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Author Dreber, A.; Rand, D.G.; Fudenberg, D.; Nowak, M.A. doi  openurl
  Title Winners don/'t punish Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 452 Issue 7185 Pages 348-351  
  Keywords  
  Abstract A key aspect of human behaviour is cooperation1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. We tend to help others even if costs are involved. We are more likely to help when the costs are small and the benefits for the other person significant. Cooperation leads to a tension between what is best for the individual and what is best for the group. A group does better if everyone cooperates, but each individual is tempted to defect. Recently there has been much interest in exploring the effect of costly punishment on human cooperation8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23. Costly punishment means paying a cost for another individual to incur a cost. It has been suggested that costly punishment promotes cooperation even in non-repeated games and without any possibility of reputation effects10. But most of our interactions are repeated and reputation is always at stake. Thus, if costly punishment is important in promoting cooperation, it must do so in a repeated setting. We have performed experiments in which, in each round of a repeated game, people choose between cooperation, defection and costly punishment. In control experiments, people could only cooperate or defect. Here we show that the option of costly punishment increases the amount of cooperation but not the average payoff of the group. Furthermore, there is a strong negative correlation between total payoff and use of costly punishment. Those people who gain the highest total payoff tend not to use costly punishment: winners don't punish. This suggests that costly punishment behaviour is maladaptive in cooperation games and might have evolved for other reasons.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Nature Publishing Group Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1038/nature06723 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4406  
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Author Prather, J.F.; Peters, S.; Nowicki, S.; Mooney, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Precise auditory-vocal mirroring in neurons for learned vocal communication Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 451 Issue 7176 Pages 305-310  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Brain mechanisms for communication must establish a correspondence between sensory and motor codes used to represent
the signal. One idea is that this correspondence is established at the level of single neurons that are active when the
individual performs a particular gesture or observes a similar gesture performed by another individual. Although neurons
that display a precise auditory–vocal correspondence could facilitate vocal communication, they have yet to be identified.
Here we report that a certain class of neurons in the swamp sparrow forebrain displays a precise auditory–vocal
correspondence. We show that these neurons respond in a temporally precise fashion to auditory presentation of certain
note sequences in this songbird’s repertoire and to similar note sequences in other birds’ songs. These neurons display
nearly identical patterns of activity when the bird sings the same sequence, and disrupting auditory feedback does not alter
this singing-related activity, indicating it is motor in nature. Furthermore, these neurons innervate striatal structures
important for song learning, raising the possibility that singing-related activity in these cells is compared to auditory
feedback to guide vocal learning.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Nature Publishing Group Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1038/nature06492 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5062  
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Author McElreath, R.; Luttbeg, B.; Fogarty, S.P.; Brodin, T.; Sih, A. doi  openurl
  Title Evolution of animal personalities Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 450 Issue 7167 Pages E5-E5  
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  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Nature Publishing Group Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1038/nature06326 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4295  
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Author Wolf, M.; van Doorn, G.S.; Leimar, O.; Weissing, F.J. doi  openurl
  Title Wolf et al. reply Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 450 Issue 7167 Pages E5-E6  
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  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Nature Publishing Group Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 10.1038/nature06327 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4297  
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Author Wolf, M.; van Doorn, G.S.; Leimar, O.; Weissing, F.J. doi  openurl
  Title Life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of animal personalities Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 447 Issue 7144 Pages 581-584  
  Keywords Aggression/physiology/psychology; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; *Evolution; Exploratory Behavior/physiology; Models, Biological; Personality/*physiology; Predatory Behavior/physiology; Reproduction/physiology; Risk-Taking; Selection (Genetics)  
  Abstract In recent years evidence has been accumulating that personalities are not only found in humans but also in a wide range of other animal species. Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural tendencies and the behaviour in one context is correlated with the behaviour in multiple other contexts. From an adaptive perspective, the evolution of animal personalities is still a mystery, because a more flexible structure of behaviour should provide a selective advantage. Accordingly, many researchers view personalities as resulting from constraints imposed by the architecture of behaviour (but see ref. 12). In contrast, we show here that animal personalities can be given an adaptive explanation. Our argument is based on the insight that the trade-off between current and future reproduction often results in polymorphic populations in which some individuals put more emphasis on future fitness returns than others. Life-history theory predicts that such differences in fitness expectations should result in systematic differences in risk-taking behaviour. Individuals with high future expectations (who have much to lose) should be more risk-averse than individuals with low expectations. This applies to all kinds of risky situations, so individuals should consistently differ in their behaviour. By means of an evolutionary model we demonstrate that this basic principle results in the evolution of animal personalities. It simultaneously explains the coexistence of behavioural types, the consistency of behaviour through time and the structure of behavioural correlations across contexts. Moreover, it explains the common finding that explorative behaviour and risk-related traits like boldness and aggressiveness are common characteristics of animal personalities.  
