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Author Takaoka, A.; Maeda, T.; Hori, Y.; Fujita, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do dogs follow behavioral cues from an unreliable human? Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim.Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 475-483  
  Keywords Dog; Dog–human interaction; Selective trust; Pointing; Object choice task  
  Abstract Dogs are known to consistently follow human pointing gestures. In this study, we asked whether dogs “automatically” do this or whether they flexibly adjust their behavior depending upon the reliability of the pointer, demonstrated in an immediately preceding event. We tested pet dogs in a version of the object choice task in which a piece of food was hidden in one of the two containers. In Experiment 1, Phase 1, an experimenter pointed at the baited container; the second container was empty. In Phase 2, after showing the contents of both containers to the dogs, the experimenter pointed at the empty container. In Phase 3, the procedure was exactly as in Phase 1. We compared the dogs’ responses to the experimenter’s pointing gestures in Phases 1 and 3. Most dogs followed pointing in Phase 1, but many fewer did so in Phase 3. In Experiment 2, dogs followed a new experimenter’s pointing in Phase 3 following replication of procedures of Phases 1 and 2 in Experiment 1. This ruled out the possibility that dogs simply lost motivation to participate in the task in later phases. These results suggest that not only dogs are highly skilled at understanding human pointing gestures, but also they make inferences about the reliability of a human who presents cues and consequently modify their behavior flexibly depending on the inference.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5888  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bartos, A.; Bányai, A.; Koltay, I.; Mándó, Zs pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Effect of mud treatment from Heviz Spa Lake on the joints and locomotion activities of horses Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords mud treatment, Heviz Spa Lake, maximal flexibility of joints, locomotion activities  
  Abstract Medical research on the effects of thermal mud in the human medical field already retrospect for many years (Gyarmati és Kulisch 2008). As a result, the thermal sludge product is successfully applied more widely, especially in the rehabilitation of rheumatic diseases (Gyarmati és mtsai., 2012). Research results related to the management of horses for the time being, however, are not available.
The aim of our study was to investigate how a mud treatment from Heviz Spa Lake affects the movement quality and flexibility of certain joints in horses. An experiment was carried out with 10 male and female school and sport horses. All of the horses had been ridden longer period than 3 years and had correct and healthy movement. Horses were treated with mud ten times, respectively, daily in the evenings. Wet sludge was blamed on the knee, hock, elbow, shoulder, back, stifle, front and hind cannons and fetlock joints. The sludge used for treatments was washed off in the morning. At the beginning of the experiment, after the treatment and 8 weeks following the average stride length and the longest distance between the print of hind and front foot during walking and trotting, maximal flexibility of knee, hock and fetlock joints were measured. To calculate the number of steps horses were lead straight during walking and trotting on 30 m flat distance. Following this the stride length was determined. To determine the longest distance between the print of hind and front foot on flat, sandy soil, the distance between hind and front prints was measured three times. The maximal flexibility of each joint was measured with a joint protractor. Statistical analysis was carried out with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPSS 7.0 program.

According to the results (table 1.), the horses responded positively to the treatments. The most positive results were detected by the average stride lenght during walking, maximal flexibility of the front fetlock, knee and hock. This is partly explicable with the beneficial effects of sulphur on the joints, which is well-known in human field (Kovács és mtsai., 2012). The stride length and longest distance between the print of hind and front foot were lower but positively influenced by the mud treatment. Eight weeks after the treatments, most of the parameters similar to human therapeutic results (Kulisch és mtsai., 2012), compared to directly after the mud baths completion values ​​were further improved, a slight negative effect was observed only for a few test values, but the results obtained here were more favourable, as at the beginning of the experiment. The results seem to confirm that the treatment effects can be considered long term. This is also explained by the slurry preparation from which absorbed elemental sulphur and sulphur oxidizing hydrogen sulfide absorbed in the body may be another source of hydrogen sulphide formation at the skin (Gyarmati,1982).
