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Author Ikeda, M.; Patterson, K.; Graham, K.S.; Ralph, M.A.L.; Hodges, J.R. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A horse of a different colour: do patients with semantic dementia recognise different versions of the same object as the same? Type
  Year 2006 Publication Neuropsychologia Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychologia  
  Volume 44 Issue 4 Pages 566-575  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Anomia/diagnosis/psychology; Atrophy; *Attention; Color Perception; Dementia/*diagnosis/psychology; *Discrimination Learning; Dominance, Cerebral; Female; Humans; Male; *Memory, Short-Term; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests; Orientation; *Pattern Recognition, Visual; Reference Values; Retention (Psychology); Semantics; Size Perception; Temporal Lobe/pathology  
  Abstract Ten patients with semantic dementia resulting from bilateral anterior temporal lobe atrophy, and 10 matched controls, were tested on an object recognition task in which they were invited to choose (from a four-item array) the picture representing “the same thing” as an object picture that they had just inspected and attempted to name. The target in the response array was never physically identical to the studied picture but differed from it – in the various conditions – in size, angle of view, colour or exemplar (e.g. a different breed of dog). In one test block for each patient, the response array was presented immediately after the studied picture was removed; in another block, a 2 min filled delay was inserted between study and test. The patients performed relatively well when the studied object and target response differed only in the size of the picture on the page, but were significantly impaired as a group in the other three type-of-change conditions, even with no delay between study and test. The five patients whose structural brain imaging revealed major right-temporal atrophy were more impaired overall, and also more affected by the 2 min delay, than the five patients with an asymmetric pattern characterised by predominant left-sided atrophy. These results are interpreted in terms of a hypothesis that successful classification of an object token as an object type is not a pre-semantic ability but rather results from interaction of perceptual and conceptual processing.  
  Address Department of Neuropsychiatry, Ehime University School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon City, Ehime 791-0295, Japan. mikeda@m.ehime-u.ac.jp  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-3932 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16115656 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4059  
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Author Dunbar, K.; MacLeod, C.M. openurl 
  Title (up) A horse race of a different color: Stroop interference patterns with transformed words Type
  Year 1984 Publication Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance Abbreviated Journal J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform  
  Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 622-639  
  Keywords *Attention; *Color Perception; Discrimination Learning; Humans; Orientation; Reaction Time; Reading; *Semantics  
  Abstract Four experiments investigated Stroop interference using geometrically transformed words. Over experiments, reading was made increasingly difficult by manipulating orientation uncertainty and the number of noncolor words. As a consequence, time to read color words aloud increased dramatically. Yet, even when reading a color word was considerably slower than naming the color of ink in which the word was printed, Stroop interference persisted virtually unaltered. This result is incompatible with the simple horse race model widely used to explain color-word interference. When reading became extremely slow, a reversed Stroop effect--interference in reading the word due to an incongruent ink color--appeared for one transformation together with the standard Stroop interference. Whether or not the concept of automaticity is invoked, relative speed of processing the word versus the color does not provide an adequate overall explanation of the Stroop phenomenon.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0096-1523 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:6238123 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4065  
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Author Ferrero, D.M.; Moeller, L.M.; Osakada, T.; Horio, N.; Li, Q.; Roy, D.S.; Cichy, A.; Spehr, M.; Touhara, K.; Liberles, S.D. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A juvenile mouse pheromone inhibits sexual behaviour through the vomeronasal system Type
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 502 Issue 7471 Pages 368-371  
  Keywords Pheromone Olfactory receptors  
  Abstract Animals display a repertoire of different social behaviours. Appropriate behavioural responses depend on sensory input received during social interactions. In mice, social behaviour is driven by pheromones, chemical signals that encode information related to age, sex and physiological state1. However, although mice show different social behaviours towards adults, juveniles and neonates, sensory cues that enable specific recognition of juvenile mice are unknown. Here we describe a juvenile pheromone produced by young mice before puberty, termed exocrine-gland secreting peptide 22 (ESP22). ESP22 is secreted from the lacrimal gland and released into tears of 2- to 3-week-old mice. Upon detection, ESP22 activates high-affinity sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ, and downstream limbic neurons in the medial amygdala. Recombinant ESP22, painted on mice, exerts a powerful inhibitory effect on adult male mating behaviour, which is abolished in knockout mice lacking TRPC2, a key signalling component of the vomeronasal organ2, 3. Furthermore, knockout of TRPC2 or loss of ESP22 production results in increased sexual behaviour of adult males towards juveniles, and sexual responses towards ESP22-deficient juveniles are suppressed by ESP22 painting. Thus, we describe a pheromone of sexually immature mice that controls an innate social behaviour, a response pathway through the accessory olfactory system and a new role for vomeronasal organ signalling in inhibiting sexual behaviour towards young. These findings provide a molecular framework for understanding how a sensory system can regulate behaviour.  
