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Author Malavasi, R.; Huber, L. pdf  openurl
  Title Referential communication in the domestic horse (Equus caballus): first exploration in an ungulate species Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords domestic horse, referential communication, human-horse communication, intentionality  
  Abstract An important question in the study of animal communication is whether non-human animals are able to produce communicative gestures, i.e. nonvocal bodily actions directed to a recipient, physically ineffective but with a meaning shared in the social group [1]. Passive gestures are instrumental, tuned to the mere presence/absence of others, whereas active informers recognize receivers as communicative agents and activate shared-attention mechanisms for identifying their attentional state (SAM [2]; e.g. Schwab and Huber [3]). Six operational criteria must be evaluated to classify a signal as referential and intentional [4]: (1) alternative gazes between the partner and the target; (2) apparent attention-getting behaviours are deployed; (3) an audience is required to exhibit the behaviour; (4) the attentional status of an observer influences the propensity to exhibit behaviours; (5) communication is persistent and (6) there is elaboration of communicative behaviour when apparent attempts to manipulate the partner fail. Dogs [5] and non-human primates (reviewed in Liebal and Call [6]) can tune a human receiver’s attention to the object of interest by combining directional and attention-getting signals, such as turning the head or body, gazing to the receiver, and/or establishing eye contact. Research on other species is scarce.
Horses rely on humans to survive in domestic settings and may have evolved skills for communicating flexibly with them [7]. Horses understand human attentional cues (such as body and head orientation, eyes opened/closed) [8], permanent pointing [9] and, to some extent, gazing [10]. Here we tested the ability of 14 outdoor, herd-living domestic horses to communicate referentially with a human partner about the location of a desired target, a bucket of food out of reach. After the baiting of two buckets placed in opposite, unreachable locations were shown by the experimenter, the subject would walk to one of the two buckets. Because approaching a bucket would reveal that the food is out of reach, we expected the horse to look back to the experimenter, then to the bucket, and alternate this gazing several times to indicate its intention. To test whether our prediction is correct and alternate gazing is indeed the result of the horse's referential communication, we video-recorded the behaviour of the subjects in the test (FORWARD) and three control conditions: (1) FORWARD: experimenter oriented to the center of the arena, (2) BACK: experimenter backward oriented in respect to the arena, (3) ALONE: experimenter absent, (4) MANY: as FORWARD plus a familiar human oriented to the subject behind the bucket (Figure 1). We used a conservative criterion of back gazing by considering only turning the head back more than 90 degrees. The results confirmed our prediction. The horses alternated gazes between the partner and the buck significantly more often in the FORWARD than in all the other conditions (Table 1), thus satisfying operational criteria #1, #3 and #4. They also alternated head nods with gazes to the partner significantly more often during the FORWARD condition. We thus considered head nods not an instrumental signal of arousal, but an attention-getting behaviour with communicative function. Subjects used both head nods and neck stretched toward the buck more often in the FORWARD than in the BACK and the ALONE conditions, thus satisfying criteria #2, #3 and #4. In condition MANY, the frequency of head nods did not differ from condition FORWARD, probably because nods were directed to the additional partner behind the buck. This also satisfies criteria #4. The horses gazed to the partner most often in the FORWARD than in the BACK and the MANY conditions, but not in the ALONE. In this condition, subjects could observe the partner walking further from the test arena. To test for the different functions of gazes in presence and in absence of the partner, we compared their average duration between the two conditions: the significantly longer duration of gazes when the subject was alone suggests the instrumental monitoring function of gazes in this experimental condition.
Altogether, the findings suggest that domestic horses possess the ability to use referential communication in an interspecific context, but additional analyses are needed to test for operational criteria #5 and #6. Flexible and voluntary use of communicative signals reveal sophisticated cognitive processes involved in the strategic emission of these signals, and the finding of referential communication skills in an ungulate species forces us to reconsider the evolutionary path of intelligence. Furthermore, ungulates are used intensively by humans (transportation, meat, agriculture, leisure activities), and their welfare is often compromised. Determining whether ungulates can communicate their needs and preferences is paramount to a proper ethical management.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Malavasi, R. Thesis  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5876  
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Author Ahmadinejad , S.M.; Asgari, Z. pdf  openurl
  Title Facial expressions of the Caspian pony to its own picture, mirror and a combination of these two Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Abnormal behaviors of the horses are among the most important problems, in the ridding clubs. Digestive and somatic abnormal behaviors are the two most important abnormal behaviors in the horses, with the loneliness and boredom the two most important causes of these abnormal behaviors. Many study showed that spending times ( increasing the exercise and training time) would stop such abnormal behaviors. The man power scarcity is the important reason many ridding clubs face and this is the reason why the abnormal behavior are mostly observed in such clubs.
