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Author Möstl, E.; Palme, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Hormones as indicators of stress Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Domestic Animal Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.  
  Volume 23 Issue 1–2 Pages 67-74  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Animal welfare is of increasing importance and absence of chronic stress is one of its prerequisites. During stress, various endocrine responses are involved to improve the fitness of the individual. The front-line hormones to overcome stressful situations are the glucocorticoids and catecholamines. These hormones are determined as a parameter of adrenal activity and thus of disturbance. The concentration of glucocorticoids (or their metabolites) can be measured in various body fluids or excreta. Above all, fecal samples offer the advantage that they can be easily collected and this procedure is feedback free. Recently, enzyme immunoassays (EIA) have been developed and successfully tested, to enable the measurement of groups of cortisol metabolites in animal feces. The determination of these metabolites in fecal samples is a practical method to monitor glucocorticoid production.  
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  ISSN 0739-7240 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5930  
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Author Kirkpatrick, J.F. ;Turner, J.W. Jr url  openurl
  Title Comparative reproductive biology of North American feral horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Journal of Equine Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal J. Equine Vet. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 224-230  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2326  
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Author Covalesky, M.E.; Russoniello, C.R.; Malinowski, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of show-jumping performance stress on plasma cortisol and lactate concentrations and heart rate and behavior in horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication Journal of Equine Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 244-251  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Summary Effects of show jumping competition on stress levels in horses was examined. Twenty-six homes were sampled in both show and farm environments from three levels of show experience schooling, (least experience, n=11); intermediate, (moderate experience, n=6); open, (most experience, n=9). Blood samples were taken at 6 time points; 3 at the horse show and 3 at the home farm (baseline at rest, pre-schooling and post-performance over a jump course). Stress responses were assessed through comparison of the behavioral response of the horses (determined by a subjective scoring system) to plasma cortisol (F) concentrations. Physical exertion was evaluated by heart rate (HR) and plasma lactate (L) concentrations. Schooling jumpers displayed higher baseline F concentrations than open jumpers (83g±9.2 vs 46.4±10.2 ng/ml, respectively; p<.05); but not when compared to intermediate jumpers (66.2 ± 13.7 ng/ml; p>.05) at the horse show. At the farm, there were no differences in F concentrations between experience levels at a time point (p<.05). Least experienced horses displayed higher F values at rest at the show compared to the home farm. At the show, open jumpers had higher L concentrations post-exercise compared to intermediate horses (40.3±3.4 vs 25.5±4.0 mg/dL, respectively; p<.05); but were not different compared to schooling jumpers (34.8±2.0 mg/dL; p>.05). There were no differences in heart rates or behavior score between experience levels at specific time points at either the show or farm (p>.05). Low positive correlations were found between HR and F (r=.24, p<.05); HR and L (r-.48, p<.05); and HR and behavior (r=.22, p<.05). Results suggest that conditioned jumpers that have previously been exposed to horse show environments do not appear stressed during acute show-jumping competition.  
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  ISSN 0737-0806 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5622  
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Author Briard, L.; Deneubourg, J.-L.; Petit, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How stallions influence the dynamic of collective movements in two groups of domestic horses, from departure to arrival Type Journal Article
  Year 0 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords consensus; herding; polygyny; personal leadership; shared decision  
  Abstract Abstract The role of leader in polygynous species has been solely attributed to the male for some time, but recent studies shown decision making to be distributed within the group. However, the specific reproductive strategy and behavioural repertoire of males in polygynous species such as horses may mean that these individuals still have the potential to play a specific role during decision-making. To investigate this subject, we thoroughly studied the behaviour of two domestic stallions during collective movements of their group. We found that they initiated rarely and sometimes failed to recruit the entire group. When departing as followers, they did not accelerate the joining process. Both stallions preferentially occupied the rear position and exhibited numerous monitoring behaviours. Herding behaviours were performed by only one stallion and mostly occurred outside movement context. Finally, we removed this herding stallion from its group to evaluate how the group dynamic changed. As a result, half of the collective movements were five times slower and mares were more dispersed in comparison when the stallion was in the group. Overall, our results suggest that, the two stallions maintained their role of group monitors from departure to arrival. Their influence on the movement dynamic was indirect and did not play a specific role in the process of decision making.  
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  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6151  
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Author Brubaker, L.; Udell, M.A.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cognition and learning in horses (Equus caballus): What we know and why we should ask more Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 126 Issue Pages 121-131  
  Keywords Horse behaviour; Horse welfare; Learning; Social cognition  
  Abstract Abstract Horses (Equus caballus) have a rich history in their relationship with humans. Across different cultures and eras they have been utilized for work, show, cultural rituals, consumption, therapy, and companionship and continue to serve in many of these roles today. As one of the most commonly trained domestic animals, understanding how horses learn and how their relationship with humans and other horses impacts their ability to learn has implications for horse welfare, training, husbandry and management. Given that unlike dogs and cats, domesticated horses have evolved from prey animals, the horse-human relationship poses interesting and unique scientific questions of theoretical value. There is still much to be learned about the cognition and behaviour of horses from a scientific perspective. This review explores current research within three related areas of horse cognition: human-horse interactions, social learning and independent learning in horses. Research on these topics is summarized and suggestions for future research are provided.  