Our results show, that the mud treatment from Heviz Spa Lake may have benifical effects on the joints, playing an important role in the locomotion of horses.

The results are remarkable as well, also because of the evidence of the chemical impact of mud also can help. Such modes of action are still under research and only partly demonstrated in human medicine (Odabasi és mtsai., 2008). Further veterinarian research has to be carried out to confirm the results. The results of the present experiment and the prospect of further research could be pioneer, as the Heviz mud, as well as the thermal effect of water even before in the equine medicine has not been demonstrated experimentally, only individual observations are aviable. So the veterinary use of Heviz mud, which has been proven many times in human medicine, seems to be a new research field.
Key words: mud treatment, Heviz Spa Lake, maximal flexibility of joints, locomotion activities
References
Gyarmati, J. (1982): Experiences of Heviz mud treatments. FITEC Congress, Budapest
Gyarmati N, Ms. – Kulisch Á., Ms. (2008): History and description of héviz spa with special emphasis on weight-bath. La Presse thermale et climatique 2008;145:233-242.
Gyarmati N., Ms. – Mándó Zs., Ms. – Bergmann A., Ms. – Mózes M., Ms. (2012.): The role of mud treatment int he rehabilitation of reumatic illnesses. XXXI: Conference of The Hungarian Society for Medical Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine 6-8. september. Szombathely, Hungary
Kovács C, – Pecze M, – Tihanyi Á, – Kovács L, – Balogh S, – Bender T. (2012): The effect of sulphurous water in patients with osteoarthritis of hand. Double-blind, randomized, controlled follow-up study. Clinical Rheumatology Oct;31(10):1437-42.
Kulisch Á. and her medical team (2012): Survey of Heviz thermal-mineralwater on patienten suffering from primer knee-arthrosis. As medicinal declaration of human research.
Essay, Saint Andrew Hospital for Reumatic Diseases, Heviz, Hungary
Odabasi, Ersin; Turan, Mustafa; Erdem, Hakan; Tekbas, Faruk (2008): Does Mud Pack Treatment Have Any Chemical Effect? A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine; Jun, Vol. 14 Issue 5, p559
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Bartos, A. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger. K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5903  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ahmadinejad , S.M.; Pishkar, J.; Anisi, T.; Babayee, B. pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Verbal expressions of the horses to the pain Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract For communicating with the environment (other horses, foals, owner, etc.), horses have to use different methods. In contrast with the human, for whom talking is the most important way of communication, the horses can’t talk. In the years 1990s and before, the imagination was such that the infants do not express verbally to the pain either (like horses).
To communicate, horses use their body language. Vocalization (if not the body language), seems to be the most important way of communication in horses, though it seems they use the same tone when exposing to different events.
In this study which was performed in collaboration with the electronic institute of Sharif technical university (the top most technical university of the country), totally 25 horses were used. The horses were exposed to different events (hunger, pain, loneliness, mating, parturition and separation of the 1-2 weeks old foals from their dams). The verbal expressions of the horses were studied using spectrogram.
The results of this study showed that there were significant differences between the spectrograph of the voices of the horses, exposed to hunger, and the separation of the foals from dams. This was the same (no significant differences) when horses were exposed to loneliness, separation and hunger. There were no significant differences between the verbal expressions of the horses while exposed to mating, parturition.
