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Author Miller, J.A. url  openurl
  Title Telling a quagga by its stripes. (extinct South African animal) Type Journal Article
  Year 1985 Publication Science News Abbreviated Journal Sci. News  
  Volume 128 Issue Pages 70  
  Keywords  
  Abstract If, in a mix-up at a costume shop, a couple were issued the front half of a zebra suit and the back half of a horse, it could be considered a quagga disguise. But if the masqueraders were pressed as to whether they were more horse or more zebra, the latest biochemical research advises them to insist on zebra.

The quagga, a South African animal extinct for more than 100 years, has been a source of confusion among taxonomists. Some contend, on the basis of the quagga skins preserved in museums, that this front-striped animal is a zebra, either a fourth zebra species or a variant of the Plains zebra, whose hindquarter stripes are dim. But others have argued that the quagga's teeth and skeleton indicate that its nearest relative is the true horse.

Biochemists joined the fray last year when muscle tissue was obtained from a salt-preserved quagga pelt in a West German museum. The tissue yielded both proteins and genes that could be analyzed (SN:6/9/84, p. 356).

Now the analysis has yielded some results. According to “remarkably concordant” findings on the proteins and on the genes, the quagga was a subspecies of the Plains zebra, says Jerold M. Lowenstein of the University of California at San Francisco. He looked at the binding between a sample of quagga proteins and mixtures of antibodies that bind to blood-serum proteins of each of the extant Equus species. The quagga sample bound more of the antibodies against Plains zebra serum than against the other species. Lowenstein calculates that the quagga relationship with the Plains zebra is six times closer than its relationship with the two other zebra species.

“We had to use special techniques to show the difference,” Lowenstein told SCIENCE NEWS. “There is 99 percent identity on the protein level. All the [Equus] species diverged within the past 5 million years, which is only yesterday in evolutionary terms.”

The quagga-Plains zebra relationship is further supported by the analysis of quagga mitochondrial genes performed by Russell Higuchi and Allan Wilson at the University of California at Berkeley. They find seven times as great a difference between quagga and Mountain zebra DNA as they do between quagga and Plains zebra DNA.