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  Publisher Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Place of Publication Editor  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5732  
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Author Wilson, M.T.; Ranson, R.J.; Masiakowski, P.; Czarnecka, E.; Brunori, M. openurl 
  Title (up) A kinetic study of the pH-dependent properties of the ferric undecapeptide of cytochrome c (microperoxidase) Type
  Year 1977 Publication European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS Abbreviated Journal Eur J Biochem  
  Volume 77 Issue 1 Pages 193-199  
  Keywords Animals; Cyanides; *Cytochrome c Group/metabolism; Ferric Compounds; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Imidazoles; Kinetics; Mathematics; Myocardium/enzymology; *Oligopeptides/metabolism; *Peptide Fragments/metabolism; Protein Binding; Spectrophotometry; Temperature  
  Abstract The ferric form of the haem undecapeptide, derived from horse cytochrome c by peptic digestion, undergoes at least three pH-induced transitions with pK values of 3.4, 5.8 and 7.6. Temperature-jump experiments suggest that the first of these is due to the binding of a deprotonated imidazole group to the feric iron while the second and third arise from the binding of the two available amino groups present (the alpha-NH2 of valine and the epsilon-NH2 of lysine). Molecular models indicate that steric retraints on the peptide dictate that these amino groups may only coordinate to iron atoms via intermolecular bonds, thus leading to the polymerization of the peptide. Cyanide binding studies are in agreement with these conclusions and also yield a value of 3.6 X 10(6) M-1 s-1 for the intrinsic combination constant of CN- anion with the haem. A model is proposed which describes the pH-dependent properties of the ferric undecapeptide.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-2956 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:20304 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3814  
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Author Brandt, K. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A Language of Their Own: An Interactionist Approach to Human-Horse Communication Type
  Year 2004 Publication Society and Animals Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 299-316  
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  Abstract This paper explores the process of human-horse communication using ethnographic data of in-depth interviews and participant observation. Guided by symbolic interactionism, the paper argues that humans and horses co-create a language system by way of the body to facilitate the creation of shared meaning. This research challenges the privileged status of verbal language and suggests that non-verbal communication and language systems of the body have their own unique complexities. This investigation of humanhorse communication offers new possibilities to understand the subjective and intersubjective world of non-verbal language using beings-human and nonhuman alike.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4386  
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Author Biegler, R.; McGregor, A.; Krebs, J.R.; Healy, S.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A larger hippocampus is associated with longer-lasting spatial memory Type
  Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 6941-6944  
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  Abstract Volumetric studies in a range of animals (London taxi-drivers, polygynous male voles, nest-parasitic female cowbirds, and a number of food-storing birds) have shown that the size of the hippocampus, a brain region essential to learning and memory, is correlated with tasks involving an extra demand for spatial learning and memory. In this paper, we report the quantitative advantage that food storers gain from such an enlargement. Coal tits () a food-storing species, performed better than great tits (), a nonstoring species, on a task that assessed memory persistence but not on a task that assessed memory resolution or on one that tested memory capacity. These results show that the advantage to the food-storing species associated with an enlarged hippocampus is one of memory persistence.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.121034798 Approved  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4743  
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Author Wittemyer, G.; Getz, W.M. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A likely ranking interpolation for resolving dominance orders in systems with unknown relationships Type
  Year 2006 Publication Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Behaviour  
  Volume 143 Issue 7 Pages 909-930  
  Keywords DOMINANCE HIERARCHY; ALGORITH; SOCIAL AGONISTIC INTERACTIONS  
  Abstract n many animal systems agonistic interactions may be rare or not overt, particularly where such interactions are costly or of high risk as is common for large mammals. We present a technique developed specifically for resolving an optimized dominance order of individuals in systems with transitive (i.e. linear) dominance relationships, but where not all relationships are known. Our method augments the widely used I&SI method (de Vries, 1998) with an interpolation function for resolving the relative ranks of individuals with unknown relationships. Our method offers several advantages over other dominance methods by enabling the incorporation of any proportion of unknown relationships, resolving a unique solution to any dominance matrix, and calculating cardinal dominance strengths for each individual. As such, this method enables novel insight into difficult to study behavioural systems.  
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 438  
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Author Penzhorn Bl, openurl 
  Title (up) A long – term study of social organisation and bhabiour of Cape mountain zebras Type
  Year 1984 Publication Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie Abbreviated Journal Z. Tierpsychol.  
  Volume 64 Issue Pages 97-146  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved  
  Call Number Serial 1455  
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Author Penzhorn, B.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A Long-term Study of Social Organisation and Behaviour of Cape Mountain Zebras Equus zebra zebra Type
  Year 1984 Publication Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie Abbreviated Journal Z. Tierpsychol.  