One of the most important reasons why the horses do not have verbal expressions when exposing to the pain, might be the absence of the part of the brain, responsible for the pain interpretation. Morse research has to be performed to prove this.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Ahmadinejad , S.M. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger. K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5890  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ahmadinejad , S.M.; Pishkar, J.; Bahmen, M. pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Comparisons of behavioral and physiological state in Caspian pony before and after stress Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Behavioral scores (BS) offer an non-invasive, objective and easy to use way of assessing welfare in horses. Their development has, however, largely focused on behavioral reactions to stressful events (often induced), and so far no use of physiological measures has been made to underpin and validate the behavioral measures in the Caspian ponies. This study aimed to develop a physiologically validated scale of behavioral indicators of stress for the purpose of welfare logically validated scale of behavioral and physiological data assessment in the stabled Caspian ponies. To achieve this , behavioral and physiological data were collected from 16 Caspian ponies that underwent routine husbandry procedures. The ponies were divided into two groups, a control and a treatment group (8 each). The ponies in the treatment group took part in a 700 meter race. Analysis of the behavioral data were undertaken by a panel of equestrian industry professionals. Physiological measures (salivary and serum cortisol level) were significantly correlated with the behavioral scores confirming that the scores were meaningful and reflected the physiological stress. The scores offer an easy to use tool for rapid, reliable non-invasive welfare assessment in Caspian ponies, and reduce the need for potentially invasive physiological measures.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Ahmadinejad , S.M. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger. K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5891  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Berger, A.; Wolfram, M. pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Integration of zoo-kept Przewalski horses into a herd of Przewalski horses living in a semireserve Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Przewalski horse, introduction, stress  
  Abstract Naturally, horses live in groups in which all individuals are long-term acquainted with each other and a stable hierarchical system is established. In conservation management, introduction of horses into foreign groups is often required but will lead to fights, stress and increased health risks for the animals. We investigated the integration process of four Przewalski mares from the Zoo Leipzig into the herd of five Przewalski horses of the semireserve Liebenthal (Brandenburg, Germany). We observed changes in social hierarchy as well as a higher stress level (expressed by disturbed activity pattern and lower synchronization with environmental conditions) especially in the introduced horses (from Zoo Leipzig). We investigated the animals continuously over two years to detect what time is needed for a successful integration. Finally, we give some advice for the integration of Przewalski horses into a new herd to reduce the stress of the animals substantially.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Berger, A. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger. K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5892  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Brinkmann, L.; Gerken, M. ; Riek, A. pdf  openurl
  Title Energetic adaptations of Shetland pony mares Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Body temperature, Energy expenditure, Food restriction, Hypometabolism, Locomotor activity, Shetland pony  
  Abstract Recent results suggest that wild Northern herbivores exhibit signs of a hypometabolism during times of low ambient temperature and food shortage in order to reduce their energetic needs. However, there are speculations that domestic animals lost the ability to reduce energy expenditure. To examine energetic and behavioural responses 10 Shetland pony mares were exposed to different environmental conditions (summer and winter). During winter ponies were allocated into two groups receiving two different food quantities (60% and 100% of maintenance energy requirement). We measured the field metabolic rate, water turn over, body temperature, locomotor activity, lying time, resting heart rate, body mass and body condition score.
In summer, the field metabolic rate of all ponies (FMR; 63.4±15.0 MJ/day) was considerably higher compared with food restricted and control animals in winter (24.6±7.8 and 15.0±1.1 MJ/day, respectively). Furthermore, during summer, locomotor activity, resting heart rate and total water turnover were significantly elevated (P<0.001) compared with winter. Animals receiving a reduced amount of food (N=5) reduced their FMR by 26% compared with control animals (N=5) to compensate for the decreased energy supply. Furthermore, resting heart rate, body mass and body condition score were lower(29.2±2.7 beats/min, 140±22 kg and 3.0±1.0 points, respectively) than in control animals (36.8±41 beats/min, 165±31 kg, 4.4±0.7 points; P<0.05). While no difference could be found in the observed behaviour, nocturnal hypothermia was elevated in restrictively fed animals. Our results indicate that ponies adapt to different climatic conditions by changing their metabolic rate, behaviour and some physiological parameters. When exposed to energy shortage, ponies, like wild herbivores, exhibited hypometabolism and nocturnal hypothermia.
