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Author Begall, S.; Malkemper, E.P.; Cervený, J.; Nemec, P.; Burda, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Magnetic alignment in mammals and other animals Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Abbreviated Journal Mamm. Biol.  
  Volume 78 Issue 1 Pages 10-20  
  Keywords Cattle; Deer; Fox; Horse; Magnetoreception  
  Abstract Magnetic alignment (MA) constitutes the simplest directional response to the geomagnetic field. In contrast to magnetic compass orientation, MA is not goal directed and represents a spontaneous, fixed directional response. Because animals tend to align their bodies along or perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, MA typically leads to bimodal or quadrimodal orientation, although there is also growing evidence for a fixed unimodal orientation not necessarily coinciding with the magnetic cardinal directions. MA has been demonstrated in diverse animals including insects, amphibians, fish, and mammals. Alignment can be expressed by animals during resting as well as on the move (e.g. while grazing, hunting, feeding, etc.). Here, we briefly survey characteristic features and classical examples of MA and review the current knowledge about the occurrence of MA in mammals. In addition, we summarize what is known about mechanisms underlying MA and discuss its prospective biological functions. Finally, we highlight some physiological effects of alignment along the magnetic field axes reported in humans. We argue that the phenomenon of MA adds a new paradigm that can be exploited for investigation of magnetoreception in mammals.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5678  
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Author Oliveira-Santos, L.G.R.; Machado-Filho, L.C.P.; Tortato, M.A.; Brusius, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Influence of extrinsic variables on activity and habitat selection of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in the coastal sand plain shrub, southern Brazil Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 75 Issue 3 Pages 219-226  
  Keywords Behaviour; Circadian rhythmic; Moonlight; Rainfall; Temperature  
  Abstract The objectives of this research were to: 1. evaluate the circadian activity patterns of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) throughout the seasons and 2. study the influence of moonlight, temperature and rainfall on the activity patterns and habitat selection of this species, in the coastal sand shrub in southern Brazil. From June 2005 to June 2006, eight tapirs were monitored in a large enclosure containing open and vegetation-covered areas, using four camera traps. Differences in activity patterns within seasons were found. Tapir predominately presented nocturnal-crepuscular activity; however, they differed in the winter, with cathemeral activity patterns. Covered areas were mostly used during periods of extreme temperatures, with less diurnal and more nocturnal activities within these areas, on hotter days. Activity in open areas mainly occurred during periods of intermediate temperatures, both during the day and in the night. Moonlight intensity did not influence nocturnal activities. On days of precipitation of 34 mm or more, there was no record of open-area activities, despite constant activity in covered-area.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6140  
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Author Löckener, S.; Reese, S.; Erhard, M.; Wöhr, A.-C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Pasturing in herds after housing in horseboxes induces a positive cognitive bias in horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue Pages 50-55  
  Keywords judgment bias; affect; environmental enrichment; well-being; discrimination task; horse  
  Abstract Abstract Horses are kept in various housing systems, for example, with conspecifics in horse pens or singly in horseboxes, with or without pasturing. To provide appropriate living conditions for horses, it is necessary to know in which conditions they feel well or unwell. Here, a cognitive bias assessment provides information about an individual's affective state and its well-being. When a positive affective state prevails, animals tend to judge optimistically in ambiguous situations. When a negative affective state prevails, animals judge pessimistically in unclear situations. In the present study, we trained horses on a spatial discrimination task and evaluated their judgment of ambiguous locations when they had access to pastures and contact to conspecifics versus when they were kept singly in horseboxes. Ten days of pasturing and contact with conspecifics after being kept singly in horseboxes for 6 months induced a positive cognitive bias in the horses. We suggest that horses need to act out certain behaviors like exploration, social interaction, play, or grooming to fulfill their needs. After a time in which they were individually in horseboxes without pasturing and access to the herd, they seem to have a positive cognitive bias once they have access to pastures and conspecifics. This positive cognitive bias effect seems to disappear over time, as horses appear to adapt to the circumstances.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1558-7878 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6024  
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Author Graf, P.; König von Borstel, U.; Gauly, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Practical considerations regarding the implementation of a temperament test into horse performance tests: Results of a large-scale test run Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue 6 Pages 329-340  
  Keywords novel object test; temperament; personality; horse; performance traits; performance tests  
