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Author Teicher, M.H.; Tomoda, A.; Andersen, S.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Neurobiological Consequences of Early Stress and Childhood Maltreatment: Are Results from Human and Animal Studies Comparable? Type
  Year 2006 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 1071 Issue 1 Pages 313-323  
  Keywords adolescence; maltreatment; hippocampus; corpus callosum; translational research; sensitive periods; stress; abuse or neglect  
  Abstract Abstract: Recent studies have reported an association between exposure to childhood abuse or neglect and alterations in brain structure or function. One limitation of these studies is that they are correlational and do not provide evidence of a cause–effect relationship. Preclinical studies on the effects of exposure to early life stress can demonstrate causality, and can enrich our understanding of the clinical research if we hypothesize that the consequences of early abuse are predominantly mediated through the induction of stress responses. Exposure to early abuse and early stress has each been associated with the emergence of epileptiform electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities, alterations in corpous callosum area, and reduced volume or synaptic density of the hippocampus.Further, there is evidence that different brain regions have unique periods when they are maximally sensitive to the effects of early stress. To date, preclinical studies have guided clinical investigations and will continue to provide important insight into studies on molecular mechanisms and gene–environment interactions.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Blackwell Publishing Inc Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1749-6632 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5784  
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Author Touma, C.; Palme, R. doi  openurl
  Title Measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in mammals and birds: the importance of validation Type
  Year 2005 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume (down) 1046 Issue Pages 54-74  
  Keywords Animals; Birds/*metabolism; Circadian Rhythm; Feces/*chemistry; Glucocorticoids/*analysis; Mammals/*metabolism; Reproducibility of Results; Seasons; Sex Factors  
  Abstract In recent years, the noninvasive monitoring of steroid hormone metabolites in feces of mammals and droppings of birds has become an increasingly popular technique. It offers several advantages and has been applied to a variety of species under various settings. However, using this technique to reliably assess an animal's adrenocortical activity is not that simple and straightforward to apply. Because clear differences regarding the metabolism and excretion of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) exist, a careful validation for each species and sex investigated is obligatory. In this review, general analytical issues regarding sample storage, extraction procedures, and immunoassays are briefly discussed, but the main focus lies on experiments and recommendations addressing the validation of fecal GCM measurements in mammals and birds. The crucial importance of scrutinizing the physiological and biological validity of fecal GCM analyses in a given species is stressed. In particular, the relevance of the technique to detect biologically meaningful alterations in adrenocortical activity must be shown. Furthermore, significant effects of the animals' sex, the time of day, season, and different life history stages are discussed, bringing about the necessity to seriously consider possible sex differences as well as diurnal and seasonal variations. Thus, comprehensive information on the animals' biology and stress physiology should be carefully taken into account. Together with an extensive physiological and biological validation, this will ensure that the measurement of fecal GCMs can be used as a powerful tool to assess adrenocortical activity in diverse investigations on laboratory, companion, farm, zoo, and wild animals.  
  Address Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Kraepelinstrasse 2-10, D-80804 Munich, Germany. touma@mpipsykl.mpg.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0077-8923 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16055843 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4073  
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Author Thiel, D.; Jenni-Eiermann, S.; Palme, R. doi  openurl
  Title Measuring corticosterone metabolites in droppings of capercaillies (Tetrao urogallus) Type
  Year 2005 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume (down) 1046 Issue Pages 96-108  
  Keywords Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/administration & dosage/analysis/metabolism; Animals; Circadian Rhythm; Corticosterone/administration & dosage/*analysis/*metabolism; Feces/*chemistry; Female; Freezing; Galliformes/*metabolism; Male; Reproducibility of Results; Sex Factors; Temperature; Time Factors; Tritium/diagnostic use  
  Abstract The capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), the largest grouse species in the world, is decreasing in numbers in major parts of its distribution range. Disturbances by human outdoor activities are discussed as a possible reason for this population decline. An indicator for disturbances is the increase of the glucocorticoid corticosterone, a stress hormone, which helps to cope with life-threatening situations. However, repeated disturbances might result in a long-term increase of the basal corticosterone concentration, which can result in detrimental effects like reduced fitness and survival of an animal. To measure corticosterone metabolites (CMs) noninvasively in the droppings of free-living capercaillies, first an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in captive birds had to be selected and validated. Therefore, the excretion pattern of intravenously injected radiolabeled corticosterone was determined and 3H metabolites were characterized. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations of the samples containing peak concentrations revealed that corticosterone was extensively metabolized. The HPLC fractions were tested in several EIAs for glucocorticoid metabolites. The physiological relevance of this method was proved after pharmacological stimulation of the adrenocortical activity. Only the recently established cortisone assay, measuring CMs with a 3,11-dione structure, detected an expressed increase of concentrations following ACTH stimulation. To set up a sampling protocol suited for the field, we examined the influence of various storage conditions and time of day on concentrations of CMs.  