Keywords:
Body temperature, Energy expenditure, Food restriction, Hypometabolism, Locomotor activity, Shetland pony
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Brinkmann, L. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5893  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gabor, V.; Gerken, M. pdf  openurl
  Title Shetland ponies (Equus caballus) show quantity discrimination Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Cognition, numerical capacity, numerosity judgment, Shetland ponys  
  Abstract The complex housing environment and the close contact between humans and horses in equine sports place high demands on the learning capacity of horses. To date only limited information is available on the learning ability of the horse including higher order cognition. A type of higher order cognition is to perceive and discriminate quantities. Several mammals and birds have shown to be capable of discriminating objects due to their quantity (Brannon and Roitman, 2003). With regard to horses, there are only few studies available concerning their numerosity judgment (Uller and Lewis, 2009) and this ability is discussed controversially (Henselek et al, 2012). Possibly, the legacy of ‘‘Clever Hans’’ overshadowed further research on numerical capacity in horses, a horse to whom several psychologists incorrectly attributed the capacity of symbolic calculation (Pfungst, 1907; Rosenthal, 1965). In the present study we wanted to show whether Shetland ponies are able to transfer a previously learned concept of sameness to a numerosity judgment. The base of the test design was a “matching to sample” task, where the ponies had learned to relate abstract symbols to another which were presented on a LCD screen. Three Shetland ponies, which previously solved the matching to sample task, were tested in two test phases. In the first test phase different quantities of dots were presented (1 vs. 2; 2 vs. 3; 3 vs. 4; 4 vs. 5). To exclude discrimination due to the shape of the stimuli, the dots were varied in size and arrangement. The stimuli were presented in a triangular arrangement on the LCD screen; the sample stimulus was presented in the middle above and the discrimination stimuli in the two lower corners (S+ and S-). The pony received a food reward, by choosing the positive stimulus (S+). When the negative stimulus (S-) was chosen, the pony entered the next trial. Each learning session consisted of 20 decision trials. To investigate whether the numerosity judgment was transferable to mixed geometrical symbols (tri-, rectangle, rhomb, dot and cross) a second test phase was designed. All of the three Shetland ponies met the learning criterion of the first test phase (80% correct responses in two consecutive sessions) within the first eight sessions. One pony could transfer all judgments to the mixed symbols (up to 4 vs. 5), another pony up to 3 vs. 5 and the third on the level 2 vs. 3. These are the first reported findings that ponies are able to discriminate up to five objects. The numerosity judgment seemed to be easier for the ponies when homogenous objects were presented, than in the case of heterogeneous symbols. The reaction of the ponies occurred within few seconds, suggesting that the animals used subitizing for their numerosity judgment.
Keywords:
Cognition, numerical capacity, numerosity judgment, Shetland ponys
References:
Brannon E, Roitman J (2003) Nonverbal representations of time and number in animals and human infants. In: Meck WH (ed) Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 143–182
Henselek Y, Fischer J, Schloegl C (2012) Does the stimulus type influence horses’ performance in a quantity discrimination task? Front Psychol 3:504
Pfungst O (1907) Der Kluge Hans. Ein Beitrag zur nicht-verbalen Kommunikation. 3rd edn. (reprint of the original 1983) Frankfurter Fachbuchhandlung für Psychologie, Frankfurt
Rosenthal R (1965) Clever Hans: the horse of Mr. Von Osten. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York
Uller C, Lewis J (2009) Horses (Equus caballus) select the greater of two quantities in small numerical sets. Anim Cogn 12:733–738
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Gabor, V. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor ; Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-95625-000-2 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5894  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Winwright, D.; Elston, H.; Hall, C. pdf  openurl
  Title The impact of paddock design on the behaviour of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Horses, social behaviour, management, housing, paddock  
  Abstract The design of a captive environment should facilitate the expression of the natural behavioural repertoire of the species concerned. The domestic horse (Equus caballus) is a social, herd dwelling species that is often housed in isolation from con-specifics or kept in groups in paddock enclosures. Although the latter allows for social interaction and does not restrict movement per se, it may not promote natural activity patterns or group cohesion. The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of two different paddock designs on the behaviour of a stable group of horses (n=6: 2 mares, 4 geldings).
