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Author Whalen, A.; Cownden, D.; Laland, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The learning of action sequences through social transmission Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 1093-1103  
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  Abstract Previous empirical work on animal social learning has found that many species lack the ability to learn entire action sequences solely through reliance on social information. Conversely, acquiring action sequences through asocial learning can be difficult due to the large number of potential sequences arising from even a small number of base actions. In spite of this, several studies report that some primates use action sequences in the wild. We investigate how social information can be integrated with asocial learning to facilitate the learning of action sequences. We formalize this problem by examining how learners using temporal difference learning, a widely applicable model of reinforcement learning, can combine social cues with their own experiences to acquire action sequences. The learning problem is modeled as a Markov decision process. The learning of nettle processing by mountain gorillas serves as a focal example. Through simulations, we find that the social facilitation of component actions can combine with individual learning to facilitate the acquisition of action sequences. Our analysis illustrates that how even simple forms of social learning, combined with asocial learning, generate substantially faster learning of action sequences compared to asocial processes alone, and that the benefits of social information increase with the length of the action sequence and the number of base actions.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Whalen2015 Serial 6192  
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Author Kis, A.; Huber, L.; Wilkinson, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social learning by imitation in a reptile (Pogona vitticeps) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim.Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 325-331  
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  Abstract The ability to learn through imitation is thought to be the basis of cultural transmission and was long considered a distinctive characteristic of humans. There is now evidence that both mammals and birds are capable of imitation. However, nothing is known about these abilities in the third amniotic class--reptiles. Here, we use a bidirectional control procedure to show that a reptile species, the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), is capable of social learning that cannot be explained by simple mechanisms such as local enhancement or goal emulation. Subjects in the experimental group opened a trap door to the side that had been demonstrated, while subjects in the ghost control group, who observed the door move without the intervention of a conspecific, were unsuccessful. This, together with differences in behaviour between experimental and control groups, provides compelling evidence that reptiles possess cognitive abilities that are comparable to those observed in mammals and birds and suggests that learning by imitation is likely to be based on ancient mechanisms.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Kis2015 Serial 6193  
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Author Brust, V.; Guenther, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Domestication effects on behavioural traits and learning performance: comparing wild cavies to guinea pigs Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 99-109  
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  Abstract The domestication process leads to a change in behavioural traits, usually towards individuals that are less attentive to changes in their environment and less aggressive. Empirical evidence for a difference in cognitive performance, however, is scarce. Recently, a functional linkage between an individual's behaviour and cognitive performance has been proposed in the framework of animal personalities via a shared risk-reward trade-off. Following this assumption, bolder and more aggressive animals (usually the wild form) should learn faster. Differences in behaviour may arise during ontogeny due to individual experiences or represent adaptations that occurred over the course of evolution. Both might singly or taken together account for differences in cognitive performance between wild and domestic lineages. To test for such possible linkages, we compared wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs, both kept in a university stock for more than 30 years under highly comparable conditions. Animals were tested in three behavioural tests as well as for initial and reversal learning performance. Guinea pigs were less bold and aggressive than their wild congeners, but learnt an association faster. Additionally, the personality structure was altered during the domestication process. The most likely explanation for these findings is that a shift in behavioural traits and their connectivity led to an altered cognitive performance. A functional linkage between behavioural and cognitive traits seems to exist in the proposed way only under natural selection, but not in animals that have been selected artificially over centuries.  
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  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Brust2015 Serial 6194  
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Author Gabor, V.; Gerken, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Shetland ponies (Equus caballus) show quantity discrimination in a matching-to-sample design Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 1233-1243  
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  Abstract Numerical competence is one of the aspects of animal cognition with a long history of research interest, but few results are available for the horse. In the present study, we investigated the ability of three Shetland ponies to discriminate between different quantities of geometric symbols presented on a computer screen in a matching-to-sample arrangement. In Experiment 1, the ponies had to relate two similar quantities to another, paired in contrasts (1 vs. 2, 3 vs. 4 and 4 vs. 5) of the same stimulus (dot). Specific pairs of quantities (all differing by one) of up to five different geometrical symbols were displayed in Experiment 2. In each session, both quantities (more and less) were used as sample in such a way that each of the two quantities presented in one test served as positive and as negative stimulus, respectively. The three Shetland ponies were able to discriminate between the given quantities of dots by showing more than 80 % correct responses in two consecutive sessions. Only one of the ponies distinguished different shapes of geometric symbols at a level of 4 versus 5 items. The results show that all ponies were capable of visual quantity discrimination in the present matching-to-sample design, but task solving seemed more difficult when quantities were composed of heterogeneous stimuli. The present results confirm our hypothesis that the ponies based their decision on the matching concept of sameness and were not biased by a spontaneous preference for higher quantities.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Gabor2014 Serial 6174  
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Author Krueger, K.; Marr, I.; Farmer, K. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Equine Cognition Type Book Chapter
  Year 2017 Publication Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-11  
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  Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Cham Editor Vonk, J.; Shackelford, T.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-47829-6 Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Krueger2017 Serial 6181  
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Author Krueger, K. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Perissodactyla Cognition Type Book Chapter
  Year 2017 Publication Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-10  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Cham Editor Vonk, J.; Shackelford, T.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-47829-6 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Krueger2017 Serial 6187  
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Author Fiske, J.C.; Potter, G.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Discrimination reversal learning in yearling horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1979 Publication J. Anim. Sci. Abbreviated Journal J. Anim. Sci.  