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  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6021  
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Author Rochais, C.; Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Investigating attentional processes in depressive-like domestic horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 124 Issue Pages 93-96  
  Keywords Horses; Attention; Cognition; Welfare; Depression  
  Abstract Abstract Some captive/domestic animals respond to confinement by becoming inactive and unresponsive to external stimuli. Human inactivity is one of the behavioural markers of clinical depression, a mental disorder diagnosed by the co-occurrence of symptoms including deficit in selective attention. Some riding horses display ‘withdrawn’ states of inactivity and low responsiveness to stimuli that resemble the reduced engagement with their environment of some depressed patients. We hypothesized that ‘withdrawn’ horses experience a depressive-like state and evaluated their level of attention by confronting them with auditory stimuli. Five novel auditory stimuli were broadcasted to 27 horses, including 12 ‘withdrawn’ horses, for 5 days. The horses’ reactions and durations of attention were recorded. Non-withdrawn horses reacted more and their attention lasted longer than that of withdrawn horses on the first day, but their durations of attention decreased over days, but those of withdrawn horses remained stable. These results suggest that the withdrawn horses’ selective attention is altered, adding to already evidenced common features between this horses’ state and human depression.  
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  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6023  
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Author Krueger, K.; Schneider, G.; Flauger, B.; Heinze, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Context-dependent third-party intervention in agonistic encounters of male Przewalski horses Type Journal Article
  Year Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Equus ferus przewalskii; group conflict; rank orders; social bonds; social control; third-party intervention  
  Abstract Abstract One mechanism to resolve conflict among group members is third party intervention, for which several functions, such as kin protection, alliance formation, and the promotion of group cohesion have been proposed. Still, empirical research on the function of intervention behaviour is rare. We studied 40 cases of intervention behaviour in a field study on 13 semi-wild bachelor horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in a) standard social situations, and b) when new horses joined the group (i.e. introductions). Only interventions in agonistic encounters were analysed. Eight of 13 animals directed intervention behaviour towards threatening animal in agonistic encounters of group members. One stallion was particularly active. The stallions did not intervene to support former group mates or kin and interventions were not reciprocated. In introduction situations and in standard social situations, the interveners supported animals which were lower in rank, but targeted, threatening animals of comparable social rank. After introductions, stallions received more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and thus appeared to intervene for alliance formation. In standard social situations, interveners did not receive more affiliative behaviour from animals they supported and may primarily have intervened to promote group cohesion and to reduce social disruption within the group.  
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  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5921  
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Author Watanabe, N.M.; Stahlman, W.D.; Blaisdell, A.P.; Garlick, D.; Fast, C.D.; Blumstein, D.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying personality in the terrestrial hermit crab: Different measures, different inferences Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 133-140  
  Keywords Animal personality; Behavioral syndrome; Hermit crabs  
  Abstract There is much interest in studying animal personalities but considerable debate as to how to define and evaluate them. We assessed the utility of one proposed framework while studying personality in terrestrial hermit crabs (Coenobita clypeatus). We recorded the latency of individuals to emerge from their shells over multiple trials in four unique manipulations. We used the specific testing situations within these manipulations to define two temperament categories (shyness-boldness and exploration-avoidance). Our results identified individual behavioral consistency (i.e., personality) across repeated trials of the same situations, within both categories. Additionally, we found correlations between behaviors across contexts (traits) that suggested that the crabs had behavioral syndromes. While we found some correlations between behaviors that are supposed to measure the same temperament trait, these correlations were not inevitable. Furthermore, a principal component analysis (PCA) of our data revealed new relationships between behaviors and provided the foundation for an alternate interpretation: measured behaviors may be situation-specific, and may not reflect general personality traits at all. These results suggest that more attention must be placed on how we infer personalities from standardized methods, and that we must be careful to not force our data to fit our frameworks.  
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  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5620  
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Author Hanggi, E.B.; Ingersoll, J.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lateral vision in horses: A behavioral investigation Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 91 Issue 1 Pages 70-76  
  Keywords Lateral vision; Horse; Equine; Stimulus discrimination; Field of view; Peripheral  
  Abstract This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view.  
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  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5621  
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Author Schmidt, J.; Scheid, C.; Kotrschal, K.; Bugnyar, T.; Schloegl, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Gaze direction – A cue for hidden food in rooks (Corvus frugilegus)? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 88 Issue 2 Pages 88-93  
  Keywords Gaze; Object choice; Corvids; Effort; Rooks  
  Abstract Other individual's head- and eye-directions can be used as social cues indicating the presence of important events. Among birds, ravens and rooks have been shown to co-orient with conspecifics and with humans by following their gaze direction into distant space and behind visual screens. Both species use screens to cache food in private; also, it had been suggested that they may rely on gaze cues to detect hidden food. However, in an object-choice task, ravens failed to do so, and their competitive lifestyle may have prevented them from relying on these cues. Here we tested closely related and cooperative rooks. Food was hidden in one of two cups and the experimenter gazed at the baited cup. In a second experiment, we aimed to increase the birds’ motivation to choose correctly by increasing the investment needed to obtain the reward. To do so, the birds had to pull on a string to obtain the cup. Here, the birds as a group tended to rely on gaze cues. In addition, individual birds quickly learned to use the cue in both experiments. Although rooks may not use gaze cues to find hidden food spontaneously, they may quickly learn to do so.  
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  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5420  
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