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Author Arnold, K.; Zuberbuhler, K. doi  openurl
  Title Language evolution: semantic combinations in primate calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 441 Issue 7091 Pages 303  
  Keywords Animal Migration; Animals; Eagles/physiology; *Evolution; Female; Haplorhini/*physiology; Male; Predatory Behavior; *Semantics; *Vocalization, Animal  
  Abstract Syntax sets human language apart from other natural communication systems, although its evolutionary origins are obscure. Here we show that free-ranging putty-nosed monkeys combine two vocalizations into different call sequences that are linked to specific external events, such as the presence of a predator and the imminent movement of the group. Our findings indicate that non-human primates can combine calls into higher-order sequences that have a particular meaning.  
  Address School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9JP, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16710411 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 354  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gentner, T.Q.; Fenn, K.M.; Margoliash, D.; Nusbaum, H.C. doi  openurl
  Title Recursive syntactic pattern learning by songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 440 Issue 7088 Pages 1204-1207  
  Keywords Acoustic Stimulation; *Animal Communication; Animals; Auditory Perception/*physiology; Humans; *Language; Learning/*physiology; Linguistics; Models, Neurological; Semantics; Starlings/*physiology; Stochastic Processes  
  Abstract Humans regularly produce new utterances that are understood by other members of the same language community. Linguistic theories account for this ability through the use of syntactic rules (or generative grammars) that describe the acceptable structure of utterances. The recursive, hierarchical embedding of language units (for example, words or phrases within shorter sentences) that is part of the ability to construct new utterances minimally requires a 'context-free' grammar that is more complex than the 'finite-state' grammars thought sufficient to specify the structure of all non-human communication signals. Recent hypotheses make the central claim that the capacity for syntactic recursion forms the computational core of a uniquely human language faculty. Here we show that European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) accurately recognize acoustic patterns defined by a recursive, self-embedding, context-free grammar. They are also able to classify new patterns defined by the grammar and reliably exclude agrammatical patterns. Thus, the capacity to classify sequences from recursive, centre-embedded grammars is not uniquely human. This finding opens a new range of complex syntactic processing mechanisms to physiological investigation.  
  Address Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. tgentner@ucsd.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16641998 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 353  
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Author Flack, J.C.; Girvan, M.; de Waal, F.B.M.; Krakauer, D.C. doi  openurl
  Title Policing stabilizes construction of social niches in primates Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 439 Issue 7075 Pages 426-429  
  Keywords Animals; Conflict (Psychology); Female; Macaca nemestrina/*physiology/*psychology; Male; Models, Biological; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract All organisms interact with their environment, and in doing so shape it, modifying resource availability. Termed niche construction, this process has been studied primarily at the ecological level with an emphasis on the consequences of construction across generations. We focus on the behavioural process of construction within a single generation, identifying the role a robustness mechanism--conflict management--has in promoting interactions that build social resource networks or social niches. Using 'knockout' experiments on a large, captive group of pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), we show that a policing function, performed infrequently by a small subset of individuals, significantly contributes to maintaining stable resource networks in the face of chronic perturbations that arise through conflict. When policing is absent, social niches destabilize, with group members building smaller, less diverse, and less integrated grooming, play, proximity and contact-sitting networks. Instability is quantified in terms of reduced mean degree, increased clustering, reduced reach, and increased assortativity. Policing not only controls conflict, we find it significantly influences the structure of networks that constitute essential social resources in gregarious primate societies. The structure of such networks plays a critical role in infant survivorship, emergence and spread of cooperative behaviour, social learning and cultural traditions.  
  Address Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501, USA. jflack@santafe.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16437106 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 298  
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Author Amdam, G.V.; Csondes, A.; Fondrk, M.K.; Page, R.E.J. doi  openurl
  Title Complex social behaviour derived from maternal reproductive traits Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 439 Issue 7072 Pages 76-78  
  Keywords Aging/physiology; Animals; Bees/*physiology; *Evolution; Feeding Behavior/*physiology; Female; Infertility, Female; Maternal Behavior/*physiology; Ovary/physiology; Pollen/metabolism; Reproduction/*physiology; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract A fundamental goal of sociobiology is to explain how complex social behaviour evolves, especially in social insects, the exemplars of social living. Although still the subject of much controversy, recent theoretical explanations have focused on the evolutionary origins of worker behaviour (assistance from daughters that remain in the nest and help their mother to reproduce) through expression of maternal care behaviour towards siblings. A key prediction of this evolutionary model is that traits involved in maternal care have been co-opted through heterochronous expression of maternal genes to result in sib-care, the hallmark of highly evolved social life in insects. A coupling of maternal behaviour to reproductive status evolved in solitary insects, and was a ready substrate for the evolution of worker-containing societies. Here we show that division of foraging labour among worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) is linked to the reproductive status of facultatively sterile females. We thereby identify the evolutionary origin of a widely expressed social-insect behavioural syndrome, and provide a direct demonstration of how variation in maternal reproductive traits gives rise to complex social behaviour in non-reproductive helpers.  