Current study is the first report regarding facial expressions of the Caspian Pony to different objects. Totally 10 Caspian ponies were used in this study. The pictures were taken both in the calm and in the furious (nervous) situation The pony’s pictures were the alternatives we used in this research to combat the man power scarcity!. We also used mirror to compare the expressions of the ponies to the pictures and mirror. The results of this study showed that the ponies showed more attention to the picture in calm position when compared with the picture in nervous position. In the box with the mirror and the picture (in calm position) in it, the ponies paid much more attention to the mirror than the picture.
We conclude that despite of resistant of ponies for leaving outdoor and entering to indoor (paddock to box), installing mirror can prevent (almost completely) the horse’s boredom and loneliness, a very cheap (but not wise! alternative for manpower). The results of this research were applicable and were suggested to many ridding clubs with the horses with stereotypic behaviors, received almost completely positive results.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Ahmadinejad , S.M. Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5877  
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Author Briefer Freymond, S.; Piovesana, L. ; Briefer. E. F. ; Beuret. S.; Zuberbühler, K.; Bshary, R. ;Bachmann, I. pdf  openurl
  Title Crib-biting behaviour of horses: stress and learning capacity Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Crib-biting is a stereotypy in horses that is potentially linked to both chronic stress and genetic predisposition. Chronic stress can cause neurobiological changes such as alteration of the dopaminergic modulation of the basal ganglia [1]. These neurobiological changes could alter and modify the learning profile of the horses [2,3]. We tested 19 crib-biters and 18 non-crib-biting horses (controls) in five challenging spatial tasks, in order to test if differences in dopaminergic modulation impair learning capacities. The tests were performed in two time periods, in a small arena (8 x 10 m) that was familiar to the horses. For each trials, the horses were led to the start zone in front of a four-meter-long solid fence and were then left alone in the arena. Their task was then to find a bucket containing food, which was situated in different positions around the fence, depending on the tests. The time to reach the food bucket, the trajectory taken by the horse (left or right side of the fence) and the ECG trace were recorded continuously. Additionally, salivary cortisol was collected before the tests (baseline), after the first time period, and after the second time period. We found that crib-biters and controls behaved similarly during the learning tasks. However crib-biters that did crib-bite on the solid fence during the task (group A; 10 horses) behaved differently than crib-biters that did not crib-bite (group B; 9 horses) and controls (group C; 18 horses) for some tests, in their trajectory or time to reach the bucket. These differences are more likely explained by the time taken to crib-bite, than by differences in learning capacity. We did not find any difference between groups in their heart-rate variability (RMSSD). Yet, we found a difference in salivary cortisol after the first time period between groups A, B and C. Indeed, the crib-biters that did not crib-bite had higher salivary cortisol values than all the other horses (mean±SE: A, 0.51±0.16ng/ml, B, 0.78±0.17ng/ml, C, 0.59±0.20ng/ml; Linear mixed model (LMM), p<0.05). Our results suggest that crib-biting horses that did not crib-bite during the learning tasks were more stressed than all other horses. This difference could be due to higher stress sensitivity in crib-biters, which could be reduced by the opportunity to crib-bite. These results replicate our previous findings testing differences in cortisol levels between crib-biters and control horses during an ACTH challenge test. Therefore, crib-biting behaviour might be a coping strategy helping stereotypic horses to reduce their stress during frustrating situations [4].

Keyword:
stereotypy, chronic stress, learning task
 
  Address stereotypy, chronic stress, learning task  
  Corporate Author Briefer Freymond, S. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5878  
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Author Burla,J.B.; Rufener, C.; Bachmann, I.; Gygax, L.; Patt, A.;Hillmann, E. pdf  openurl
  Title Effect of varying dimensions of the littered lying area on the lying behaviour of group-housed horses (Equus ferus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords group housing, lying behaviour, littered lying area, rubber mats  
  Abstract Although horses can sleep while standing, recumbency is required for REM sleep and since all sleep stages must be completed for an entire sleep cycle, the opportunity for recumbency is essential for animal welfare. Observations on feral horses indicate a minimal lying duration of 30 min, preferably on a deformable and dry ground. In contrast to feral horses, lying behaviour in stabled horses is often affected by the dimensions of the provided lying area and rank.
In Switzerland, minimum requirements (MR) for the littered lying area are established by law to ensure animal welfare (BLV, 2008) (A/N: approximately match German recommendations (BMEL, 2009)). The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of the dimensions of the minimum requirements for group-housed horses by investigating 38 horses in 8 groups. Further, hard rubber mats were provided supplementary in order to assess their suitability as an alternative to litter. Four treatments were each applied in randomised order:
– 0x MR: no litter + 1.5x MR with rubber mats
– 0.5x MR: 0.5x MR with litter + 1x MR with rubber mats
– 1x MR: 1x MR with litter; 0.5x MR with rubber mats
– 1.5x MR: 1.5x MR with litter + no rubber mats
For each treatment, after a habituation period of 8 days, lying behaviour was recorded (video, accelerometers) continuously for 72 hrs. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed effects models.