  Abstract Abstract Considering the ever-growing demand of various breeding organizations for an objective, inexpensive, reliable, and easily conducted assessment of the behavior of horses, the aim of our study was to implement a novel-object test and a startling test into any kind of breeding performance testing to assess horses' temperament. Additionally, the influence of testing areas (familiar or unfamiliar), riders, and horse factors such as levels of training, breed, and age were of interest. Furthermore, recommendations for the practical implementation concerning the parameters should be given. Therefore, 1,028 horses over a period of 3 years participated in a temperament test consisting of 5 different stimuli. The horses were either ridden (61.8 %) or led by hand (38.2 %) by an unfamiliar professional rider (N = 43) or a familiar rider (N = 20). Live behavioral observations were taken by a trained observer. Overall, horses' scores for reactivity in the present temperament test were distributed over the whole scale, with lower means and higher standard deviations (6.7 ± 2.2-7.6 ± 2.1) than corresponding scores from the conventional personality evaluation in performance tests (7.7 ± 0.8-8.2 ± 0.5; P < 0.01). High correlations (r = 0.3-0.9; P < 0.001) between the scores for reactivity and the other behavioral parameters (emotional expression, activity, time to calm down, rider's aids) show a large influence of these parameters in assessing the horses' temperament. Factors like breed type, sex, and age had significant influences (P < 0.001) on different scores of the temperament test. In most cases, the rider or handler had no influence on the different scores assessed during the temperament test. The training level and the testing modus never had a significant influence on different scores. Only the testing station or location had a small influence on the scores for the stimulus “bridge” in some horses. Based on the results, it could be concluded that an implementation of a temperament tests into performance testing is possible during various types of testing procedure. Especially the assessment of reactivity, emotional expression, interest in the stimulus and rider's aids during and after passing the stimulus, as well as the time to calm down are important parameters for analyzing the horses' personality.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1558-7878 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5867  
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Author Graf, P.; König von Borstel, U.; Gauly, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Importance of personality traits in horses to breeders and riders Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages 316-325  
  Keywords survey; personality; temperament; horse; rider; breeder  
  Abstract Abstract Especially in horses, personality traits play an important role because horses' behavior influences their quality as a riding partner. In contrast to that, no objective assessment of horses' personality traits is available at present. Although initial efforts are made in this field, a successful implementation of behavior tests into horse performance tests depends on the acceptance of the riders and breeders. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the importance of personality traits to breeders and riders as well as the degree of riders' acceptance of a temperament test as a more objective means of assessing equine personality traits. Using a web-based survey consisting of a 41-item questionnaire, a total of 1087 competition riders (49.3%), breeders (39.0%), leisure riders (37.9%), and professional riders (8.6%) of 13 countries were recruited to participate in the survey. When asked to split 1000 Euro among the different traits listed in the breeding goal, respondents clearly assigned more weight to the personality-related character and temperament traits (least squares mean ± standard error; P < 0.005: €228.7 ± 17.6) and willingness to work (€123.0 ± 9.6) compared with performance traits, such as the quality of trot (€77.7 ± 6.9) or show jumping (€68.0 ± 12.3). Nevertheless, expected differences in relative weighting of traits between the different groups of riders were confirmed (e.g., character and temperament: €209.3 ± 6.1 [leisure riders] vs. €149.7 ± 5.4 [competition riders], P < 0.0001). When asking why personality traits are so important, the simplification of daily work with the horses (47.9%) and relationship between horse and human (44.9%) as well as a more comfortable and safer handling (31.5%) were most commonly listed. As much as 45.6% of all participants see quality problems with the current assessment and suggested the evaluation of all breeding animals (30.1%), followed by a better standardization of assessment procedures (25.5%) and a move to more objective criteria such as the introduction of a temperament test (20.3%) for solving the problems. The present survey revealed that behavior traits are very important to all groups of riders and breeders, although there are diverse opinions about it. According to the participants, there is a need for and a high potential in the move toward more objective assessment methods of horses' personality traits, and participants would support a restructuring of the current assessment.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1558-7878 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5865  
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Author Yeon, S.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acoustic communication in the domestic horse (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 179-185  
  Keywords horse; communication; vocalization  
  Abstract Equine vocalization and acoustic sounds can communicate a horse’s emotional state, physiological state, and situation to other individuals, including other horses and humans. These vocalizations and acoustic sounds can be divided into several types. The whinny, nicker, squeal, blow, snore, snort, roar, and groan are typical types of horse vocalizations and acoustic sounds. The sound localization thresholds of horses are markedly poorer than those of other large mammals, such as humans and elephants. The audiogram of horse has shown their best sensitivity and hearing range in which it perceives sound. Laryngeal diseases, such as laryngeal hemiplegia, dorsal displacement of the soft palate, and alar fold paralysis, can cause laryngeal sounds in the upper airway. The analyses of horses’ vocalizations and laryngeal sounds that are reviewed in this article were conducted with computer-aided analysis programs using spectrograms and spectra that evaluate several parameters, including amplitude, fundamental frequency, duration, and formants. Laryngeal sound analysis could be a useful method for diagnosing upper airway diseases. This article presents a review of the literature describing scientific analyses of horse vocalizations and acoustic sounds to elucidate equine acoustic communications and aid in the development of horse-human bonds.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 1558-7878 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5681  
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Author de Waal, F.B.M.; Ferrari, P.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Towards a bottom-up perspective on animal and human cognition Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Trends in Cognitive Sciences Abbreviated Journal Trends Cognit. Sci.  
