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Author Paz-y-Miño C. G.; Bond, A.B.; Kamil, A.C.; Balda, R.P. doi  openurl
  Title Pinyon jays use transitive inference to predict social dominance Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 430 Issue 7001 Pages 778-781  
  Keywords Animals; Cognition/*physiology; Group Structure; Male; *Social Dominance; Songbirds/*physiology  
  Abstract Living in large, stable social groups is often considered to favour the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities, such as recognizing group members, tracking their social status and inferring relationships among them. An individual's place in the social order can be learned through direct interactions with others, but conflicts can be time-consuming and even injurious. Because the number of possible pairwise interactions increases rapidly with group size, members of large social groups will benefit if they can make judgments about relationships on the basis of indirect evidence. Transitive reasoning should therefore be particularly important for social individuals, allowing assessment of relationships from observations of interactions among others. Although a variety of studies have suggested that transitive inference may be used in social settings, the phenomenon has not been demonstrated under controlled conditions in animals. Here we show that highly social pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus) draw sophisticated inferences about their own dominance status relative to that of strangers that they have observed interacting with known individuals. These results directly demonstrate that animals use transitive inference in social settings and imply that such cognitive capabilities are widespread among social species.  
  Address Center for Avian Cognition, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15306809 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @; Equine Behaviour @ team @ room B 3.029 Serial 352  
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Author Shettleworth, S.J. doi  openurl
  Title Cognitive science: rank inferred by reason Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 430 Issue 7001 Pages 732-733  
  Keywords Animals; Cognition/*physiology; Group Structure; Male; *Social Dominance; Songbirds/*physiology  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15306792 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 365  
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Author Fenton, B.; Ratcliffe, J. doi  openurl
  Title Animal behaviour: eavesdropping on bats Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 429 Issue 6992 Pages 612-613  
  Keywords Acoustics; Animals; Chiroptera/anatomy & histology/classification/genetics/*physiology; Echolocation/*physiology; *Evolution; Phylogeny; Predatory Behavior/physiology; Species Specificity  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15190335 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 500  
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Author Proudman, C.; Pinchbeck, G.; Clegg, P.; French, N. doi  openurl
  Title Equine welfare: risk of horses falling in the Grand National Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 428 Issue 6981 Pages 385-386  
  Keywords Accidental Falls/prevention & control/*statistics & numerical data; Animal Welfare; Animals; Great Britain; Horse Diseases/prevention & control; Horses/*physiology; Odds Ratio; Risk Assessment; *Sports  
  Abstract As in other competitive sports, the famous Grand National steeplechase, which is held at Aintree in the United Kingdom and is watched by 600 million people worldwide, sometimes results in injury. By analysing data from the past 15 Grand National races (consisting of 560 starts by horses), we are able to identify several factors that are significantly associated with failure to complete the race: no previous experience of the course and its unique obstacles, unfavourable ground conditions (too soft or too hard), a large number of runners, and the length of the odds ('starting price'). We also find that there is an increased risk of falling at the first fence and at the jump known as Becher's Brook, which has a ditch on the landing side. Our findings indicate ways in which the Grand National could be made safer for horses and illustrate how epidemiological analysis might contribute to preventing injury in competitive sport.  
  Address Epidemiology Group, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Neston, Wirral CH64 7TE, UK. c.j.proudman@liverpool.ac.uk  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:15042079 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 535  
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Author Hassenberg L, openurl 
  Title Verhalten bei Einhufern Type Journal Article
  Year 1971 Publication Abbreviated Journal Die Neue Brehmbücherei  
  Volume (down) 427 Issue Pages  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1164  
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Author Brosnan, S.F.; De Waal, F.B.M. doi  openurl
  Title Monkeys reject unequal pay Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 425 Issue 6955 Pages 297-299  
  Keywords Aging; Animals; Cebus/*psychology; Choice Behavior; *Cooperative Behavior; Female; Male; *Reward; Social Justice  
  Abstract During the evolution of cooperation it may have become critical for individuals to compare their own efforts and pay-offs with those of others. Negative reactions may occur when expectations are violated. One theory proposes that aversion to inequity can explain human cooperation within the bounds of the rational choice model, and may in fact be more inclusive than previous explanations. Although there exists substantial cultural variation in its particulars, this 'sense of fairness' is probably a human universal that has been shown to prevail in a wide variety of circumstances. However, we are not the only cooperative animals, hence inequity aversion may not be uniquely human. Many highly cooperative nonhuman species seem guided by a set of expectations about the outcome of cooperation and the division of resources. Here we demonstrate that a nonhuman primate, the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), responds negatively to unequal reward distribution in exchanges with a human experimenter. Monkeys refused to participate if they witnessed a conspecific obtain a more attractive reward for equal effort, an effect amplified if the partner received such a reward without any effort at all. These reactions support an early evolutionary origin of inequity aversion.  