Regardless of the ground chosen, the duration of recumbency per 24 hrs was increasing with increasing dimensions of the littered area (F1,93 = 12.9, p = 0.0005; Fig. 1). Whereas the effect flattened from 1x to 1.5x MR, the duration spent on litter – a deformable ground – was increasing continuously (F1,62 = 23.1, p < 0.0001). Further, the proportion of lateral recumbency was increased with increased dimensions of the littered area (F1,79 = 12.3, p = 0.0007). Regarding the number of lying bouts, no differences were apparent between treatments providing litter, but recumbency occurred very seldom if only rubber mats were provided (F1,93 = 14.7, p = 0.0002). Further, low-ranking horses spent more lying bouts on rubber mats than high-ranking horses (F1,29 = 4.4, p = 0.04). Additionally, the larger the dimensions of the littered area the more horses were present in the lying area at the moment of lying down (F1,79 = 6.6, p = 0.01). Moreover, low-ranking horses showed considerably higher percentages of involuntarily terminated lying bouts than high-ranking horses if 0.5x and 1x MR were littered (F1,76 = 8.43, p = 0.005).
Although the indicated minimal lying duration was averagely performed, large individual differences occurred and at least 8% were lying down less than 30 min per 24 hrs in every treatment. Further, the inclusion of social parameters indicated a beneficial effect of an exceedance of the minimum requirements especially for low-ranking horses. Therefore, the minimum requirements established by Swiss law can be stated as adequate but should be perceived as minimum and not optimum dimensions.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Burla,J.B. Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5879  
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Author Berger, A. pdf  openurl
  Title Evaluation of living conditions in free running animals by chronobiological analysis of continuously recorded behavioural data Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords non-invasive, stress detection, chronobiology, activity  
  Abstract We developed a biorhythmical method to assess behaviour patterns and to evaluate living conditions of animals. All kinds of continuous and equidistant long-term recordings of behaviour are suitable for this method. As simple behavioural parameters, such as motor activity, can be conveniently recorded by telemetry from wild animals now, it is possible to investigate stressors by analysing its biorhythmic structure. It is the purpose of this report to describe the basic idea, and the procedure, and to give some examples of application measured on Przewalski horses in an Semireserve.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Berger, A. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5880  
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Author Bouskila, A., ;Lourie,E.; de Vries, H.;Hermans, Z.M .;van Dierendonck, M. pdf  openurl
  Title Sex, but not relatedness nor age, affect the social network of horses in a semi-natural reserve Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract For some time now, social network analysis provides tools to describe concisely the social structure of animals. Nevertheless, the factors that shape the social network and determine the frequency of different types of affiliations are often unclear. For example, the effects of relatedness on social networks have been only studied on relatively few species. Both among social or sub-social species the effects ranged from no effect to a substantial effect. Here we test the hypothesis that relatedness has an effect on the social network of horses (Equus caballus) that live freely in semi-natural conditions, and specifically, that individuals with high values of relatedness to their neighbors in the network will have fewer links Wolf et al, 2011). This hypothesis is based on the notion that related individuals have common interests and are likely to assist each other, and may need less links to other, unrelated individuals. In addition, individuals of similar age and sex are likely to have common needs, and thus are more likely to be associated. We thus tested a second hypothesis: homophily to individuals with similar age and sex will have a role in determining the associations within the social network. The field study was conducted on 27 horses in the Blauwe Kamer reserve in the Netherlands (1.1 sq km). We videotaped horses and their groups and used the information from 22 horses, after excluding the five foals from the analysis. Relatedness was calculated from the pedigree, which was based on parentage, determined by DNA analysis. The social network was constructed based on spatial proximity data. We assessed the influence of relatedness, age-homophily and sex-homophily on the network structure with Multiple Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure (MRQAP) (Krackhardt 1988), with the R package sna. The results show that there was no significant effect of relatedness on the network, nor an effect of age-homophily. Nevertheless, we found a significant effect of sex-homophily, the tendency of individuals to associate with individuals of the same sex. We argue that the lack of a relatedness effect is not likely to have been caused due to the inability to detect who is kin. The structured social system in horses includes strong associations between often unrelated individuals, alongside with young individuals leaving their natal harem as part of the inherent inbreeding avoidance (Linklater & Cameron 2009; Boyd et al. in press). The significant effect of sex-homophily could stem from the protection females get from associations with other females, e.g., in the reduction of harassment from males. Previous studies on feral horses showed that mares that were better connected with other females in their harem benefited from higher survival rates to their foals (Cameron et al. 2009). The associations among bachelor males could also contribute to the strength of the sex-homophily effect.
