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Author Palme, R.;Touma, C.;Arias,N.;Dominchin, M.F.;Lepschy, M.
Title Steroid extraction: Get the best out of faecal samples Type Journal Article
Year (down) 3012 Publication Veterinary Medicine Austria Abbreviated Journal Vet. Med. Austria
Volume 100 Issue Pages 238-246
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Abstract Faecal steroid hormone metabolites are becoming increasingly popular as parameters for reproductive functions and stress. Theextraction of the steroids from the faecal matrix represents the initial step before quantification can be performed. The steroid metabolites present in the faecal matrix are of varying polarity and composition, so selection of a proper extraction procedure is essential. There have been some studies to address this complex but often neglected point. Radiolabelled
steroids (e.g. cortisol or progesterone) have frequently been added to faecal samples to estimate the efficiency of the extraction procedures used. However, native, unmetabolized steroids are normally not present in the faeces and therefore the results are artificial and do not accurately reflect the actual recoveries of the substances of interest. In this respect, recovery experiments based on faecal samples from radiometabolism studies are more informative. In these samples, the metabolite content accurately reflects the mixture of metabolites present in the given species. As a result, it is possible to evaluate different extraction methods for use with faecal samples. We present studies on sheep, horses, pigs, hares and dogs that utilized samples containing naturally metabolized, 14C-labelled steroids.
Address Review, faeces, extrac- tion, non-invasive hormone moni- toring, stress, reproduction.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6046
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Author Bílá, K.; Beránková, J.; Veselý, P.; Bugnyar, T.; Schwab, C.
Title Responses of urban crows to con- and hetero-specific alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 43-51
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Abstract Urban animals and birds in particular are able to cope with diverse novel threats in a city environment such as avoiding novel, unfamiliar predators. Predator avoidance often includes alarm signals that can be used also by hetero-specifics, which is mainly the case in mixed-species flocks. It can also occur when species do not form flocks but co-occur together. In this study we tested whether urban crows use alarm calls of conspecifics and hetero-specifics (jackdaws, Corvus monedula) differently in a predator and a non-predator context with partly novel and unfamiliar zoo animal species. Birds were tested at the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in the city of Vienna by playing back con- and hetero-specific alarm calls and control stimuli (great tit song and no stimuli) at predator (wolf, polar bear) and non-predator (eland antelope and cranes, peccaries) enclosures. We recorded responses of crows as the percentage of birds flying away after hearing the playback (out of those present before the playback) and as the number of vocalizations given by the present birds. A significantly higher percentage of crows flew away after hearing either con- or hetero-specific alarm calls, but it did not significantly differ between the predator and the non-predator context. Crows treated jackdaw calls just as crow calls, indicating that they make proper use of hetero-specific alarm calls. Responding similarly in both contexts may suggest that the crows were uncertain about the threat a particular zoo animal represents and were generally cautious. In the predator context, however, a high percentage of crows also flew away upon hearing the great tit control song which suggests that they may still evaluate those species which occasionally killed crows as more dangerous and respond to any conspicuous sound.
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ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Bílá2017 Serial 6159
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Author Krueger, K.
Title Perissodactyla Cognition Type Book Chapter
Year (down) 2017 Publication Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-10
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Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Cham Editor Vonk, J.; Shackelford, T.
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ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-47829-6 Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Krueger2017 Serial 6187
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Author Schuetz, A.; Farmer, K.; Krueger, K.
Title Social learning across species: horses (Equus caballus) learn from humans by observation Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 567-573
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Abstract This study examines whether horses can learn by observing humans, given that they identify individual humans and orientate on the focus of human attention. We tested 24 horses aged between 3 and 12. Twelve horses were tested on whether they would learn to open a feeding apparatus by observing a familiar person. The other 12 were controls and received exactly the same experimental procedure, but without a demonstration of how to operate the apparatus. More horses from the group with demonstration (8/12) reached the learning criterion of opening the feeder twenty times consecutively than horses from the control group (2/12), and younger horses seemed to reach the criterion more quickly. Horses not reaching the learning criteria approached the human experimenters more often than those that did. The results demonstrate that horses learn socially across species, in this case from humans.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Schuetz2016 Serial 6028
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Author Karenina, K.; Giljov, A.; Ingram, J.; Rowntree, V.J.; Malashichev, Y.
Title Lateralization of mother–infant interactions in a diverse range of mammal species Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue Pages 0030 Ep -
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6040
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Author Sebastiano, M.; Eens, M.; Angelier, F.; Pineau, K.; Chastel, O.; Costantini, D.