The paddock designs tested were adjacent and grassed similarly, but configured differently. A central paddock (75 x 75m) designated NT, was surrounded by a track 1.6-5.5m wide, designated T. The horses were turned out in their group into T or NT for 3 consecutive days. Their behaviour was recorded for one hour three times each day (10.00, 13.00, 16.00 hrs). Within each observation period of one hour focal sampling was used, each individual horse being observed for a 10 minute period. They were then moved to the other enclosure type for a further 3 consecutive days, followed by a repeat of each condition. When turned out the horses were fitted with a global positioning system device (Garmin Forerunner 305) to monitor distance travelled and speed for the period 10.00-17.00 hrs. The mean percentage of time spent in each behavioural state (standing alert, standing resting, walk/trot, grazing, lying, social interaction) during the periods observed was calculated. Behaviour during social interactions was classified as either affiliative (approach, follow, friendly contacts, mutual grooming) or agonistic (approach and retreat, bite, chase, head threat).
The horses travelled significantly further in T than in NT (paired samples t-test: t (5) = 11.74, p<0.001) and moved significantly faster (Wilcoxon signed rank test: z = -2.21, p=0.03). See Table 1. When the percentage of time spent in each behavioural state in T and NT was compared some significant differences were found. A significantly higher percentage of time was spent active (walking /trotting) in T than in NT (paired samples t-test: t (5) = 5.74, p=0.002). Standing alert was only recorded in T (paired samples t-test: t (5) = 3.48, p=0.02). A significantly higher percentage of time was spent grazing in NT than in T (paired samples t-test: t (5) = -3.58, p=0.016). Significantly more social interaction occurred in T than in NT (paired samples t-test: t (5) = 5.93, p=0.002). See Figure 1. In T, 91% of social interactions were affiliative and 9% agonistic, whereas in NT 29% were affiliative and 71% agonistic. No difference was found in the percentage of time spent standing resting or lying down in T and NT.
The benefits of housing horses in groups as opposed to individually have been demonstrated in previous studies. In addition to better satisfying the behavioural needs of the horse it has been found that group housed horses adapt more easily to training and display less undesirable behaviour than those housed individually (Rivera et al. 2002; Søndergaard and Ladewig 2004; Visser et al. 2008). However, individual housing is frequently selected by horse owners in preference to group housing to avoid the risk of injury during agonistic encounters. Fureix et al. (2012) suggest that management practices may well contribute to aggressiveness in horses and that the conditions under which we keep horses should be reviewed. The findings of the present study indicate that the design of the enclosure in which groups of horses are kept affects the nature of social interactions. The T paddock design resulted in reduced intra-group aggression. However, this paddock design also reduced the time spent grazing and increased vigilant behaviour. Although the results demonstrate that a paddock system including tracks may facilitate group cohesion and more natural movement patterns, the long-term impact on behaviour and welfare requires further investigation.
References:
Fureix C, Bourjade M, Henry S, Sankey C, Hausberger M. (2012). Exploring aggression regulation in managed groups of horses (Equus caballus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 138: 216-228.
Rivera E, Benjamin S, Nielsen B, Shelle J, Zanella AJ. (2002). Behavioural and physiological response of horses to initial training: the comparison between pastured versus stalled horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 78: 235–252.
