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Author Rubin, L.; Oppegard, C.; Hindz, H.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of varying the temporal distribution of conditioning trials on equine learning behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 50 Issue 6 Pages 1184-1187  
  Keywords Animals; Conditioning (Psychology); *Horses; *Learning  
  Abstract Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of varying the temporal distrbution of conditioning sessions on equine learning behavior. In the first experiment, 15 ponies were trained to clear a small hurdle in response to a buzzer in order to avoid a mild electric shock. Three treatments were used. One group received 10 learning trials daily, seven times a week; one group was trained in the same fashion two times a week and one group was trained once a week. The animals conditioned only once a week achieved a high level of performance in significantly fewer sessions than the ones conditioned seven times a week, although elapsed time from start of training to completion was two to three times greater for the former group. The twice-a-week group learned at an intermediate rate. In the second experiment, the ponies were rearranged into three new groups. They were taught to move backward a specific distance in response to a visual cue in order to avoid an electric shock. Again, one group was trained seven times a week, one group was trained two times and one group was trained once a week. As in the first experiment, the animals trained once a week achieved the learning criteria in significantly fewer sessions than those trained seven times a week, but, as in trial 1, elapsed time from start to finish was greater for them. The two times-a-week group learned at a rate in-between the rates of the other two groups.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:7400060 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3558  
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Author Hopster, H.; van der Werf, J.T.; Erkens, J.H.; Blokhuis, H.J. url  openurl
  Title Effects of repeated jugular puncture on plasma cortisol concentrations in loose-housed dairy cows Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim. Sci  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 708-714  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5486  
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Author Krueger., K.; Farmer, K. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Social learning in Horses: Differs from individual learning only in the learning stimulus and not in the learning mechanisms Type Abstract
  Year 2018 Publication 14th Meeting of the Internatinoal Society for Equitation Science Abbreviated Journal 14th Meeting ISES  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords horse; individual learning; learning mechanisms; learning stimuli; social learning  
  Abstract Equine welfare can be enhanced by applying species specific training. This may incorporate social learning, as horses are highly social and social stimuli are of primary importance. Social learning is comparable to individual learning in its learning mechanisms, differing primarily in the way it is stimulated. Our initial study showed that horses of different breeds (N = 38) follow humans after observing other horses doing so, but only if the observed horse was familiar to and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's exact test: N = 12, P = 0.003). A second study showed that horses and ponies (N = 25) learned to pull a rope to open a feeding apparatus after observing demonstrations by conspecifics, again, only if the demonstrating horse was older and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's combination test, N = 3, v2 = 27.71, p = 0.006). Our third approach showed that horses and ponies (N = 24) learned to press a switch to open a feeding apparatus after observing a familiar person (GzLM: N = 24, z = 2.33, P = 0.02). Most recently, we confronted horses and ponies (N = 50) with persons demonstrating different techniques for opening a feeding apparatus. In this study we investigated whether the horses would copy the demonstrators' techniques or apply their own. Here only some horses copied the technique, and most of the successful learners used their mouths irrespective of the demonstrators' postures (Chi Square Test: N = 40, df = 2, &#967;2 = 31.4, p < 0.001). In all the approaches social stimuli elicited learning processes in the test horses, while only a few individuals in the control groups mastered the tasks by individual learning. The following behaviour observed in the initial study may have been facilitated by a social stimuli (social facilitation), and the opening of the feed boxes in the subsequent studies appear to be mostly the result of enhancement (social enhancement). Some horses may have used the social stimuli at first and continued their learning process by individual trial and error. However, the horses were also selective in whom and some in how to copy. This may have been conditioned (socially conditioned) or the result of simple forms of reasoning on the reliability of the particular information provided by demonstrators of certain social ranks or social positions, as high ranking and familiar horses and familiar persons were copied and some imitated exactly.
Lay person message: Traditional riding instructions suggest that horses learn by observing other horses. For example, older, more experienced driving horses are used for initial training of young driving horses. We have shown that horses indeed use learning stimuli provided by other horse, as well as by humans. Horses readily accept stimuli observed in high ranking and familiar horses, and familiar persons. Such stimuli elicit learning processes which are comparable to individual learning. We suggest applying social learning whenever possible, as it is much faster and less stressful than individual learning, where learners experience negative outcomes in trial and error learning.