Title Corticosterone, inflammation, immune status and telomere length in frigatebird nestlings facing a severe herpesvirus infection Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal Conserv. Physiol.
Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages cow073-cow073
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Abstract Herpesvirus outbreaks are common in natural animal populations, but little is known about factors that favour the infection and its consequences for the organism. In this study, we examined the pathophysiological consequences of a disease probably attributable to herpesvirus infection for several markers of immune function, corticosterone, telomere length and inflammation. In addition, we assessed whether any markers used in this study might be associated with the occurrence of visible clinical signs of the disease and its impact on short-term survival perspectives. To address our questions, in spring 2015, we collected blood samples from nestlings of the magnificent frigatebird (Fregata magnificens) that were free of any clinical signs or showed visible signs of the disease. We found that the plasma concentration of haptoglobin was strongly associated with the infection status and could predict probabilities of survival. We also found that nestlings with clinical signs had lower baseline corticosterone concentrations and similar telomere length compared with healthy nestlings, whereas we did not find any association of the infection status with innate immune defenses or with nitric oxide concentration. Overall, our results suggest that the plasma concentration of haptoglobin might be a valuable tool to assess survival probabilities of frigatebird nestlings facing a herpesvirus outbreak.
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Notes 10.1093/conphys/cow073 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6042
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Author Briefer, E.F.; Mandel, R.; Maigrot, A.-L.; Briefer Freymond, S.; Bachmann, I.; Hillmann, E.
Title Perception of emotional valence in horse whinnies Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Frontiers in Zoology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 8
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Abstract Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result. We tested whether domestic horses perceive, and are affected by, the emotional valence of whinnies produced by both familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. We measured physiological and behavioural reactions to whinnies recorded during emotionally negative (social separation) and positive (social reunion) situations.
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ISSN 1742-9994 ISBN Medium
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Briefer2017 Serial 6049
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Author Heberlein, M.T.E.; Manser, M.B.; Turner, D.C.
Title Deceptive-like behaviour in dogs (Canis familiaris) Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 511-520
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Abstract Deception, the use of false signals to modify the behaviour of the receiver, occurs in low frequencies even in stable signalling systems. For example, it can be advantageous for subordinate individuals to deceive in competitive situations. We investigated in a three-way choice task whether dogs are able to mislead a human competitor, i.e. if they are capable of tactical deception. During training, dogs experienced the role of their owner, as always being cooperative, and two unfamiliar humans, one acting ‘cooperatively’ by giving food and the other being ‘competitive’ and keeping the food for themselves. During the test, the dog had the options to lead one of these partners to one of the three potential food locations: one contained a favoured food item, the other a non-preferred food item and the third remained empty. After having led one of the partners, the dog always had the possibility of leading its cooperative owner to one of the food locations. Therefore, a dog would have a direct benefit from misleading the competitive partner since it would then get another chance to receive the preferred food from the owner. On the first test day, the dogs led the cooperative partner to the preferred food box more often than expected by chance and more often than the competitive partner. On the second day, they even led the competitive partner less often to the preferred food than expected by chance and more often to the empty box than the cooperative partner. These results show that dogs distinguished between the cooperative and the competitive partner, and indicate the flexibility of dogs to adjust their behaviour and that they are able to use tactical deception.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Heberlein2017 Serial 6136
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Author Ringhofer, M.; Yamamoto, S.
Title Erratum to: Domestic horses send signals to humans when they are faced with an unsolvable task Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 407-407
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Ringhofer2017 Serial 6135
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Author Ringhofer, M.; Yamamoto, S.
Title Domestic horses send signals to humans when they face with an unsolvable task Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 397-405
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Abstract Some domestic animals are thought to be skilled at social communication with humans due to the process of domestication. Horses, being in close relationship with humans, similar to dogs, might be skilled at communication with humans. Previous studies have indicated that they are sensitive to bodily signals and the attentional state of humans; however, there are few studies that investigate communication with humans and responses to the knowledge state of humans. Our first question was whether and how horses send signals to their potentially helpful but ignorant caretakers in a problem-solving situation where a food item was hidden in a bucket that was accessible only to the caretakers. We then examined whether horses alter their behaviours on the basis of the caretakers’ knowledge of where the food was hidden. We found that horses communicated to their caretakers using visual and tactile signals. The signalling behaviour of the horses significantly increased in conditions where the caretakers had not seen the hiding of the food. These results suggest that horses alter their communicative behaviour towards humans in accordance with humans’ knowledge state.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Ringhofer2017 Serial 6134
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