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Author Hiby, E.F.; Rooney, N.J.; Bradshaw, J.W.S. url  openurl
  Title Dog training methods: their use, effectiveness and interaction with behaviour and welfare Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Animal Welfare Abbreviated Journal Anim. Welf.  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 63-69  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Historically, pet dogs were trained using mainly negative reinforcement or punishment, but positive reinforcement using rewards has recently become more popular. The methods used may have different impacts on the dogsâ&#65533;&#65533; welfare. We distributed a questionnaire to 364 dog owners in order to examine the relative effectiveness of different training methods and their effects upon a pet dogâ&#65533;&#65533;s behaviour. When asked how they trained their dog on seven basic tasks, 66% reported using vocal punishment, 12% used physical punishment, 60% praise (social reward), 51% food rewards and 11% play. The ownerâ&#65533;&#65533;s ratings for their dogâ&#65533;&#65533;s obedience during eight tasks correlated positively with the number of tasks which they trained using rewards (P<0.01), but not using punishment (P=0.5). When asked whether their dog exhibited any of 16 common problematic behaviours, the number of problems reported by the owners correlated with the number of tasks for which their dog was trained using punishment (P<0.001), but not using rewards (P=0.17). Exhibition of problematic behaviours may be indicative of compromised welfare, because such behaviours can be caused byor result ina state of anxiety and may lead to a dog being relinquished or abandoned. Because punishment was associated with an increased incidence of problematic behaviours, we conclude that it may represent a welfare concern without concurrent benefits in obedience. We suggest that positive training methods may be more useful to the pet-owning community.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-7286 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Hiby:2004:0962-7286:63 Serial 6433  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Murphy, J.; Arkins, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Laterality and visuo-spatial ability in the equine: Functional measures of sport horse selection? Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication BSAP Occasional Publication Abbreviated Journal BSAP Occasional Publication  
  Volume 35 Issue Pages 159-170  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Laterality in any organism or species can be manifest as morphological, sensory and functional degrees of asymmetry such as hemispheric dominance, handedness or sidedness and other motor functional behaviours and as such is equally important in equitation. The influence of the horses' sex on both the direction and the degree of the laterality was explored within and between 4 experimental procedures in the 1st study. The findings showed that the direction, but not the degree of idiosyncratic motor preference in the horses was strongly sex-related. Male horses exhibited significantly more left lateralized responses and female horses exhibited significantly more right lateralized responses. Visuo-spatial ability is also likely to be important in the performance horse. In many species, moderate to large differences in visuo-spatial ability have been reported between the sexes, with superior visuo-spatial ability being reported in males of all species investigated to date. As no known studies had addressed visuo-spatial ability in the equine, the objective of the 2nd study, was to determine if visuo-spatial ability differed between male and female horses. The results produced the first behavioural demonstration of superior visuo-spatial ability in male horses, similar to that reported in other species. There is evidence to suggest that visuospatial ability and motor laterality are associated with cerebral hemispheric asymmetry and may be intrinsically linked. Brain development and laterality have also been associated with hair patterning, and, in a 3rd study we attempted to identify predictors of lateral bias in motor behaviour in horses. We investigated the relationship between the direction of facial hair whorl rotation and the incidence/direction of laterality in the horse. The findings suggest that direction of facial hair whorl rotation may be a useful indicator of lateralised motor behavioural preferences in the horse. We then attempted to establish if laterality was evident at birth in a 4th study, where we explored if neonatal foals exhibited lateralised patterns during and immediately post the birthing process that were correlated with their facial hair whorl patterns. The results showed a significant association between the sex of the foal and the choice of foreleg presented initially during 2nd stage parturition. Significantly more colt foals led with the left foreleg and significantly more filly foals led with the right foreleg than expected purely by random and the behaviour was correlated with facial hair whorl patterns. The findings also suggest that lateralisation in the horse is determined in utero as has also been shown in humans. Comparisons of wholly intact male and female horses are warranted as they might elucidate additional linkages between motor behaviour, visuo-spatial ability and brain organisation and development in the horse. Further research in this area could lead to more appropriate competition conditions (better fence design/construction on cross-country tracks) and so eliminate unnecessary levels of risk associated with many equestrian sports.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Cambridge University Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2018/02/27  
  ISSN 0263-967x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6512  
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Author Blatz, S.; Krüger,K.; Zanger, M. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Der Hufmechanismus – was wir wirklich wissen! Eine historische und fachliche Auseinandersetzung mit der Biomechanik des Hufes Type Book Whole
  Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Huf Hufmechanismus Pferd  
  Abstract Der Hufmechanismus – wir alle glauben ihn zu kennen und zu wissen wie er funktioniert. Doch wussten Sie, dass nach über 250 Jahren der Forschung immer noch keine eindeutige Aussage dazu getroffen werden kann, wie der Hufmechanismus genau entsteht, vonstattengeht und wie er bei der Hufbearbeitung berücksichtigt werden muss?