“Stripes, the molecules tell us, do make a zebra,” Lowenstein concludes in the July 18 NEW SCIENTIST, “and the half-striped quagga was a Plains zebra.”
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2375  
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Author Izraely, H.; Choshniak, I.; Shkolnik, A.; Stevens, C.E.; Demment, M.W. url  openurl
  Title Factors determining the digestive efficiency of the domesticated donkey.(Equus Asinus Asinus ) Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication Q J Exp Physiol Abbreviated Journal Q J Exp Physiol  
  Volume 74 Issue 1 Pages 1-6  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Factors determining the digestive efficiency of donkeys were studied in animals fed either a low quality roughage (wheat straw: 77{middle dot}1% neutral detergent fibre, 2{middle dot}8% crude protein) or a high quality forage (alfalfa hay: 47{middle dot}5% neutral detergent fibre, 22{middle dot}7% crude protein). The neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake when fed wheat straw was 1693 {+/-} 268 g animal-1 day-1, 10% higher than when fed alfalfa hay. Digestive coefficient of NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF) when fed wheat straw amounted to 50{middle dot}9 {+/-} 4{middle dot}9 and 42{middle dot}0 {+/-} 4{middle dot}1% respectively. NDF and ADF apparent digestibilities and mean retention times (37{middle dot}7 {+/-} 1{middle dot}7 and 36{middle dot}4 {+/-} 3{middle dot}2 h respectively) were not significantly different (P [rang] 0{middle dot}05) between the two diets. The donkey appears to digest cell wall constituents as efficiently as the Bedouin goat when on low quality roughage, but less efficiently when fed alfalfa hay. Its energy digestibility is, however, as high as that reported for the Bedouin goat. The donkey's high energy digestibility is related to its capacity to digest soluble food components more efficiently than the ruminant. The mean retention time in the donkey is shorter than in the Bedouin goat and is consistent with its capacity to compensate for a lower quality diet by increasing its intake rate. Recycling of urea in donkeys maintained on wheat straw amounted to 75{middle dot}5 {+/-} 13{middle dot}0% of the entry rate. A decrease in the rate of renal urea filtration, coupled with an increase in the fraction reabsorbed, increased the retention of nitrogenous waste and permitted recycling of nitrogen into the gut. N1 -  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved yes  
  Call Number Serial 1216  
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Author Wolter, R.; Stefanski, V.; Krueger, K. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Parameters for the Analysis of Social Bonds in Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Animals Abbreviated Journal Animals  
  Volume 8 Issue 11 Pages 191  
  Keywords feral horses; mutual grooming; social bonds; social bond analysis; spatial proximity  
  Abstract Social bond analysis is of major importance for the evaluation of social relationships in group housed horses. However, in equine behaviour literature, studies on social bond analysis are inconsistent. Mutual grooming (horses standing side by side and gently nipping, nuzzling, or rubbing each other), affiliative approaches (horses approaching each other and staying within one body length), and measurements of spatial proximity (horses standing with body contact or within two horse-lengths) are commonly used. In the present study, we assessed which of the three parameters is most suitable for social bond analysis in horses, and whether social bonds are affected by individual and group factors. We observed social behaviour and spatial proximity in 145 feral horses, five groups of Przewalskiâ&#65533;&#65533;s horses (N = 36), and six groups of feral horses (N = 109) for 15 h per group, on three days within one week. We found grooming, friendly approaches, and spatial proximity to be robust parameters, as their correlation was affected only by the animalsâ&#65533;&#65533; sex (GLMM: N = 145, SE = 0.001, t = â&#65533;&#65533;2.7, p = 0.008) and the group size (GLMM: N = 145, SE < 0.001, t = 4.255, p < 0.001), but not by the horse breed, the aggression ratio, the social rank, the group, the group composition, and the individuals themselves. Our results show a trend for a correspondence between all three parameters (GLMM: N = 145, SE = 0.004, t = 1.95, p = 0.053), a strong correspondence between mutual grooming and friendly approaches (GLMM: N = 145, SE = 0.021, t = 3.922, p < 0.001), and a weak correspondence between mutual grooming and spatial proximity (GLMM: N = 145, SE = 0.04, t = 1.15, p = 0.25). We therefore suggest either using a combination of the proactive behaviour counts mutual grooming and friendly approaches, or using measurements of close spatial proximity, for the analysis of social bonds in horses within a limited time frame.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6428  
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Author Benz, B.; Münzing, C.; Krueger, K.; Winter, D. url  openurl
  Title Ethologische Untersuchung von Heuraufen in der Pferdehaltung [Ethological investigation of hayracks in equine husbandry] Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Landtechnik Abbreviated Journal Landtechnik  
  Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages 239-244  
  Keywords Pferdehaltung, Fressverhalten, Futterraufen [horse keeping, feeding behaviour, roughage racks]  
  Abstract Eine tiergerechte, physiologisch und anatomisch auf die Bedürfnisse der Pferde ausgerichtete

Raufutterversorgung sollte die Kaubedürfnisse und die Beschäftigungszeiten von Pferden

ausreichend berücksichtigen. Daher – und auch aufgrund des bestehenden Kostendrucks bei

Raufutter – steigt das Interesse an Raufutterraufen, durch die möglicherweise die Futteraufnahmezeiten

verlängert sowie Futterverluste minimiert werden können.

Die vorliegende Untersuchung vergleicht das Fressverhalten und die Körperhaltung von acht

Pferden beim Einsatz von drei unterschiedlichen Futterraufen mit der Bodenfütterung in Einzelboxenhaltung.

Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie lassen den Schluss zu, dass der Einsatz von

Raufutterraufen die Futteraufnahmezeiten verlängert und somit längere Beschäftigungszeiten

für die Futteraufnahme gewährleistet werden. Außerdem konnte festgestellt werden, dass die

Pferde das Raufutter bei einer der drei untersuchten Raufen überwiegend mit natürlicher Kopf-

Hals-Haltung aufnahmen.

[Regarding the species horse, an appropriate supply of roughage should take into account the

need to chew as well as the need for occupation. In this context, and due to the current cost

pressure for hay, the interest in roughage racks increases. It is assumed that roughage racks

could help to extend the feeding time and reduce food losses.

