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Author Hopster, H.; van der Werf, J.T.; Erkens, J.H.; Blokhuis, H.J. url  openurl
  Title Effects of repeated jugular puncture on plasma cortisol concentrations in loose-housed dairy cows Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim. Sci  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 708-714  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5486  
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Author Krueger, K.; Flauger, B.; Farmer, K.; Hemelrijk, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Movement initiation in groups of feral horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 103 Issue 0 Pages 91-101  
  Keywords Horse; Equus ferus caballus; Distributed leadership; Herding; Departure; Rank  
  Abstract Abstract Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often.  
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  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5738  
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Author Maros, K.; Boross, B.; Kubinyi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Approach and follow behaviour – possible indicators of the human-horse relationship Type Abstract
  Year 2010 Publication Interaction Studies Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 410-427  
  Keywords Approach; Follow; Human– Horse Interaction  
  Abstract The aim of our study was to analyze the behavioural responses of horses (N = 51) to familiar humans and to find factors that may affect these responses in three tests: (1) approach to, (2) standing beside, and (3) following the familiar person. We investigated the impacts of horse-related factors (gender and age) and human-related factors (type of work, housing management, amount of handling, number of handlers and training to follow).<br xmlns=“http://pub2web.metastore.ingenta.com/ns/”></br> Horses with one handler needed less time to approach the human than horses with more handlers. Standing beside the human correlated positively with following. Following was mainly affected by training.<br xmlns=“http://pub2web.metastore.ingenta.com/ns/”></br> According to our results, the number of handlers has an important effect on horses' responses to familiar humans, especially regarding approach and follow behaviour. However, following behaviour is fundamentally determined by training.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5728  
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Author Schuetz, A.; Farmer, K.; Krueger, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social learning across species: horses (Equus caballus) learn from humans by observation Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 567-573  
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  Abstract This study examines whether horses can learn by observing humans, given that they identify individual humans and orientate on the focus of human attention. We tested 24 horses aged between 3 and 12. Twelve horses were tested on whether they would learn to open a feeding apparatus by observing a familiar person. The other 12 were controls and received exactly the same experimental procedure, but without a demonstration of how to operate the apparatus. More horses from the group with demonstration (8/12) reached the learning criterion of opening the feeder twenty times consecutively than horses from the control group (2/12), and younger horses seemed to reach the criterion more quickly. Horses not reaching the learning criteria approached the human experimenters more often than those that did. The results demonstrate that horses learn socially across species, in this case from humans.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Schuetz2016 Serial 6028  
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Author Baragli, P.; Demuru, E.; Scopa, C.; Palagi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Are horses capable of mirror self-recognition? A pilot study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages e0176717  
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  Abstract Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR) unveils complex cognitive, social and emotional skills and it has been found only in humans and few other species, such as great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. In this pilot study, we tested if horses show the capacity of MSR. Four subjects living socially under naturalistic conditions were selected for the experiment. We adopted the classical mark test, which consists in placing a coloured mark on an out-of-view body part, visible only through mirror inspection. If the animal considers the image as its own, it will use its reflection to detect the mark and will try to explore it. We enhanced the classical paradigm by introducing a double-check control. Only in the presence of the reflecting surface, animals performed tactile and olfactory exploration of the mirror and looked behind it. These behaviors suggest that subjects were trying to associate multiple sensory cues (visual, tactile and olfactory) to the image in the mirror. The lack of correspondence between the collected stimuli in front of the mirror and the response to the colored mark lead us to affirm that horses are able to perceive that the reflected image is incongruent when compared with the memorized information of a real horse. However, without replication of data, the self-directed behavior towards the colored marks showed by our horses cannot be sufficient per se to affirm that horses are capable of self-recognition.  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6158  
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Author Valenchon, M.; Lévy, F.; Moussu, C.; Lansade, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Stress affects instrumental learning based on positive or negative reinforcement in interaction with personality in domestic horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages e0170783  
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  Abstract The present study investigated how stress affects instrumental learning performance in horses (Equus caballus) depending on the type of reinforcement. Horses were assigned to four groups (N = 15 per group); each group received training with negative or positive reinforcement in the presence or absence of stressors unrelated to the learning task. The instrumental learning task consisted of the horse entering one of two compartments at the appearance of a visual signal given by the experimenter. In the absence of stressors unrelated to the task, learning performance did not differ between negative and positive reinforcements. The presence of stressors unrelated to the task (exposure to novel and sudden stimuli) impaired learning performance. Interestingly, this learning deficit was smaller when the negative reinforcement was used. The negative reinforcement, considered as a stressor related to the task, could have counterbalanced the impact of the extrinsic stressor by focusing attention toward the learning task. In addition, learning performance appears to differ between certain dimensions of personality depending on the presence of stressors and the type of reinforcement. These results suggest that when negative reinforcement is used (i.e. stressor related to the task), the most fearful horses may be the best performers in the absence of stressors but the worst performers when stressors are present. On the contrary, when positive reinforcement is used, the most fearful horses appear to be consistently the worst performers, with and without exposure to stressors unrelated to the learning task. This study is the first to demonstrate in ungulates that stress affects learning performance differentially according to the type of reinforcement and in interaction with personality. It provides fundamental and applied perspectives in the understanding of the relationships between personality and training abilities.  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6202  
