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Author Fehr, E.; Gachter, S. doi  openurl
  Title Altruistic punishment in humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 415 Issue 6868 Pages 137-140  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Human cooperation is an evolutionary puzzle. Unlike other creatures, people frequently cooperate with genetically unrelated strangers, often in large groups, with people they will never meet again, and when reputation gains are small or absent. These patterns of cooperation cannot be explained by the nepotistic motives associated with the evolutionary theory of kin selection and the selfish motives associated with signalling theory or the theory of reciprocal altruism. Here we show experimentally that the altruistic punishment of defectors is a key motive for the explanation of cooperation. Altruistic punishment means that individuals punish, although the punishment is costly for them and yields no material gain. We show that cooperation flourishes if altruistic punishment is possible, and breaks down if it is ruled out. The evidence indicates that negative emotions towards defectors are the proximate mechanism behind altruistic punishment. These results suggest that future study of the evolution of human cooperation should include a strong focus on explaining altruistic punishment.  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4835  
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Author Wilson, A.M.; McGuigan, M.P.; Su, A.; van Den Bogert, A.J. doi  openurl
  Title Horses damp the spring in their step Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 414 Issue 6866 Pages 895-899  
  Keywords Animals; Biomechanics; Elasticity; Forelimb; Gait; Horses/anatomy & histology/*physiology; Leg Bones/*physiology; Locomotion; Models, Biological; Muscle Fibers/physiology; Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology/*physiology; Tendons/anatomy & histology/*physiology; Vibration  
  Abstract The muscular work of galloping in horses is halved by storing and returning elastic strain energy in spring-like muscle-tendon units.These make the legs act like a child's pogo stick that is tuned to stretch and recoil at 2.5 strides per second. This mechanism is optimized by unique musculoskeletal adaptations: the digital flexor muscles have extremely short fibres and significant passive properties, whereas the tendons are very long and span several joints. Length change occurs by a stretching of the spring-like digital flexor tendons rather than through energetically expensive length changes in the muscle. Despite being apparently redundant for such a mechanism, the muscle fibres in the digital flexors are well developed. Here we show that the mechanical arrangement of the elastic leg permits it to vibrate at a higher frequency of 30-40 Hz that could cause fatigue damage to tendon and bone. Furthermore, we show that the digital flexor muscles have minimal ability to contribute to or regulate significantly the 2.5-Hz cycle of movement, but are ideally arranged to damp these high-frequency oscillations in the limb.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Herts AL9 7TA, UK. awilson@rvc.ac.uk  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:11780059 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2300  
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Author Whiten, A.; McGrew, W.C. doi  openurl
  Title Is this the first portrayal of tool use by a chimp? Type Letter
  Year 2001 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 409 Issue 6816 Pages 12  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Pan troglodytes/*physiology; Philately  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11343083 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 739  
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Author Foster, K.R.; Ratnieks, F.L.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social insects: Facultative worker policing in a wasp Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 407 Issue 6805 Pages 692-693  
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  Abstract Kin-selection theory predicts that in social-insect colonies where the queen has mated multiple times, the workers will enforce cooperation by policing each other's reproduction1, 2, 3, 4. We have discovered a species, the wasp Dolichovespula saxonica, in which some queens mate once and others mate many times, and in which workers frequently attempt reproduction, allowing this prediction to be tested directly. We find that multiple mating by the queen leads to mutual policing by workers, whereas single mating does not.  
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  Publisher Macmillan Magazines Ltd. Place of Publication Editor  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes 10.1038/35037665 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4940  
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Author Ristau, C.A. url  openurl
  Title Language, cognition, and awareness in animals? Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 406 Issue 1 Pages 170-186  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2952  
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Author de Waal, F.B.; Berger, M.L. doi  openurl
  Title Payment for labour in monkeys Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 404 Issue 6778 Pages 563  
  Keywords Animals; Cebus/*physiology; *Cooperative Behavior; Evolution; *Feeding Behavior; Female; Male; Reward  
  Abstract  
  Address Living Links, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, and Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. dewaal@emory.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:10766228 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 190  
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Author Altmann, Dagmar openurl 
  Title Harnen und Koten bei Säugetieren Type Book Whole
  Year 1969 Publication Die neue Brehm-Bücherei Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 404 Issue Pages  
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  Abstract Ein Beitr. zur vergleichenden Verhaltensforschung. Mit 50 Abb. u. 7 Tab. Wittenberg: Ziemsen 1969. 104 S.(Berliner Tierpark-Buch. 16.) (Die neue Brehm-Bücherei. 404.)  
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  Publisher Ziemsen Place of Publication Wittenberg Editor  
  Language German Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes from Prof. Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 637  
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Author Parr, L.A.; de Waal, F.B. doi  openurl
  Title Visual kin recognition in chimpanzees Type Letter
  Year 1999 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 399 Issue 6737 Pages 647-648  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Face; Female; Male; Pan troglodytes/*physiology  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10385114 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 195  
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Author de Waal, F.B. doi  openurl
  Title Cultural primatology comes of age Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 399 Issue 6737 Pages 635-636  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Culture; Humans; Pan troglodytes/*physiology  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10385107 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 196  
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Author Whiten, A.; Goodall, J.; McGrew, W.C.; Nishida, T.; Reynolds, V.; Sugiyama, Y.; Tutin, C.E.; Wrangham, R.W.; Boesch, C. doi  openurl
  Title Cultures in chimpanzees Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 399 Issue 6737 Pages 682-685  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Cognition; *Culture; Humans; Pan troglodytes/*physiology; Species Specificity  
  Abstract As an increasing number of field studies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have achieved long-term status across Africa, differences in the behavioural repertoires described have become apparent that suggest there is significant cultural variation. Here we present a systematic synthesis of this information from the seven most long-term studies, which together have accumulated 151 years of chimpanzee observation. This comprehensive analysis reveals patterns of variation that are far more extensive than have previously been documented for any animal species except humans. We find that 39 different behaviour patterns, including tool usage, grooming and courtship behaviours, are customary or habitual in some communities but are absent in others where ecological explanations have been discounted. Among mammalian and avian species, cultural variation has previously been identified only for single behaviour patterns, such as the local dialects of song-birds. The extensive, multiple variations now documented for chimpanzees are thus without parallel. Moreover, the combined repertoire of these behaviour patterns in each chimpanzee community is itself highly distinctive, a phenomenon characteristic of human cultures but previously unrecognised in non-human species.  
  Address Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, UK  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10385119 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 742  
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