Søndergaard E, Ladewig J. (2004). Group housing exerts a positive effect on the behaviour of young horses during training. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 87: 105-118.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Hall, C. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor ; Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-95625-000-2 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5895  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hollenhorst, H.; Weil, S.; Krueger, K. pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Innovative behavour in horses (Equus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords innovative behavior, age, housing system, horse (Equus caballus)  
  Abstract Contrary to the widely-spread assumption that horses just have restricted cognitive capacities and are not very flexible in their behaviors, we showed that horses display innovative behavior and even make use of tools (Krueger 2015, Krueger et al. 2015). These findings derive from a database (http://innovative-behaviour.org/) the Equine behavior team managed in the past two years. Some horses did not only show single innovations, but several different innovations. The number of innovations per individual varied from 1 to 10. 20 % of all innovative horses in the database showed more than one innovation. These individuals can be called the ‘true innovators’. Moreover innovations were dependent on age. Young horses were more innovative than older ones, whereby horses at the age of five to nine years were the most innovative. When considering the housing system innovative horses in a single housing (inside box, outside box, paddock box) had a slight majority towards horses in group housing (open stable, active stable, pasture day and night). But given the fact that ratings on housing system frequencies state 95% of the horses to be kept in individual housing, innovations in individual housing are rare. Nevertheless, horses kept in inside boxes without a window, opened doors more often than all other horses. Aside from this effect, housing systems did not trigger the frequency of innovative behavior. Innovations for gaining freedom and innovations in general were widespread among horses with daily access to pasture and daily contact with conspecifics. Innovations for gaining food were not more likely to occur in horses that were fed little amounts of roughage. In conclusion, the housing of horses does not seem to be the primary catalyst for developing innovative behavior in horses. What makes a “true innovator” in horses, in addition to age, remains to be seen.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Hollenhorst, H. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor ; Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5896  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Jacquot, M.; Grosjean, A., Emrot, C.; Van-Erck-Westergem, E.; Schwartz, C.; Tomberg, C. pdf  openurl
  Title Effects of a walk phase at the warm up onset on physiological and behavioural parameters of ridden horses (Equus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract For human athletes, any physical performance classically begins with a warm-up including a phase of cardio-respiratory activation as well as a phase of neuro-muscular mobilization. For the equine athletes similar routines are widely followed despite limited scientific studies addressing its effectiveness. Although physiological bases are of a similar nature in humans and horses, the latter are showing a different “telos” related to their status of prey. Indeed, their survival depends on their ability to detect any predator or potential danger in their environment and to estimate the need to run away. Therefore warm-up techniques should be adapted to this specificity and we added a walk phase preceding the usual warm-up during which the horse was allowed to visually assess its environment without constraint imposed by its rider, reins being long. We assumed that this walk phase would allow a more relaxed mental state and then a decrease in cognitive resources involved in environmental monitoring. Consequently this would release cognitive resources then available for the communication between the horse and the rider.
The autonomous nervous system (ANS) regulates the heart rate via the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathovagal balance and the heart rate variability are considered as good indicators of an acute stress state as well as emotional states. These measures are frequently used to estimate well-being in animals. During the walk phase, we observed a significant decrease of the heart rate (HR), a significant increase of its variability and a significant modification of the sympathovagal balance in favour of a higher contribution of the parasympathetic control. We also measured the non-linear correlation dimension which reflects the degree of freedom of a system. To the best of our knowledge, this method was used until now only in humans to whom it was shown that its decrease is related to stressful events and is associated with a bad prognosis for survival. During the walk phase in horses, the dimension of correlation of cardiac activity was increased.
From a behavioural point of view, we observed a significant decrease of side movements related to head orientation as well as significant changes in ears position, the latter being preferentially directed forwards at the beginning of the walk phase and laterally at the end. As previous research suggests that ears position and head orientation can be involved in attentional mechanisms in horses, our results suggest a decrease of the attention focused on the environment. Furthermore, a significant lowering of the neck was observed as well as a significant decrease of behaviours related to stress.
To conclude our results suggest that a walk phase preceding the usual warm-up of horses would contribute to improve their mental state in favour of more relaxation and of a decrease of the attentional resources invested in environmental monitoring.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Jacquot, M. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor ; Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-95625-000-2 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Id - Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5897  
Permanent link to this record
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