  Address Arizona State University, School of Life Sciences, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA. Gro.Amdam@asu.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16397498 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 531  
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Author Franks, N.R.; Richardson, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Teaching in tandem-running ants Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 439 Issue 7073 Pages 153  
  Keywords *Animal Communication; Animals; Ants/*physiology; Feedback/physiology; Learning/*physiology; *Teaching  
  Abstract The ant Temnothorax albipennis uses a technique known as tandem running to lead another ant from the nest to food--with signals between the two ants controlling both the speed and course of the run. Here we analyse the results of this communication and show that tandem running is an example of teaching, to our knowledge the first in a non-human animal, that involves bidirectional feedback between teacher and pupil. This behaviour indicates that it could be the value of information, rather than the constraint of brain size, that has influenced the evolution of teaching.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 IUG, UK. nigel.franks@bristol.ac.uk  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16407943 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4651  
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Author de Waal, F.B.M. doi  openurl
  Title A century of getting to know the chimpanzee Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 437 Issue 7055 Pages 56-59  
  Keywords Aggression; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Competitive Behavior; Cooperative Behavior; Female; Humans; Male; Pan troglodytes/genetics/*physiology/psychology; Sexual Behavior, Animal; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract A century of research on chimpanzees, both in their natural habitat and in captivity, has brought these apes socially, emotionally and mentally much closer to us. Parallels and homologues between chimpanzee and human behaviour range from tool-technology and cultural learning to power politics and intercommunity warfare. Few behavioural domains have remained untouched by this increased knowledge, which has dramatically challenged the way we view ourselves. The sequencing of the chimpanzee genome will no doubt bring more surprises and insights. Humans do occupy a special place among the primates, but this place increasingly has to be defined against a backdrop of substantial similarity.  
  Address Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 North Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. dewaal@emory.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16136128 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 162  
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Author Whiten, A.; Horner, V.; de Waal, F.B.M. doi  openurl
  Title Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 437 Issue 7059 Pages 737-740  
  Keywords Aging/physiology; Animals; Culture; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Female; Pan troglodytes/*physiology/*psychology; *Social Conformity; Technology; Time Factors  
  Abstract Rich circumstantial evidence suggests that the extensive behavioural diversity recorded in wild great apes reflects a complexity of cultural variation unmatched by species other than our own. However, the capacity for cultural transmission assumed by this interpretation has remained difficult to test rigorously in the field, where the scope for controlled experimentation is limited. Here we show that experimentally introduced technologies will spread within different ape communities. Unobserved by group mates, we first trained a high-ranking female from each of two groups of captive chimpanzees to adopt one of two different tool-use techniques for obtaining food from the same 'Pan-pipe' apparatus, then re-introduced each female to her respective group. All but two of 32 chimpanzees mastered the new technique under the influence of their local expert, whereas none did so in a third population lacking an expert. Most chimpanzees adopted the method seeded in their group, and these traditions continued to diverge over time. A subset of chimpanzees that discovered the alternative method nevertheless went on to match the predominant approach of their companions, showing a conformity bias that is regarded as a hallmark of human culture.  
  Address Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JP, UK. a.whiten@st-and.ac.uk  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16113685 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 163  
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Author Whiten, A. doi  openurl
  Title The second inheritance system of chimpanzees and humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 437 Issue 7055 Pages 52-55  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild/physiology/psychology; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; *Culture; Female; Humans; Imitative Behavior; Learning/*physiology; Pan troglodytes/*physiology/psychology; *Social Behavior; Technology  
  Abstract Half a century of dedicated field research has brought us from ignorance of our closest relatives to the discovery that chimpanzee communities resemble human cultures in possessing suites of local traditions that uniquely identify them. The collaborative effort required to establish this picture parallels the one set up to sequence the chimpanzee genome, and has revealed a complex social inheritance system that complements the genetic picture we are now developing.  
  Address Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, and Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9JP, UK. a.whiten@st-and.ac.uk  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1476-4687 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16136127 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 730  
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Author Zeitler-Feicht, M. H.; Walker, S.; Buxade, C.; Reiter, K. openurl 
  Title Untersuchungen verschiedener Formen der Heuvorlage bei Pferden unter ethologischem Aspekt Type Book Chapter
  Year 2004 Publication KTBL Schriften Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 437 Issue Pages  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5764  
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Author Couzin, I.D.; Krause, J.; Franks, N.R.; Levin, S.A. url  doi
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  Title Effective leadership and decision-making in animal groups on the move Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume (down) 433 Issue 7025 Pages 513-516  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes 10.1038/nature03236 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4827  
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