  Address Swiss Ornithological Institute, 6204 Sempach, Switzerland. dominik.thiel@vogelwarte.ch  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0077-8923 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16055846 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4079  
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Author Baltic, M.; Jenni-Eiermann, S.; Arlettaz, R.; Palme, R. doi  openurl
  Title A noninvasive technique to evaluate human-generated stress in the black grouse Type
  Year 2005 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume (down) 1046 Issue Pages 81-95  
  Keywords Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/metabolism; Animals; Bird Diseases/*metabolism; Conservation of Natural Resources; Corticosterone/*metabolism; Ecosystem; Feces/*chemistry; Female; Galliformes/*metabolism; Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods/veterinary; Male; Reproducibility of Results; Stress/metabolism/*veterinary; Tritium/diagnostic use  
  Abstract The continuous development of tourism and related leisure activities is exerting an increasingly intense pressure on wildlife. In this study, a novel noninvasive method for measuring stress in the black grouse, an endangered, emblematic species of European ecosystems that is currently declining in several parts of its European range, is tested and physiologically validated. A radiometabolism study and an ACTH challenge test were performed on four captive black grouse (two of each sex) in order to get basic information about the metabolism and excretion of corticosterone and to find an appropriate enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) to measure its metabolites in the feces. Peak radioactivity in the droppings was detected within 1 to 2 hours. Injected (3)H-corticosterone was excreted as polar metabolites and by itself was almost absent. A cortisone-EIA was chosen from among seven tested EIAs for different groups of glucocorticoid metabolites, because it cross-reacted with some of the formed metabolites and best reflected the increase of excreted corticosterone metabolites, after the ACTH challenge test. Concentrations of the metabolites from fecal samples collected from snow burrows of free-ranging black grouse were within the same range as in captive birds. The noninvasive method described may be appropriate for evaluating the stress faced by free-living black grouse populations in the wild, particularly in mountain ecosystems where human disturbance, especially by winter sports, is of increasing conservation concern.  
  Address Zoological Institute, Division of Conservation Biology, Baltzerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0077-8923 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16055845 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4080  
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Author Palme, R. doi  openurl
  Title Measuring fecal steroids: guidelines for practical application Type
  Year 2005 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume (down) 1046 Issue Pages 75-80  
  Keywords Animals; Feces/*chemistry; Immunoassay/methods; Reproducibility of Results; Specimen Handling/methods; Steroids/*analysis  
  Abstract During the past 20 years, measuring steroid hormone metabolites in fecal samples has become a widely appreciated technique, because it has proved to be a powerful, noninvasive tool that provides important information about an animal's endocrine status (adrenocortical activity and reproductive status). However, although sampling is relatively easy to perform and free of feedback, a careful consideration of various factors is necessary to achieve proper results that lead to sound conclusions. This article aims to provide guidelines for an adequate application of these techniques. It is meant as a checklist that addresses the main topics of concern, such as sample collection and storage, time delay extraction procedures, assay selection and validation, biological relevance, and some confounding factors. These issues are discussed briefly here and in more detail in other recent articles.  
  Address Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria. Rupert.Palme@vu-wien.ac.at  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0077-8923 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16055844 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4081  
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Author Mostl, E.; Rettenbacher, S.; Palme, R. doi  openurl
  Title Measurement of corticosterone metabolites in birds' droppings: an analytical approach Type
  Year 2005 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume (down) 1046 Issue Pages 17-34  
  Keywords Animals; Birds/*metabolism; Corticosterone/*analysis/metabolism; Feces/*chemistry; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Immunoassay; Molecular Structure; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and Specificity  
  Abstract Fecal steroid analyses are becoming increasingly popular among both field and laboratory scientists. The benefits associated with sampling procedures that do not require restraint, anesthesia, and blood collection include less risk to subject and investigator, as well as the potential to obtain endocrine profiles that are not influenced by the sampling procedure itself. In the feces, a species-specific pattern of metabolites is present, because glucocorticoids are extensively metabolized. Therefore, selection of adequate extraction procedures and immunoassays for measuring the relevant metabolites is a serious issue. In this review, emphasis is placed on the establishment and analytical validation of methods to measure glucocorticoid metabolites for a noninvasive evaluation of adrenocortical activity in droppings of birds.  
