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Author Bailey, D url  openurl
  Title Dominance Hierarchies in Horses: Comparing and Contrasting Different Methods for Assessing Hierarchies Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Understanding animal social structures is imperative when it comes to the care, housing and handling of large herd animals. Knowing how hierarchies are structured, along with environmental and physiological aspects that may affect them, will allow owners and breeders to house and care for their animals. The aim of my study was to better understand two methods used to assess dominance hierarchies in horses, Equus caballus, and to predict which method would be more useful for owners housing domestic horses. I designed an experiment where I compared a structured method, the paired feeding test, with behavioral observations from the horses’ natural setting. I hypothesized that the structured method would not conclude the same dominance hierarchy as the natural observations. I also hypothesized that traits of the horses, such as size or age, would correlate with the hierarchy ranking within a herd. A herd of six individual horses from a small ranch east of Platteville, Colorado was used to test the two methods. I found that the two methods measured different hierarchies. The paired feeding test showed no correlations to any of the physical measurements, as well as did not provide a hierarchy that was similar to the natural dominance observations of the horses. Natural observations established a more linear hierarchy and had significant correlations with weight and overall body size. The results indicate that the paired feeding test may not be a valid method for establishing dominance hierarchies within domestic horses housed in a small range.

I recommend use of natural observations over paired feeding tests for ranchers, breeders or owners trying to understand the dominance hierarchies among their herds.
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6204  
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Author Klingel H, url  openurl
  Title The behavior of horses (Equidae) Type Journal Article
  Year 1972 Publication Handbuch der Zoologie Abbreviated Journal Handb. Zoolog.  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages 1-68  
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  Corporate Author McDonnel, S. (Translator) Thesis  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1298  
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Author Moons, C.; Heleski, C.R.;Leece, C.M.;Zanella, A.J. url  openurl
  Title Conflicting Results in the Association Between Plasma and Salivary Cortisol Levels in Foals Type Manuscript
  Year 2002 Publication Havemeier Workshop Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Introduction
Glucocorticoids are present in many biological fluids as a free fraction or bound to Corticoid
Binding Globulins (CBG) (Matteri et al, 2000). There are conflicting claims regarding the validity of
saliva as a biological fluid to measure cortisol in horses (Lebelt et al, 1996; McGreevy and Pell, 1998;
van der Kolk et al, 2001). Measuring changes in salivary cortisol levels in normal horses and horses
with Cushing`s disease van der Kolk and collaborators (2001) demonstrated the validity of saliva to
assess adrenal function. Puzzling results were reported by McGreevy and Pell (1998) who suggested
that plasma and salivary cortisol concentrations in horses showing oral stereotypies were correlated
but this association was non-existent in control animals. Investigating the responses of foals to
branding and foot-trimming Zanella et al (unpublished results) were unable to identify a relationship
between plasma and salivary cortisol levels in foals. In several species, levels of cortisol in plasma and
saliva are tightly correlated (Fenske, 1996). Cortisol found in blood consists of a fraction bound to
corticoid binding globulin (CBG) and a free, unbound fraction. Free cortisol represents the
biologically active fraction of this steroid hormone. Salivary cortisol reflects the unbound fraction
found in plasma or serum and it passes readily through the parotid membrane (Riad-Fahmy, 1983;
Horning Walker et al,1977). Unbound steroids transfer rapidly between plasma and saliva
(Walker,1989; Scott et al 1990). Saliva flow-rate does not appear to influence saliva cortisol levels in
different species (Hubert and de Jong-Meyer, 1989; Walker 1989, Scott et a, 1990). In horses, Lebelt
et al (1996) reported that salivary and plasma total cortisol in stallions were correlated. We
hypothesized that changes in salivary cortisol in foals would show a pattern that is correlated to that of
plasma free and plasma total cortisol concentrations in foals. In addition, we anticipated that the lack
of good sampling techniques provides an explanation for the failure in determining the association
between salivary and plasma cortisol in foals.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 470  
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Author McGreevy, P.D. url  openurl
  Title Development and Resolution of Behavioural Problems with the Type Conference Article
  Year Publication Havemeier Workshop Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract The ideals of equestrian technique combine art and science. Therefore students of equitation
encounter measurable variables such as rhythm, tempo and impulsion alongside more ethereal ones
such as outline and harmony. This mixture accounts for many of the idiosyncrasies of equestrianism
including the subjective scoring of performance in dressage tests, the elusiveness of perfection even at
an elite level of competition and the difficulty of expressing equestrian technique in empirical terms
(Roberts, 1992).