Die Ergebnisse von 50 Studien unterstützen die Elastizitätstheorie. Sie beschreibt einen individuellen Hufmechanismus, der von Pferd zu Pferd unterschiedlich und von mannigfaltigen Faktoren abhängig ist.

Der Hufmechanismus zeigt sich als ebenso anpassungsfähig wie die Hufform selbst. Daher sollte bei der Hufbearbeitung und beim Beschlag mit Maß und Weitblick die optimale und individuelle Lösung für jedes Pferd gefunden werden.
 
  Address  
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  Publisher Xenophon Verlag e.K. Place of Publication Wald Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-95625-004-0 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6404  
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Author Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz url  openurl
  Title Beurteilung von Pferdehaltungen unter Tierschutzgesichtspunkten Type Manuscript
  Year 2009 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5481  
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Author Hunter, L.; Houpt, K..A. url  openurl
  Title Bedding material preferences of ponies. Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication Journal of American Society of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim Sci  
  Volume 67 Issue 8 Pages 1986-1991  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The bedding preferences of ponies were determined using video recordings of nighttime (1900 to 0700) behavior of individually housed ponies. The ponies' behavior each minute was recorded to determine time budgets. In Exp. I, preference for bedding was determined using three mares, three stallions and two geldings given access to bedded and unbedded areas in a box stall. The ponies spent more time (66%) on the bedded area and were never observed lying on the unbedded areas. In Exp. II, three mares and six stallions were given access to a box stall, one side of which was bedded with wood shavings and the other with straw. Although some individual animals preferred one bedding over the other, neither form of bedding was preferred consistently. Time budgets in Exp. II were similar on both bedding materials. The ponies spent 12% of their nighttime lying, 2% walking, 35% eating and 50% standing inactively. Some ponies had a relatively strong preference for bedding, but the type of bedding preferred varied with the individual animal. Some individual ponies had no clear preference, but instead had a side or position preference  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved yes  
  Call Number Serial 1211  
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Author Rubin, L.; Oppegard, C.; Hindz, H.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of varying the temporal distribution of conditioning trials on equine learning behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 50 Issue 6 Pages 1184-1187  
  Keywords Animals; Conditioning (Psychology); *Horses; *Learning  
  Abstract Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of varying the temporal distrbution of conditioning sessions on equine learning behavior. In the first experiment, 15 ponies were trained to clear a small hurdle in response to a buzzer in order to avoid a mild electric shock. Three treatments were used. One group received 10 learning trials daily, seven times a week; one group was trained in the same fashion two times a week and one group was trained once a week. The animals conditioned only once a week achieved a high level of performance in significantly fewer sessions than the ones conditioned seven times a week, although elapsed time from start of training to completion was two to three times greater for the former group. The twice-a-week group learned at an intermediate rate. In the second experiment, the ponies were rearranged into three new groups. They were taught to move backward a specific distance in response to a visual cue in order to avoid an electric shock. Again, one group was trained seven times a week, one group was trained two times and one group was trained once a week. As in the first experiment, the animals trained once a week achieved the learning criteria in significantly fewer sessions than those trained seven times a week, but, as in trial 1, elapsed time from start to finish was greater for them. The two times-a-week group learned at a rate in-between the rates of the other two groups.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:7400060 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3558  
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Author Hopster, H.; van der Werf, J.T.; Erkens, J.H.; Blokhuis, H.J. url  openurl
  Title Effects of repeated jugular puncture on plasma cortisol concentrations in loose-housed dairy cows Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim. Sci  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 708-714  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5486  
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Author Krueger., K.; Farmer, K. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Social learning in Horses: Differs from individual learning only in the learning stimulus and not in the learning mechanisms Type Abstract
  Year 2018 Publication 14th Meeting of the Internatinoal Society for Equitation Science Abbreviated Journal 14th Meeting ISES  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords horse; individual learning; learning mechanisms; learning stimuli; social learning  
  Abstract Equine welfare can be enhanced by applying species specific training. This may incorporate social learning, as horses are highly social and social stimuli are of primary importance. Social learning is comparable to individual learning in its learning mechanisms, differing primarily in the way it is stimulated. Our initial study showed that horses of different breeds (N = 38) follow humans after observing other horses doing so, but only if the observed horse was familiar to and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's exact test: N = 12, P = 0.003). A second study showed that horses and ponies (N = 25) learned to pull a rope to open a feeding apparatus after observing demonstrations by conspecifics, again, only if the demonstrating horse was older and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's combination test, N = 3, v2 = 27.71, p = 0.006). Our third approach showed that horses and ponies (N = 24) learned to press a switch to open a feeding apparatus after observing a familiar person (GzLM: N = 24, z = 2.33, P = 0.02). Most recently, we confronted horses and ponies (N = 50) with persons demonstrating different techniques for opening a feeding apparatus. In this study we investigated whether the horses would copy the demonstrators' techniques or apply their own. Here only some horses copied the technique, and most of the successful learners used their mouths irrespective of the demonstrators' postures (Chi Square Test: N = 40, df = 2, &#967;2 = 31.4, p < 0.001). In all the approaches social stimuli elicited learning processes in the test horses, while only a few individuals in the control groups mastered the tasks by individual learning. The following behaviour observed in the initial study may have been facilitated by a social stimuli (social facilitation), and the opening of the feed boxes in the subsequent studies appear to be mostly the result of enhancement (social enhancement). Some horses may have used the social stimuli at first and continued their learning process by individual trial and error. However, the horses were also selective in whom and some in how to copy. This may have been conditioned (socially conditioned) or the result of simple forms of reasoning on the reliability of the particular information provided by demonstrators of certain social ranks or social positions, as high ranking and familiar horses and familiar persons were copied and some imitated exactly.