The present study places the emphasis on the observation of the feeding behaviour of eight

horses in single horse boxes. Three different roughage racks are compared to traditional feeding

on the floor. On the basis of the results it may be concluded that the use of roughage racks

extends the feeding time and thus ensures longer occupation. In one of the three roughage

racks investigated the horses mainly eat in a natural posture of their head and neck.]
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5840  
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Author Benz, B.; Köhnke, J.; Kappelmann, K. url  openurl
  Title Bewertung einer Faltschieberanlage in einem Reitstall mit Paddockboxen[Assessment of a v-form scraper in a horse barn with paddock boxes] Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Landtechnik, Agricultural Engineering, Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 68 Issue 4 Pages 242-247  
  Keywords Entmistungstechnik, Arbeitswirtschaft, Pferdeverhalten [Manure removal systems, working time requirement, horse behaviour]  
  Abstract In der vorliegenden Untersuchung werden in einem Praxisbetrieb die Verfahrenskosten eines

Faltschiebers erhoben. Aufgrund des reduzierten Arbeitszeitaufwandes ergibt sich durch den

Einsatz des Faltschiebers eine jährliche Kostenersparnis in Höhe von 78 € je Pferd. Durch die

Mechanisierung der Entmistung kann fast 30 % der Arbeitszeit in der Pensionspferdehaltung

eingespart werden. Beim Einsatz einer Entmistungstechnik spielt jedoch nicht nur die Ökonomie,

sondern darüber hinaus auch das Pferdeverhalten eine Rolle. Im selben Praxisbetrieb wird

nach Installation der Faltschieberanlage das Pferdeverhalten beim Erstkontakt mit dem Schieber

beobachtet. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Pferde den direkten Kontakt mit der Entmistungstechnik

und somit kritische Situationen vermeiden.

[In the survey at hand, the procedural costs for a v-form scraper are gathered. In the process,

it is found that due to the reduced working time requirement the use of a v-form scraper

saves € 78/horse/year. The mechanization of manure removal can reduce working time in

horse keeping by almost 30 percent. However, using manure removal systems, the profitability

is not the only crucial criteria. The behaviour of the horses plays an essential role, too.

Moreover the horses’ behaviour when first encountering the manure scraper is observed. The

study reveals that the horses avoid contact with the scraper and thereby also shirk critical