  Address Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. sbrosna@emory.edu  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:13679918 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 179  
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Author Rands, S.A.; Cowlishaw, G.; Pettifor, R.A.; Rowcliffe, J.M.; Johnstone, R.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spontaneous emergence of leaders and followers in foraging pairs Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 423 Issue 6938 Pages 432-434  
  Keywords Animals; *Energy Metabolism; Food; *Food Chain; *Models, Biological; Motor Activity; *Social Behavior; Time Factors  
  Abstract Animals that forage socially often stand to gain from coordination of their behaviour. Yet it is not known how group members reach a consensus on the timing of foraging bouts. Here we demonstrate a simple process by which this may occur. We develop a state-dependent, dynamic game model of foraging by a pair of animals, in which each individual chooses between resting or foraging during a series of consecutive periods, so as to maximize its own individual chances of survival. We find that, if there is an advantage to foraging together, the equilibrium behaviour of both individuals becomes highly synchronized. As a result of this synchronization, differences in the energetic reserves of the two players spontaneously develop, leading them to adopt different behavioural roles. The individual with lower reserves emerges as the 'pace-maker' who determines when the pair should forage, providing a straightforward resolution to the problem of group coordination. Moreover, the strategy that gives rise to this behaviour can be implemented by a simple 'rule of thumb' that requires no detailed knowledge of the state of other individuals.  
  Address Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. s.rands@zoo.cam.ac.uk  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12761547 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5138  
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Author Johnson, D.D.P.; Stopka, P.; Knights, S. doi  openurl
  Title Sociology: The puzzle of human cooperation Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 421 Issue 6926 Pages 911-2; discussion 912  
  Keywords Altruism; *Cooperative Behavior; Evolution; Humans; *Models, Biological; Punishment; Reward; Risk  
  Abstract  
  Address Olin Institute for Strategic Studies, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. dominic@post.harvard.edu  
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  Notes PMID:12606989 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 467  
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Author Conradt, L.; Roper, T.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Group decision-making in animals Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 421 Issue 6919 Pages 155-158  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; *Decision Making; Democracy; Group Processes; *Models, Biological; Population Density; Social Behavior  
  Abstract Groups of animals often need to make communal decisions, for example about which activities to perform, when to perform them and which direction to travel in; however, little is known about how they do so. Here, we model the fitness consequences of two possible decision-making mechanisms: 'despotism' and 'democracy'. We show that under most conditions, the costs to subordinate group members, and to the group as a whole, are considerably higher for despotic than for democratic decisions. Even when the despot is the most experienced group member, it only pays other members to accept its decision when group size is small and the difference in information is large. Democratic decisions are more beneficial primarily because they tend to produce less extreme decisions, rather than because each individual has an influence on the decision per se. Our model suggests that democracy should be widespread and makes quantitative, testable predictions about group decision-making in non-humans.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK. l.conradt@sussex.ac.uk  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12520299 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5136  
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Author Dyer, F.C. doi  openurl
  Title Animal behaviour: when it pays to waggle Type News
  Year 2002 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 419 Issue 6910 Pages 885-886  
  Keywords *Animal Communication; Animals; Bees/*physiology; California; Dancing/physiology; Environment; Evolution; Female; Flowers/chemistry; *Food; Gravitation; Lighting; Motor Activity/*physiology; Odors; Seasons; Sunlight  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12410290 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 769  
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