  Address Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Veterinarplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria. erich.moestl@vu-wien.ac.at  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0077-8923 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16055841 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4082  
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Author Palme, R.; Rettenbacher, S.; Touma, C.; El-Bahr, S.M.; Mostl, E. doi  openurl
  Title Stress hormones in mammals and birds: comparative aspects regarding metabolism, excretion, and noninvasive measurement in fecal samples Type
  Year 2005 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume (down) 1040 Issue Pages 162-171  
  Keywords Adrenal Glands/chemistry/metabolism; Animals; Birds; Catecholamines/analysis/chemistry/*metabolism; Feces/*chemistry; Glucocorticoids/analysis/chemistry/*metabolism; Hormones/analysis/metabolism; Mammals; Species Specificity; Stress/*metabolism  
  Abstract A multitude of endocrine mechanisms are involved in coping with challenges. Front-line hormones to overcome stressful situations are glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines (CAs). These hormones are usually determined in plasma samples as parameters of adrenal activity and thus of disturbance. GCs (and CAs) are extensively metabolized and excreted afterwards. Therefore, the concentration of GCs (or their metabolites) can be measured in various body fluids or excreta. Above all, fecal samples offer the advantages of easy collection and a feedback-free sampling procedure. However, large differences exist among species regarding the route and time course of excretion, as well as the types of metabolites formed. Based on information gained from radiometabolism studies (reviewed in this paper), we recently developed and successfully validated different enzyme immunoassays that enable the noninvasive measurement of groups of cortisol or corticosterone metabolites in animal feces. The determination of these metabolites in fecal samples can be used as a powerful tool to monitor GC production in various species of domestic, wildlife, and laboratory animals.  
  Address Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria. rupert.palme@vu-wien.ac.at  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0077-8923 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15891021 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4083  
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Author Fox, N.A. doi  openurl
  Title Temperament and early experience form social behavior Type
  Year 2004 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume (down) 1038 Issue Pages 171-178  
  Keywords Adult; Animals; Child; Child Behavior Disorders/physiopathology; Fear/physiology; Humans; Individuality; Infant; Learning/*physiology; *Personality Development; *Social Behavior; Temperament/*physiology  
  Abstract Individual differences in the way persons respond to stimulation can have important consequences for their ability to learn and their choice of vocation. Temperament is the study of such individual differences, being thought of as the behavioral style of an individual. Common to all approaches in the study of temperament are the notions that it can be identified in infancy, is fairly stable across development, and influences adult personality. We have identified a specific temperament type in infancy that involves heightened distress to novel and unfamiliar stimuli. Infants who exhibit this temperament are likely, as they get older, to display behavioral inhibition-wariness and heightened vigilance of the unfamiliar-particularly in social situations. Our work has also described the underlying biology of this temperament and has linked it to neural systems supporting fear responses in animals. Children displaying behavioral inhibition are at-risk for behavioral problems related to anxiety and social withdrawal.  
  Address Institute for Child Study, Department of Human Development, University of Maryland, 3304 Benjamin Building, College Park, MD 20742-1131, USA. nf4@umail.umd.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0077-8923 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15838111 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4131  
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Author Zhang, T.-Y.; Parent, C.; Weaver, I.; Meaney, M.J. doi  openurl
  Title Maternal programming of individual differences in defensive responses in the rat Type
  Year 2004 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume (down) 1032 Issue Pages 85-103  
  Keywords Adaptation, Biological; Aggression/*physiology; Animals; Evolution; Female; Gene Expression/physiology; Humans; Individuality; *Maternal Behavior; Phenotype; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; Rats; Stress, Psychological/physiopathology  
  Abstract This paper describes the results of a series of studies showing that variations in mother-pup interactions program the development of individual differences in behavioral and endocrine stress responses in the rat. These effects are associated with altered expression of genes in brain regions, such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, that regulate the expression of stress responses. Studies from evolutionary biology suggest that such “maternal effects” are common and often associated with variations in the quality of the maternal environment. Together these findings suggest an epigenetic process whereby the experience of the mother alters the nature of the parent-offspring interactions and thus the phenotype of the offspring.  
  Address McGill Program for the Study of Behavior, Genes and Environment, Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 6875 boul. LaSalle, Montreal (Quebec), Canada H4H 1R3  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0077-8923 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15677397 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4132  
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Author Gentner, T.Q. url  openurl
  Title Neural Systems for Individual Song Recognition in Adult Birds Type
  Year 2004 Publication Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 1016 Issue 1 Pages 282-302  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The songbird auditory system is an excellent model for neuroethological studies of the mechanisms that govern the perception and cognition of natural stimuli (i.e., song), and the translation of corresponding representations into natural behaviors. One common songbird behavior is the learned recognition of individual conspecific songs. This chapter summarizes the research effort to identify the brain regions and mechanisms mediating individual song recognition in European starlings, a species of songbird. The results of laboratory behavioral studies are reviewed, which show that when adult starlings learn to recognize other individual's songs, they do so by memorizing large sets of song elements, called motifs. Recent data from single neurons in the caudal medial portion of the mesopallium are then reviewed, showing that song recognition learning leads to explicit representation of acoustic features that correspond closely to specific motifs, but only to motifs in the songs that birds have learned to recognize. This suggests that the strength and tuning of high-level auditory object representations, of the sort that presumably underlie many forms of vocal communication, are shaped by each animal's unique experience.  
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  Notes 10.1196/annals.1298.008 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2961  
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