situations.]
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5841  
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Author Mayes, E.; Duncan, P. url  openurl
  Title Temporal patterns of feeding behaviour in free-ranging horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Behavior Abbreviated Journal Behav.  
  Volume 96 Issue Pages 105-129  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2351  
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Author Kaseda, Y.; K. Nozawa, K. url  openurl
  Title Father-daughter matings and its avoidance in Misaki feral horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Animal Science and Technology Abbreviated Journal Anim Sci Tech  
  Volume 67 Issue 11 Pages 996-1002  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Father-daughter matings and its avoidance mechanism were analysed on the basis of data which gained from behavioural observations and paternity tests in Misaki feral horses from 1979 to 1994. Twelve stallions and their 51 daughters had 176 breeding seasons, but they lived in the different home range in 82 breeding seasons. About half of 1- to 3-year-old mares emigrated from natal area to the other and grew up there. Therefore, emigrations of young mares may result reduction of contacts and avoidance of inbreeding with their fathers. The stallions and their daughters lived in the same area in 94 breeding seasons, but there were no cases that daughters which left their natal harem groups before sexual maturity formed again stable consort relations with their natal harem stallions. It is possible that separation of young mares from their natal groups before sexual maturity may result avoidance of formation of consort relation with their fathers. Two father-daughter matings were observed in 124 paternity tests. These two daughters were born in the other harem groups than their father's and left their natal groups before maturity. After maturity, one of them formed a stable consort relation with her father and the other remained together with her father for 2 months in the breeding season. Both of them had not experience to have lived with their fathers before maturity. The persent result supports the hypothesis in wild and semi-wild horses that inbreedings between fathers and daughters may be avioded by the experience to have lived together before sexual maturity.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0918-2365. ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2307  
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Author KOIZUMI, R.; MITANI, T.; UEDA, K.; KONDO, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Skill reading of human social cues by horses (Equus caballus) reared under year-round grazing conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Behaviour and Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 53 Issue 2 Pages 69-78  
  Keywords horse behavior, human-horse communication, animal cognition, social cue  
  Abstract Animals use communicative signals, such as gesture or gaze, to communicate to someone the intention or expression of the sender, which is called social cue. In the previous studies, it was suggested the skill of reading human social cue in domestic animals are influenced to the domestication, the experience contacting with human and training to obey human. In this present study, we tested the skill for horses (Equus caballus) kept in year-round grazing conditions using 33 horses differed from breed and the degree of the experience with human by object-choice task subjects choosing either of bait boxes located at the end of experimenter. As results, non-socialized horses hardly responded to human social cues. Habituated horses that were both of trained and untrained responded to human social cues, but their accuracy rates were not more than 50% except for two trained subjects. For the skill of reading human social cues, there was high individual variation in responding to human social cues in horses kept in year-round grazing conditions. The individual characteristics influenced to it more than domestication, the experience with human, and training to obey human.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6168  
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Author Dalla Costa, E.; Dai, F.; Lebelt, D.; Scholz, P.; Barbieri, S.; Canali, E.; Zanella, A.J.; Minero, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Welfare assessment of horses: the AWIN approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Welfare Abbreviated Journal Anim. Welf.  
  Volume 25 Issue 4 Pages 481-488  
  Keywords Animal-Based; Measure; Indicator; Animal Welfare; Horse; On-Farm  
  Abstract The EU-funded Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) research project (2011-2015) aimed to improve animal welfare through the development of practical on-farm animal welfare assessment protocols. The present study describes the application of the AWIN approach to the development of a welfare assessment protocol for horses (Equus caballus). Its development required the following steps: (i) selection of potential welfare indicators; (ii) bridging gaps in knowledge; (iii) consulting stakeholders; and (iv) testing a prototype protocol on-farm. Compared to existing welfare assessment protocols for other species, the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for horses introduces a number of innovative aspects, such as implementation of a two-level strategy focused on improving on-farm feasibility and the use of electronic tools to achieve standardised data collection and so promote rapid outcomes. Further refinement to the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for horses is needed in order to firstly gather data from a larger reference population and, secondly, enhance the welfare assessment protocol with reference to different horse housing and husbandry conditions.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6406  
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Author Hiby, E.F.; Rooney, N.J.; Bradshaw, J.W.S. url  openurl
  Title Dog training methods: their use, effectiveness and interaction with behaviour and welfare Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Animal Welfare Abbreviated Journal Anim. Welf.  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 63-69  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Historically, pet dogs were trained using mainly negative reinforcement or punishment, but positive reinforcement using rewards has recently become more popular. The methods used may have different impacts on the dogsâ&#65533;&#65533; welfare. We distributed a questionnaire to 364 dog owners in order to examine the relative effectiveness of different training methods and their effects upon a pet dogâ&#65533;&#65533;s behaviour. When asked how they trained their dog on seven basic tasks, 66% reported using vocal punishment, 12% used physical punishment, 60% praise (social reward), 51% food rewards and 11% play. The ownerâ&#65533;&#65533;s ratings for their dogâ&#65533;&#65533;s obedience during eight tasks correlated positively with the number of tasks which they trained using rewards (P<0.01), but not using punishment (P=0.5). When asked whether their dog exhibited any of 16 common problematic behaviours, the number of problems reported by the owners correlated with the number of tasks for which their dog was trained using punishment (P<0.001), but not using rewards (P=0.17). Exhibition of problematic behaviours may be indicative of compromised welfare, because such behaviours can be caused byor result ina state of anxiety and may lead to a dog being relinquished or abandoned. Because punishment was associated with an increased incidence of problematic behaviours, we conclude that it may represent a welfare concern without concurrent benefits in obedience. We suggest that positive training methods may be more useful to the pet-owning community.  
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  ISSN 0962-7286 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Hiby:2004:0962-7286:63 Serial 6433  
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