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Author Pinho, G.M.; Gonçalves da Silva, A.; Hrbek, T.; Venticinque, E.M.; Farias, I.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Kinship and Social Behavior of Lowland Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in a Central Amazon Landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages e92507  
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  Abstract We tested the hypothesis that tapirs tolerate individuals from adjacent and overlapping home ranges if they are related. We obtained genetic data from fecal samples collected in the Balbina reservoir landscape, central Amazon. Samples were genotyped at 14 microsatellite loci, of which five produced high quality informative genotypes. Based on an analysis of 32 individuals, we inferred a single panmictic population with high levels of heterozygosity. Kinship analysis identified 10 pairs of full siblings or parent-offspring, 10 pairs of half siblings and 25 unrelated pairs. In 10 cases, the related individuals were situated on opposite margins of the reservoir, suggesting that tapirs are capable of crossing the main river, even after damming. The polygamous model was the most likely mating system for Tapirus terrestris. Moran's I index of allele sharing between pairs of individuals geographically close (<3 km) was similar to that observed between individual pairs at larger distances (>3 km). Confirming this result, the related individuals were not geographically closer than unrelated ones (W = 188.5; p = 0.339). Thus, we found no evidence of a preference for being close to relatives and observed a tendency for dispersal. The small importance of relatedness in determining spatial distribution of individuals is unusual in mammals, but not unheard of. Finally, non-invasive sampling allowed efficient access to the genetic data, despite the warm and humid climate of the Amazon, which accelerates DNA degradation.  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6138  
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Author Monfardini, E.; Hadj-Bouziane, F.; Meunier, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Model-Observer Similarity, Error Modeling and Social Learning in Rhesus Macaques Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages e89825  
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  Abstract Monkeys readily learn to discriminate between rewarded and unrewarded items or actions by observing their conspecifics. However, they do not systematically learn from humans. Understanding what makes human-to-monkey transmission of knowledge work or fail could help identify mediators and moderators of social learning that operate regardless of language or culture, and transcend inter-species differences. Do monkeys fail to learn when human models show a behavior too dissimilar from the animals' own, or when they show a faultless performance devoid of error? To address this question, six rhesus macaques trained to find which object within a pair concealed a food reward were successively tested with three models: a familiar conspecific, a 'stimulus-enhancing' human actively drawing the animal's attention to one object of the pair without actually performing the task, and a 'monkey-like' human performing the task in the same way as the monkey model did. Reward was manipulated to ensure that all models showed equal proportions of errors and successes. The 'monkey-like' human model improved the animals' subsequent object discrimination learning as much as a conspecific did, whereas the 'stimulus-enhancing' human model tended on the contrary to retard learning. Modeling errors rather than successes optimized learning from the monkey and 'monkey-like' models, while exacerbating the adverse effect of the 'stimulus-enhancing' model. These findings identify error modeling as a moderator of social learning in monkeys that amplifies the models' influence, whether beneficial or detrimental. By contrast, model-observer similarity in behavior emerged as a mediator of social learning, that is, a prerequisite for a model to work in the first place. The latter finding suggests that, as preverbal infants, macaques need to perceive the model as 'like-me' and that, once this condition is fulfilled, any agent can become an effective model.  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6195  
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Author Liedtke, J.; Schneider, J.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social makes smart: rearing conditions affect learning and social behaviour in jumping spiders Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 1093-1106  
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  Abstract There is a long-standing debate as to whether social or physical environmental aspects drive the evolution and development of cognitive abilities. Surprisingly few studies make use of developmental plasticity to compare the effects of these two domains during development on behaviour later in life. Here, we present rearing effects on the development of learning abilities and social behaviour in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. These spiders are ideally suited for this purpose because they possess the ability to learn and can be reared in groups but also in isolation without added stress. This is a critical but rarely met requirement for experimentally varying the social environment to test its impact on cognition. We split broods of spiders and reared them either in a physically or in a socially enriched environment. A third group kept under completely deprived conditions served as a 'no-enrichment' control. We tested the spiders' learning abilities by using a modified T-maze. Social behaviour was investigated by confronting spiders with their own mirror image. Results show that spiders reared in groups outperform their conspecifics from the control, i.e. 'no-enrichment', group in both tasks. Physical enrichment did not lead to such an increased performance. We therefore tentatively suggest that growing up in contact with conspecifics induces the development of cognitive abilities in this species.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Liedtke2017 Serial 6191  
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Author Riley, J.L.; Noble, D.W.A.; Byrne, R.W.; Whiting, M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does social environment influence learning ability in a family-living lizard? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 449-458  
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  Abstract Early developmental environment can have profound effects on individual physiology, behaviour, and learning. In birds and mammals, social isolation during development is known to negatively affect learning ability; yet in other taxa, like reptiles, the effect of social isolation during development on learning ability is unknown. We investigated how social environment affects learning ability in the family-living tree skink (Egernia striolata). We hypothesized that early social environment shapes cognitive development in skinks and predicted that skinks raised in social isolation would have reduced learning ability compared to skinks raised socially. Offspring were separated at birth into two rearing treatments: (1) raised alone or (2) in a pair. After 1 year, we quantified spatial learning ability of skinks in these rearing treatments (N = 14 solitary, 14 social). We found no effect of rearing treatment on learning ability. The number of skinks to successfully learn the task, the number of trials taken to learn the task, the latency to perform the task, and the number of errors in each trial did not differ between isolated and socially reared skinks. Our results were unexpected, yet the facultative nature of this species' social system may result in a reduced effect of social isolation on behaviour when compared to species with obligate sociality. Overall, our findings do not provide evidence that social environment affects development of spatial learning ability in this family-living lizard.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Riley2017 Serial 6190  
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