  Address Theoretical Biology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17538618 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4098  
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Author Bell, A.M. doi  openurl
  Title Evolutionary biology: animal personalities Type News
  Year 2007 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 447 Issue 7144 Pages 539-540  
  Keywords Aggression/physiology/psychology; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; *Evolution; Humans; *Models, Biological; Personality/genetics/*physiology; Reproduction/genetics/physiology; Risk-Taking; Selection (Genetics)  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17538607 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4099  
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Author Shettleworth, S.J. doi  openurl
  Title Animal behaviour: planning for breakfast Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 445 Issue 7130 Pages 825-826  
  Keywords Animals; Feeding Behavior/*physiology; *Food; Haplorhini/physiology; Memory/physiology; Songbirds/*physiology; Thinking/*physiology  
  Abstract  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17314961 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 356  
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Author Grosenick, L.; Clement, T.S.; Fernald, R.D. doi  openurl
  Title Fish can infer social rank by observation alone Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 445 Issue 7126 Pages 429-432  
  Keywords Aggression/physiology; Animals; Cognition/*physiology; Female; Fishes/*physiology; Learning/*physiology; Male; Models, Biological; *Social Dominance; Territoriality  
  Abstract Transitive inference (TI) involves using known relationships to deduce unknown ones (for example, using A > B and B > C to infer A > C), and is thus essential to logical reasoning. First described as a developmental milestone in children, TI has since been reported in nonhuman primates, rats and birds. Still, how animals acquire and represent transitive relationships and why such abilities might have evolved remain open problems. Here we show that male fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) can successfully make inferences on a hierarchy implied by pairwise fights between rival males. These fish learned the implied hierarchy vicariously (as 'bystanders'), by watching fights between rivals arranged around them in separate tank units. Our findings show that fish use TI when trained on socially relevant stimuli, and that they can make such inferences by using indirect information alone. Further, these bystanders seem to have both spatial and featural representations related to rival abilities, which they can use to make correct inferences depending on what kind of information is available to them. Beyond extending TI to fish and experimentally demonstrating indirect TI learning in animals, these results indicate that a universal mechanism underlying TI is unlikely. Rather, animals probably use multiple domain-specific representations adapted to different social and ecological pressures that they encounter during the course of their natural lives.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 94305, USA. logang@stanford.edu  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:17251980 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 600  
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Author Shettleworth, S.J. openurl 
  Title Foraging, memory, and constraints on learning Type Journal Article
  Year 1985 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume (down) 443 Issue Pages 216-226  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild; *Appetitive Behavior; *Avoidance Learning; Birds; *Conditioning, Classical; Discrimination Learning; Food Preferences; *Memory; *Mental Recall; Motivation; *Predatory Behavior; Rats; *Taste  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0077-8923 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:3860072 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 384  
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Author Arnold, K.; Zuberbuhler, K. doi  openurl
  Title Language evolution: semantic combinations in primate calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 441 Issue 7091 Pages 303  
  Keywords Animal Migration; Animals; Eagles/physiology; *Evolution; Female; Haplorhini/*physiology; Male; Predatory Behavior; *Semantics; *Vocalization, Animal  
  Abstract Syntax sets human language apart from other natural communication systems, although its evolutionary origins are obscure. Here we show that free-ranging putty-nosed monkeys combine two vocalizations into different call sequences that are linked to specific external events, such as the presence of a predator and the imminent movement of the group. Our findings indicate that non-human primates can combine calls into higher-order sequences that have a particular meaning.  
  Address School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9JP, UK  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16710411 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 354  
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