  Volume 49 Issue 2 Pages 583-588  
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  Abstract Twenty-six yearling horses were tested on a serial reversal learning discrimination combining spatial and brightness cues. An original discrimination of rewarded or nonrewarded stimuli was made followed by 20 daily reversals for position/brightness discrimination. Learning criteria were defined as 11 out of 12 correct, with the last eight responses all correct. Each horse was allowed 30 trials per discrimination to achieve criteria. Mean errors (ME) and mean trials (MT) required to achieve criteria were computed for each horse. A relative learning ability index (LAI) was calculated by the formula 1000/MT/ME. A daily emotionality score, based on a scale of one (tranquil) to six (very excitable) was assigned each horse each day after testing and a mean computed for each horse. A single subjective trainability score, based on a scale of one (difficult to train) to six (easy to train) was obtained for each horse from an independent trainer. Linear regression analyses for all 26 horses revealed a reduction in MT and ME (P<.01) over the 21-day test period indicating evidence of learning to learn. Differences (P<.05) were evident between sexes for MT and ME. Significant correlations between trainability scores and learning ability indices MT, ME, and LAI were evident for colts and geldings but not for fillies. Pooled data showed significant correlations between ME and trainability. There was a negative correlation (P<.05) between emotionality and trainability scores for all 26 horses, although the filly group did not exhibit significant correlation between these parameters.  
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  Notes Cited By (since 1996): 31; Export Date: 24 October 2008 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 4583  
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Author Kratzer, D.D.; Netherland, W.M.; Pulse, R.E.; Baker, J.P. url  openurl
  Title Maze Learning in Quarter Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1977 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 45 Issue 4 Pages 896-902  
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  Abstract A two-compartment maze providing a single left- or right-side choice was used to test maze-learning ability in 37 quarter horses. Preference for left- or right-side choices varied among the horses. The taller and thinner horses tended to go left. The horses showed learning ability based on decreases in latency and decreases in errors as trials progressed in a right-side escape pattern. The rate of learning an opposite escape pattern, left-side escape, was faster but owing to the large number of errors occurring when the pattern was reversed, the level of errors did not reduce to a level comparable to that achieved in the right-side escape pattern until adverse stimuli were presented in the blind compartment. Heavier horses took longer to escape from the maze when adverse stimuli were presented. Differences in learning ability for horses fed various levels of dietary protein were not consistent. N1 -  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3574  
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Author Bailey, D url  openurl
  Title Dominance Hierarchies in Horses: Comparing and Contrasting Different Methods for Assessing Hierarchies Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages  
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  Abstract Understanding animal social structures is imperative when it comes to the care, housing and handling of large herd animals. Knowing how hierarchies are structured, along with environmental and physiological aspects that may affect them, will allow owners and breeders to house and care for their animals. The aim of my study was to better understand two methods used to assess dominance hierarchies in horses, Equus caballus, and to predict which method would be more useful for owners housing domestic horses. I designed an experiment where I compared a structured method, the paired feeding test, with behavioral observations from the horses’ natural setting. I hypothesized that the structured method would not conclude the same dominance hierarchy as the natural observations. I also hypothesized that traits of the horses, such as size or age, would correlate with the hierarchy ranking within a herd. A herd of six individual horses from a small ranch east of Platteville, Colorado was used to test the two methods. I found that the two methods measured different hierarchies. The paired feeding test showed no correlations to any of the physical measurements, as well as did not provide a hierarchy that was similar to the natural dominance observations of the horses. Natural observations established a more linear hierarchy and had significant correlations with weight and overall body size. The results indicate that the paired feeding test may not be a valid method for establishing dominance hierarchies within domestic horses housed in a small range.

I recommend use of natural observations over paired feeding tests for ranchers, breeders or owners trying to understand the dominance hierarchies among their herds.
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6204  
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Author Klingel H, url  openurl
  Title The behavior of horses (Equidae) Type Journal Article
  Year 1972 Publication Handbuch der Zoologie Abbreviated Journal Handb. Zoolog.  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages 1-68  
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  Corporate Author McDonnel, S. (Translator) Thesis  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1298  
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