time period. We found that crib-biters and controls behaved similarly during the learning tasks. However crib-biters that did crib-bite on the solid fence during the task (group A; 10 horses) behaved differently than crib-biters that did not crib-bite (group B; 9 horses) and controls (group C; 18 horses) for some tests, in their trajectory or time to reach the bucket. These differences are more likely explained by the time taken to crib-bite, than by differences in learning capacity. We did not find any difference between groups in their heart-rate variability (RMSSD). Yet, we found a difference in salivary cortisol after the first time period between groups A, B and C. Indeed, the crib-biters that did not crib-bite had higher salivary cortisol values than all the other horses (mean±SE: A, 0.51±0.16ng/ml, B, 0.78±0.17ng/ml, C, 0.59±0.20ng/ml; Linear mixed model (LMM), p<0.05). Our results suggest that crib-biting horses that did not crib-bite during the learning tasks were more stressed than all other horses. This difference could be due to higher stress sensitivity in crib-biters, which could be reduced by the opportunity to crib-bite. These results replicate our previous findings testing differences in cortisol levels between crib-biters and control horses during an ACTH challenge test. Therefore, crib-biting behaviour might be a coping strategy helping stereotypic horses to reduce their stress during frustrating situations [4].

Keyword:
stereotypy, chronic stress, learning task
 
  Address stereotypy, chronic stress, learning task  
  Corporate Author Briefer Freymond, S. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5878  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Burla,J.B.; Rufener, C.; Bachmann, I.; Gygax, L.; Patt, A.;Hillmann, E. pdf  openurl
  Title Effect of varying dimensions of the littered lying area on the lying behaviour of group-housed horses (Equus ferus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords group housing, lying behaviour, littered lying area, rubber mats  
  Abstract Although horses can sleep while standing, recumbency is required for REM sleep and since all sleep stages must be completed for an entire sleep cycle, the opportunity for recumbency is essential for animal welfare. Observations on feral horses indicate a minimal lying duration of 30 min, preferably on a deformable and dry ground. In contrast to feral horses, lying behaviour in stabled horses is often affected by the dimensions of the provided lying area and rank.
In Switzerland, minimum requirements (MR) for the littered lying area are established by law to ensure animal welfare (BLV, 2008) (A/N: approximately match German recommendations (BMEL, 2009)). The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of the dimensions of the minimum requirements for group-housed horses by investigating 38 horses in 8 groups. Further, hard rubber mats were provided supplementary in order to assess their suitability as an alternative to litter. Four treatments were each applied in randomised order:
– 0x MR: no litter + 1.5x MR with rubber mats
– 0.5x MR: 0.5x MR with litter + 1x MR with rubber mats
– 1x MR: 1x MR with litter; 0.5x MR with rubber mats
– 1.5x MR: 1.5x MR with litter + no rubber mats
For each treatment, after a habituation period of 8 days, lying behaviour was recorded (video, accelerometers) continuously for 72 hrs. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed effects models.
Regardless of the ground chosen, the duration of recumbency per 24 hrs was increasing with increasing dimensions of the littered area (F1,93 = 12.9, p = 0.0005; Fig. 1). Whereas the effect flattened from 1x to 1.5x MR, the duration spent on litter – a deformable ground – was increasing continuously (F1,62 = 23.1, p < 0.0001). Further, the proportion of lateral recumbency was increased with increased dimensions of the littered area (F1,79 = 12.3, p = 0.0007). Regarding the number of lying bouts, no differences were apparent between treatments providing litter, but recumbency occurred very seldom if only rubber mats were provided (F1,93 = 14.7, p = 0.0002). Further, low-ranking horses spent more lying bouts on rubber mats than high-ranking horses (F1,29 = 4.4, p = 0.04). Additionally, the larger the dimensions of the littered area the more horses were present in the lying area at the moment of lying down (F1,79 = 6.6, p = 0.01). Moreover, low-ranking horses showed considerably higher percentages of involuntarily terminated lying bouts than high-ranking horses if 0.5x and 1x MR were littered (F1,76 = 8.43, p = 0.005).
Although the indicated minimal lying duration was averagely performed, large individual differences occurred and at least 8% were lying down less than 30 min per 24 hrs in every treatment. Further, the inclusion of social parameters indicated a beneficial effect of an exceedance of the minimum requirements especially for low-ranking horses. Therefore, the minimum requirements established by Swiss law can be stated as adequate but should be perceived as minimum and not optimum dimensions.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Burla,J.B. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5879  
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Author Berger, A. pdf  openurl
  Title Evaluation of living conditions in free running animals by chronobiological analysis of continuously recorded behavioural data Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords non-invasive, stress detection, chronobiology, activity  
  Abstract We developed a biorhythmical method to assess behaviour patterns and to evaluate living conditions of animals. All kinds of continuous and equidistant long-term recordings of behaviour are suitable for this method. As simple behavioural parameters, such as motor activity, can be conveniently recorded by telemetry from wild animals now, it is possible to investigate stressors by analysing its biorhythmic structure. It is the purpose of this report to describe the basic idea, and the procedure, and to give some examples of application measured on Przewalski horses in an Semireserve.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Berger, A. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5880  
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