Lay person message: Traditional riding instructions suggest that horses learn by observing other horses. For example, older, more experienced driving horses are used for initial training of young driving horses. We have shown that horses indeed use learning stimuli provided by other horse, as well as by humans. Horses readily accept stimuli observed in high ranking and familiar horses, and familiar persons. Such stimuli elicit learning processes which are comparable to individual learning. We suggest applying social learning whenever possible, as it is much faster and less stressful than individual learning, where learners experience negative outcomes in trial and error learning.
 
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6405  
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Author Krueger, K.; Flauger, B.; Farmer, K.; Hemelrijk, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Movement initiation in groups of feral horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 103 Issue Pages 91-101  
  Keywords Horse; Equus ferus caballus; Distributed leadership; Herding; Departure; Rank  
  Abstract Abstract Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often.  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5738  
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Author Maros, K.; Boross, B.; Kubinyi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Approach and follow behaviour – possible indicators of the human-horse relationship Type Abstract
  Year 2010 Publication Interaction Studies Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 410-427  
  Keywords Approach; Follow; Human&#8211; Horse Interaction  
  Abstract The aim of our study was to analyze the behavioural responses of horses (N = 51) to familiar humans and to find factors that may affect these responses in three tests: (1) approach to, (2) standing beside, and (3) following the familiar person. We investigated the impacts of horse-related factors (gender and age) and human-related factors (type of work, housing management, amount of handling, number of handlers and training to follow).<br xmlns=“http://pub2web.metastore.ingenta.com/ns/”></br> Horses with one handler needed less time to approach the human than horses with more handlers. Standing beside the human correlated positively with following. Following was mainly affected by training.<br xmlns=“http://pub2web.metastore.ingenta.com/ns/”></br> According to our results, the number of handlers has an important effect on horses' responses to familiar humans, especially regarding approach and follow behaviour. However, following behaviour is fundamentally determined by training.  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5728  
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