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Author Emery, N.J.; Clayton, N.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Mentality of Crows: Convergent Evolution of Intelligence in Corvids and Apes Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 306 Issue 5703 Pages 1903-1907  
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  Abstract Discussions of the evolution of intelligence have focused on monkeys and apes because of their close evolutionary relationship to humans. Other large-brained social animals, such as corvids, also understand their physical and social worlds. Here we review recent studies of tool manufacture, mental time travel, and social cognition in corvids, and suggest that complex cognition depends on a “tool kit” consisting of causal reasoning, flexibility, imagination, and prospection. Because corvids and apes share these cognitive tools, we argue that complex cognitive abilities evolved multiple times in distantly related species with vastly different brain structures in order to solve similar socioecological problems.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.1098410 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2959  
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Author Kaminski, J.; Call, J.; Fischer, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Word Learning in a Domestic Dog: Evidence for “Fast Mapping” Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 304 Issue 5677 Pages 1682-1683  
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  Abstract During speech acquisition, children form quick and rough hypotheses about the meaning of a new word after only a single exposure--a process dubbed “fast mapping.” Here we provide evidence that a border collie, Rico, is able to fast map. Rico knew the labels of over 200 different items. He inferred the names of novel items by exclusion learning and correctly retrieved those items right away as well as 4 weeks after the initial exposure. Fast mapping thus appears to be mediated by general learning and memory mechanisms also found in other animals and not by a language acquisition device that is special to humans.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.1097859 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4678  
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Author Milo, R.; Itzkovitz, S.; Kashtan, N.; Levitt, R.; Shen-Orr, S.; Ayzenshtat, I.; Sheffer, M.; Alon, U. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Superfamilies of Evolved and Designed Networks Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 303 Issue 5663 Pages 1538-1542  
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  Abstract Complex biological, technological, and sociological networks can be of very different sizes and connectivities, making it difficult to compare their structures. Here we present an approach to systematically study similarity in the local structure of networks, based on the significance profile (SP) of small subgraphs in the network compared to randomized networks. We find several superfamilies of previously unrelated networks with very similar SPs. One superfamily, including transcription networks of microorganisms, represents “rate-limited” information-processing networks strongly constrained by the response time of their components. A distinct superfamily includes protein signaling, developmental genetic networks, and neuronal wiring. Additional superfamilies include power grids, protein-structure networks and geometric networks, World Wide Web links and social networks, and word-adjacency networks from different languages.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.1089167 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5033  
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Author Silk, J.B.; Alberts, S.C.; Altmann, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social Bonds of Female Baboons Enhance Infant Survival Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 302 Issue 5648 Pages 1231-1234  
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  Abstract Among nonhuman primates, females often form strong bonds with kin and other group members. These relationships are thought to have adaptive value for females, but direct effects of sociality on fitness have never been demonstrated. We present 16 years of behavioral data from a well-studied population of wild baboons, which demonstrate that sociality of adult females is positively associated with infant survival, an important component of variation in female lifetime fitness. The effects of sociality on infant survival are independent of the effects of dominance rank, group membership, and environmental conditions. Our results are consistent with the evidence that social support has beneficial effects on human health and well-being across the life span. For humans and other primates, sociality has adaptive value.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.1088580 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5151  
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Author Milo, R.; Shen-Orr, S.; Itzkovitz, S.; Kashtan, N.; Chklovskii, D.; Alon, U. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Network Motifs: Simple Building Blocks of Complex Networks Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 298 Issue 5594 Pages 824-827  
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  Abstract Complex networks are studied across many fields of science. To uncover their structural design principles, we defined “network motifs,” patterns of interconnections occurring in complex networks at numbers that are significantly higher than those in randomized networks. We found such motifs in networks from biochemistry, neurobiology, ecology, and engineering. The motifs shared by ecological food webs were distinct from the motifs shared by the genetic networks of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae or from those found in the World Wide Web. Similar motifs were found in networks that perform information processing, even though they describe elements as different as biomolecules within a cell and synaptic connections between neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. Motifs may thus define universal classes of networks. This approach may uncover the basic building blocks of most networks.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.298.5594.824 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5032  
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Author McLaren, B.E.; Peterson, R.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Wolves, Moose, and Tree Rings on Isle Royale Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 266 Issue 5190 Pages 1555-1558  
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  Abstract Investigation of tree growth in Isle Royale National Park in Michigan revealed the influence of herbivores and carnivores on plants in an intimately linked food chain. Plant growth rates were regulated by cycles in animal density and responded to annual changes in primary productivity only when released from herbivory by wolf predation. Isle Royale's dendrochronology complements a rich literature on food chain control in aquatic systems, which often supports a trophic cascade model. This study provides evidence of top-down control in a forested ecosystem.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4995  
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Author Bednarz, J.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cooperative Hunting Harris' Hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus) Type Journal Article
  Year 1988 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 239 Issue 4847 Pages 1525-1527  
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  Abstract Coordinated hunting by several individuals directed toward the capture and sharing of one Large prey animal has been documented convincingly only for a few mammalian carnivores. In New Mexico, Harris' hawks formed hunting parties of two to six individuals in the nonbreeding season. This behavior improved capture success and the average energy available per individual enabled hawks to dispatch prey larger than themselves. These patterns suggest that cooperation is important to understanding the evolution of complex social behavior in higher vertebrates and, specifically, that benefits derived from team hunting a key factor in the social living of Harris' hawks.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.239.4847.1525 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4717  
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Author Axelrod, R.; Hamilton, W.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The evolution of cooperation Type Journal Article
  Year 1981 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 211 Issue 4489 Pages 1390-1396  
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  Abstract Cooperation in organisms, whether bacteria or primates, has been a difficulty for evolutionary theory since Darwin. On the assumption that interactions between pairs of individuals occur on a probabilistic basis, a model is developed based on the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy in the context of the Prisoner's Dilemma game. Deductions from the model, and the results of a computer tournament show how cooperation based on reciprocity can get started in an asocial world, can thrive while interacting with a wide range of other strategies, and can resist invasion once fully established. Potential applications include specific aspects of territoriality, mating, and disease.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.7466396 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4933  
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Author Pennisi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title PSYCHOLOGY: Nonhuman Primates Demonstrate Humanlike Reasoning Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 317 Issue 5843 Pages 1308-  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4240  
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Author Clayton, N.S. url  openurl
  Title COGNITION: An Open Sandwich or an Open Question? Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 305 Issue 5682 Pages 344-  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.1099512 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2955  
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