This chapter will describe and offer examples of the unwelcome behavioural responses horses
produce under saddle. Two broad sections are then proposed to allow the reader to consider
unwelcome behavioural responses caused directly by humans as distinct from those attributable more
to the horse than the rider. Ultimately the responsibility for problems in the ridden horse lies with
humans since we have undertaken the domestication and exploitation of equids. Therefore it is
accepted that the dichotomy is not absolute. The chapter closes with a
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 471  
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Author Feh, C. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Relationships and Communication in Socially Natural Horse Herds Type Book Chapter
  Year 2005 Publication The domestic horse : the origins, development, and management of its behaviour Abbreviated Journal The domestic horse : the origins, development, and management of its behaviour  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract Horses are quite unique. In most mammals, sexes segregate and maintain bonds only during the breeding season (Clutton-Brock, 1989). Some canids, a few rodents and primate species such as gorillas, hamadryas baboons and red howler monkeys are the exception, where the same males stay with the same females all year round and over many breeding seasons. Typically, both sexes disperse at puberty in these species. In horses, it was clearly shown that the causes for female dispersal were incest avoidance and not intra-specific competition (Monard, 1996). As a rule, this is confirmed for mammal species where tenure length by males exceeds the age at first reproduction in females (Clutton-Brock, 1989). When horses are allowed to choose their mating partner freely, the inbreeding coefficient of the offspring is lower than expected should they mate randomly (Duncan et al, 1984).  
  Address  
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  Publisher Cambridge University Press 2005 Place of Publication Cambridge Editor Mills, D. S. ; McDonnell, , S. M.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 13 978-0-521-81414-6 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @; Equine Behaviour @ team @ room B 3.092 Serial 472  
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Author Hausberger, M.; Richard-Yris, M.-A. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Individual differences in the domestic horse, origins, development and stability Type Book Chapter
  Year 2005 Publication The domestic horse : the origins, development, and management of its behaviour Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 33-52  
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  Publisher Cambridge University Press 2005 Place of Publication Cambridge Editor Mills, D.S.; McDonnell,  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 13 978-0-521-81414-6 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Feh2005 Serial 4819  
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Author Feh, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Alliances between stallions are more than just multimale groups: reply to Linklater & Cameron (2000) Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 61 Issue Pages F27-F30  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 513  
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Author WAYNE L. LINKLATER & ELISSA Z. CAMERON url  doi
openurl 
  Title Distinguishing cooperation from cohabitation: the feral horse case Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 59 Issue Pages F17-F21  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 514  
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Author Nathan J. Emery url  openurl
  Title The Evolution of Social Cognition Type Book Chapter
  Year 2005 Publication The Cognitive Neuroscience of Social BehaviourGarten Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract Although this bookis focusedon the cognitive neuroscience ofhuman social behaviour, an
understandingofsocial cognition in non-human animals is critical for unravellingthe neural basis of
social cognition in humans as well as the selective pressures that have shapedthe evolution ofcomplex
social cognition. Thanks to methodological limitations, we know little about the relationships between
certain biochemical andelectrophysiological properties ofthe human brain andhow theycompute the
behaviour andmental states ofother individuals. Traditional techniques for examiningneural function
in humans, such as event-relatedpotentials (ERP),positron emission tomography(PET),and
functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI),are constrainedbythe fact that subjects are placed
either into an immoveable scanner with a lot ofbackgroundnoise or wiredup with dozens of
electrodes that are sensitive to slight movements. The possibilityofscanningor recordingbrain waves
from two individuals that are physicallyinteractingsociallyis technicallyimpossible at present
(however, see Montague et al, 2002 for a new methodfor simultaneouslyscanningtwo individuals
interactingvia a computer).
The onlywayto understandthe neurocognitive architecture ofhuman social behaviour is to examine
similar social processes in both human andnon-human animal minds andmake comparisons at the
species level. An additional argument is that traditional human socio-cognitive tasks are dependent on
the use ofstories, cartoons andverbal cues andinstructions (Heberlein & Adolphs, this volume)which
themselves will elicit specific neural responses that have to be eliminatedfrom neural responses
specificallyrelatedto mindreading. Therefore, the development ofnon-verbal tasks wouldprovide a
breakthrough for studies in non-linguistic animals, pre-verbal human infants andhuman cognitive
neuroimaging.
 
  Address  
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  Publisher Psychology Press Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 543  
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Author Umminger, Walter url  openurl
  Title Helden, Götter, Übermenschen : Eine Kulturgeschichte menschl. Höchstleistungen Type Book Whole
  Year 1962 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Publisher Econ-Verlag Place of Publication Düsseldorf Editor  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4402  
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