  Volume 14 Issue 5 Pages 201-207  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Over the last few decades, comparative cognitive research has focused on the pinnacles of mental evolution, asking all-or-nothing questions such as which animals (if any) possess a theory of mind, culture, linguistic abilities, future planning, and so on. Research programs adopting this top-down perspective have often pitted one taxon against another, resulting in sharp dividing lines. Insight into the underlying mechanisms has lagged behind. A dramatic change in focus now seems to be under way, however, with increased appreciation that the basic building blocks of cognition might be shared across a wide range of species. We argue that this bottom-up perspective, which focuses on the constituent capacities underlying larger cognitive phenomena, is more in line with both neuroscience and evolutionary biology.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1364-6613 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5857  
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Author Waldern, N.M.; Wiestner, T.; Ramseier, L.C.; Amport, C.; Weishaupt, M.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of shoeing on limb movement and ground reaction forces in Icelandic horses at walk, tölt and trot Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal Vet. J.  
  Volume 198, Supplement 1 Issue 0 Pages e103-e108  
  Keywords Icelandic horse; Gait analysis; Ground reaction force; Kinematics; Shoeing; Tölt  
  Abstract Abstract Tölt is a symmetric four-beat gait with a speed range extending into that of trot and canter. Specific shoeing methods, such as unnaturally high and long hooves, are used to enforce individual gait predisposition. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of this shoeing style on loading and movement of the limbs at walk, tölt and trot, and at different velocities. Simultaneous kinetic and kinematic gait analysis was carried out at walk (1.4 m/s) and at two tölting and trotting speeds (3.3 m/s and 3.9 m/s) on an instrumented treadmill. Thirteen sound Icelandic horses were first measured with high, long front hooves (SH) and, 1 week later, after trimming the hooves according to standard shoeing principles (SN). Comparing SH with SN, front hooves had 21 ± 5 mm longer dorsal hoof walls, and the shoeing material per hoof was 273 ± 50 g heavier. In all three gaits, gait quality, as it is currently judged, was improved with SH due to a lower stride rate, a longer stride length and a higher, but not wider, forelimb protraction arc, which were also positively associated with speed. Forelimb–hind limb balance remained unchanged, but limb impulses were higher. Apart from an increase of ⩽2.2% in the forelimbs at the faster speed of both tölt and trot, SH had little influence on vertical peak forces.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1090-0233 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5912  
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Author Belock, B.; Kaiser, L.J.; Lavagnino, M.; Clayton, H.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comparison of pressure distribution under a conventional saddle and a treeless saddle at sitting trot Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 193 Issue 1 Pages 87-91  
  Keywords Horse; Rider; Equitation; Tack; Electronic pressure mat  
  Abstract It can be a challenge to find a conventional saddle that is a good fit for both horse and rider. An increasing number of riders are purchasing treeless saddles because they are thought to fit a wider range of equine back shapes, but there is only limited research to support this theory. The objective of this study was to compare the total force and pressure distribution patterns on the horse’s back with conventional and treeless saddles. The experimental hypotheses were that the conventional saddle would distribute the force over a larger area with lower mean and maximal pressures than the treeless saddle. Eight horses were ridden by a single rider at sitting trot with conventional and treeless saddles. An electronic pressure mat measured total force, area of saddle contact, maximal pressure and area with mean pressure >11 kPa for 10 strides with each saddle. Univariate ANOVA (P < 0.05) was used to detect differences between saddles. Compared with the treeless saddle, the conventional saddle distributed the rider’s bodyweight over a larger area, had lower mean and maximal pressures and fewer sensors recording mean pressure >11 kPa. These findings suggested that the saddle tree was effective in distributing the weight of the saddle and rider over a larger area and in avoiding localized areas of force concentration.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1090-0233 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5821  
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Author Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, K.E.K.; van den Broek, J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The influence of challenging objects and horse-rider matching on heart rate, heart rate variability and behavioural score in riding horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 192 Issue 1 Pages 75-80  
  Keywords Horse-rider interaction; Horse compliance; Welfare; Heart rate; Behaviour score  
  Abstract A good horse-rider ‘match’ is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was ridden by a different rider and was challenged by three objects (A–C). Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) of horse and rider, and behaviour score (BS) of the horse were obtained for each object and as a total for each test. The horse-rider interaction was evaluated with each combination and assessed as ‘matching’ or ‘mismatching’, and the horses were categorised as ‘compliant’, ‘partly-compliant’ or ‘non-compliant’. Horses exhibited a decreased HR (P = 0.015) and a decreased BS (P = 0.004) within and across different tests. ‘Matching’ horse-rider combinations exhibited less stress as indicated by reduced HR (‘match’ 69 ± 10 vs. ‘mismatch’ 72 ± 9, P = 0.001) and BS (‘match’ 1.9 ± 1.1 vs. ‘mismatch’ 3.8 ± 1.4, P = 0.017) of the horse. ‘Compliant’ (68 ± 8, P < 0.001) and ‘partly-compliant’ (71 ± 9, P = 0.002) horses had significantly lower HR than ‘non-compliant’ (75 ± 9) animals. The findings of the study indicate that HR and BS measurements support a subjective ‘match’ diagnosis and HR measurement may be a valuable tool in assessing horse compliance.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1090-0233 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5636  
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