In order to generalize from our results, one needs to examine additional populations of horses, because the conditions in the Blauwe Kamer reserve may not be representative, mainly due to the limited opportunity for dispersal in a restricted area.
Keywords: Long-term affiliation; spatial proximity, kin detection
Boyd, L., Scorolli, A. L., Nowzari, H., & Bouskila, A. (2016). Chapter 2: Social organization. In J. I. Ransom, & P. Kaczensky (Eds.), Wild equids. Baltimore, Maryland (in press): The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Cameron, E. Z., Setsaas, T. H., & Linklater, W. L. (2009). Social bonds between unrelated females increase reproductive success in feral horses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(33), 13850-13853
Krackhardt, D. (1988). Predicting with networks: Nonparametric multiple regression analysis of dyadic data. Social Networks, 10(4), 359-381.
Linklater, W. L., & Cameron, E. Z. (2009). Social dispersal but with philopatry reveals incest avoidance in a polygynous ungulate. Animal Behaviour, 77(5), 1085-1093.
Wolf, J. B., Traulsen, A., & James, R. (2011). Exploring the link between genetic relatedness r and social contact structure k in animal social networks. The American Naturalist, 177(1), 135-142.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Bouskila, A. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5881  
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Author Wolter, R.; Krueger, K. pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title The analysis of social bonds in feral horses Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Proceedings of the 3. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 3. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords social bonds, grooming, nearest neighborhood, rank  
  Abstract In many social mammals, individuals preferentially affiliate with a small subset of available partners instead of distributing their social behaviors equally among all group members. The resulting social bonds have been investigated in several mammalian taxa, especially in primate societies, but also in other taxa such as birds, dolphins, rodents and ungulates. In feral horses, a great number of studies on social bonds can be found, but with a huge variety between methods for the analysis. There seems to be a lack of a clear and common definition of social bonds in horses and of comparable analyses. For example, there are irregularities between the studies regarding the research designs, the selection of recording methods and the interpretation of the measurements. Mutual grooming is used most often for the analysis of social relationships in many species. As mutual grooming is rare in horses, especially measurements of spatial proximity are commonly used for the analysis of social bonds in addition to other behavioral patterns. However, the combination of mutual grooming and nearest neighborhood analyses for the analysis of social bond is debatable, as in contrast to mutual grooming, which must occur deliberately by both grooming partners, the spatial distribution can be influenced by one partner alone, which may even force the other horse to keep a certain distance or to stay in close proximity.
In this study, we investigated the comparability of mutual grooming and nearest neighborhood data for social bond analyses in feral horses. Therefore, we observed five groups of semi-wild living Przewalski’s horses and six groups of feral horses.
We analysed the horses’ social ranks by applying an Average Dominance Index, we recorded the distances between the animals and observed the number of mutual grooming events as well as friendly approaches.
Our results show that there was only a weak correlation between the frequency of staying in nearest neighborhood and mutual grooming in all observed horse groups. In contrast to this, the correlation between the number of friendly approaches and mutual grooming events was higher in most groups.
Hierarchies did not affect social bonds, as mutual grooming was similarly induced by higher and lower ranking animals and the social rank did not affect the choice of the grooming partner. Similarly, likelihoods of staying in the neighborhood of particular animals were not affected by the animals’ social rank.
The grooming frequencies differed between the different horse groups and between the individual horses living in the particular groups. They seem to be effected by individual predisposition.
Altogether we suggest that the ratio of mutual grooming seems to be a better indicator for social bonds in feral horses than the frequency of staying in the nearest neighborhood. Mutual grooming occurs deliberately and is bidirectional, whereas nearest neighborhoods could be enforced and unidirectional. For the calculation of social bonds in horses, we consider it to be more reliable to combine the frequency of mutual grooming with the frequency of friendly approaches.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Wolter, R. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-000-2 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5882  
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Author Krause, J.; James, R.; Franks, D.W.; Croft, D. P. openurl 
  Title Animal Social Networks. Type Book Whole
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Oxford Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5883  
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Author Rubenstein D.I. openurl 
  Title Networks of terrestrial ungulates: linking form and function Type Book Chapter
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Animal Social Networks Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Oxford Editor Krause, J., James, R., Franks, D. W., & Croft, D. P.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5884  
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Author Merola, I.; Lazzaroni, M.; Marshall-Pescini, S.; Prato-Previde, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social referencing and cat–human communication Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 3 Pages 639-648  
  Keywords Social referencing; Cats; Gaze alternation; Social learning; Human–cat communication  
  Abstract Cats’ (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner’s emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner’s actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats’ social organization and domestication history.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5885  
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