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6405  
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Author Krueger, K.; Flauger, B.; Farmer, K.; Hemelrijk, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Movement initiation in groups of feral horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 103 Issue 0 Pages 91-101  
  Keywords Horse; Equus ferus caballus; Distributed leadership; Herding; Departure; Rank  
  Abstract Abstract Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often.  
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  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5738  
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Author Maros, K.; Boross, B.; Kubinyi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Approach and follow behaviour – possible indicators of the human-horse relationship Type Abstract
  Year 2010 Publication Interaction Studies Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 410-427  
  Keywords Approach; Follow; Human&#8211; Horse Interaction  
  Abstract The aim of our study was to analyze the behavioural responses of horses (N = 51) to familiar humans and to find factors that may affect these responses in three tests: (1) approach to, (2) standing beside, and (3) following the familiar person. We investigated the impacts of horse-related factors (gender and age) and human-related factors (type of work, housing management, amount of handling, number of handlers and training to follow).<br xmlns=“http://pub2web.metastore.ingenta.com/ns/”></br> Horses with one handler needed less time to approach the human than horses with more handlers. Standing beside the human correlated positively with following. Following was mainly affected by training.<br xmlns=“http://pub2web.metastore.ingenta.com/ns/”></br> According to our results, the number of handlers has an important effect on horses' responses to familiar humans, especially regarding approach and follow behaviour. However, following behaviour is fundamentally determined by training.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5728  
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Author Schuetz, A.; Farmer, K.; Krueger, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social learning across species: horses (Equus caballus) learn from humans by observation Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 567-573  
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  Abstract This study examines whether horses can learn by observing humans, given that they identify individual humans and orientate on the focus of human attention. We tested 24 horses aged between 3 and 12. Twelve horses were tested on whether they would learn to open a feeding apparatus by observing a familiar person. The other 12 were controls and received exactly the same experimental procedure, but without a demonstration of how to operate the apparatus. More horses from the group with demonstration (8/12) reached the learning criterion of opening the feeder twenty times consecutively than horses from the control group (2/12), and younger horses seemed to reach the criterion more quickly. Horses not reaching the learning criteria approached the human experimenters more often than those that did. The results demonstrate that horses learn socially across species, in this case from humans.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Schuetz2016 Serial 6028  
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Author Baciadonna, L.; McElligott, A.G.; Briefer, E.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Goats favour personal over social information in an experimental foraging task Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Peer J Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 1 Issue Pages  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Baciadonna2013 Serial 6269  
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Author Goetsch, A.L.; Gipson, T.A.; Askar, A.R.; Puchala, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Feeding behavior of goats Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication J Anim Sci Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 88 Issue Pages  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Goetsch2010 Serial 6254  
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Author Shi, J.; Dunbar, R.I.M.; Buckland, D.; Miller, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dynamics of grouping patterns and social segregation in feral goats (Capra hircus) on the Isle of Rum, NW Scotland Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Mammalia Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 69 Issue Pages  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Shi2005 Serial 6257  
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Author Baragli, P.; Demuru, E.; Scopa, C.; Palagi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Are horses capable of mirror self-recognition? A pilot study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages e0176717  
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  Abstract Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR) unveils complex cognitive, social and emotional skills and it has been found only in humans and few other species, such as great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. In this pilot study, we tested if horses show the capacity of MSR. Four subjects living socially under naturalistic conditions were selected for the experiment. We adopted the classical mark test, which consists in placing a coloured mark on an out-of-view body part, visible only through mirror inspection. If the animal considers the image as its own, it will use its reflection to detect the mark and will try to explore it. We enhanced the classical paradigm by introducing a double-check control. Only in the presence of the reflecting surface, animals performed tactile and olfactory exploration of the mirror and looked behind it. These behaviors suggest that subjects were trying to associate multiple sensory cues (visual, tactile and olfactory) to the image in the mirror. The lack of correspondence between the collected stimuli in front of the mirror and the response to the colored mark lead us to affirm that horses are able to perceive that the reflected image is incongruent when compared with the memorized information of a real horse. However, without replication of data, the self-directed behavior towards the colored marks showed by our horses cannot be sufficient per se to affirm that horses are capable of self-recognition.  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6158  
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