  Volume 64 Issue 2 Pages 97-146  
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  Abstract Abstract and Summary 1. The social structure of Cape mountain zebras consists of breeding herds and bachelor groups. The breeding herds, which comprise 1 stallion, 15 mares and their offspring, remain stable over many years. When the stallion is displaced by another the mares usually remain together, although some herds split up. A dominance hierarchy exists, but leadership is not confined to the dominant member. Foals leave their maternal herds at a mean age of 21.9 months. The herd stallion tries to prevent foals from leaving the herd.2. Bachelor groups are not as rigidly structured as breeding herds but core groups could be identified through a Principal Components Analysis. Family ties may be important in the establishment of core groups. Bachelors succeed in becoming herd stallions when ca. 5 years old.3. The recipient of a threat moving away seems to be an adequate response. Submissive behaviour was only recorded in bachelors. Fighting is rare, with biting as an important element. Compared to plains zebras, sounds made in communication are limited. Social grooming mainly occurs between mare and foal. Grooming intention movements may be an appeasement gesture.4. An oestrus mare assumes a characteristic posture. Flehmen occurs. Urine and faeces of oestrus mares are often marked by the stallion. This cannot be explained functionally and is not restricted to eliminations of oestrus mares. Penis erection and jerking by resting stallions could serve as a warning signal, but may be masturbatory.5. The herd stallion actively herds members of his herd and reduces intraherd antagonism by means of threats. He usually leads when the herd goes to drink and brings up the rear when the herd moves away from danger.6. Play was rarely recorded.7. A challenge ritual is performed when herd stallions meet. When challenged by a herd stallion, a bachelor is submissive.8. Foals initially remain close to their mothers and have to learn the correct orientation when suckling. A single adoption was recorded.9. Individuals apparently recognise each other after long periods.10. Cape mountain zebras react to alarm signals of antelopes.11. The greater part of the day is devoted to grazing. A significantly greater percentage of the day is spent resting in winter than in summer. Cape mountain zebras mainly stand while resting, but resting in sternal or lateral recumbency also occurs. Defaecation and urination occurs throughout the day with no definite peaks.12. Grooming consists of localized muscle contractions, shaking, striking one part of the body against another or against the ground, rubbing, dust-bathing, scratching and nibbling.13. In cold weather, Cape mountain zebras seek shelter in wooded kloofs. Zusammenfassung * 1Bergzebras bilden Familien und Junggesellengruppen. Familien bestehen aus einem Hengst, 15 Stuten und deren Nachwuchs. Harems bleiben jahrelang unverändert. Wird der Hengst verdrängt, so bleiben die Stuten meist zusammen. Es besteht eine Rangordnung, doch führt nicht nur das dominante Tier. Fohlen verlassen die Familie mit durchschnittlich 21,9 Monaten. Der Familienhengst versucht, die Fohlen am Weggehen zu hindern. * 2Junggesellengruppen sind nicht so fest strukturiert wie die Familien, doch lassen sich Kerngruppen durch Hauptkomponentenanalyse identifizieren. Familienbeziehungen können für das Entstehen soldier Kerngruppen wichtig sein. Junggesellen können im Alter von ungefähr 5 Jahren Familienhengste werden. * 3Flucht ist offenbar die ausreichende Reaktion auf Drohung. Unterwürfiges Verhalten wurde nur bei Junggesellen beobachtet. Kämpfe sieht man selten. Bergzebras haben weniger Kommunikationslaute als Steppenzebras. Soziale Hautpflege findet meist zwischen Stute und Fohlen statt. PflegeIntentionsbewegungen können zur Streitschlichtung benutzt werden. * 4Rossige Stuten nehmen eine charakteristische Stellung ein. Flehmen kommt vor. Harn und Kot rossiger Stuten werden oft vom Hengst markiert. Erektion des Penis mit Zuckungen beim ruhenden Hengst kann entweder als Warnsignal oder als Masturbation gedeutet werden. * 5Der Hengst herdet die Mitglieder seiner Familie und bremst innerfamiliäre Aggression durch Drohen. Gewöhnlich führt er die Familie zur Tränke und verläßt als Letzter die Gefahrenzone. * 6Spielen wurde selten beobachtet. * 7Wenn Familienhengste sich treffen, findet ein Herausforderungs-Ritual statt. Junggesellen reagieren unterwürfig, wenn sie so herausgefordert werden. * 8Fohlen bleiben anfangs nahe bei der Mutter. Sie müssen die richtige Orientierung beim Säugen erlernen. Eine Adoption wurde registriert. * 9Individuen scheinen sich nach langer Zeit wiederzuerkennen. * 10Bergzebras reagieren auf die Alarmsignale von Antilopen. * 11Der größte Teil des Tages wird zum Grasen gebraucht. Im Winter gibt es signifikant längere Ruheperioden als im Sommer. Bergzebras ruhen meist stehend. Exkremente werden den ganzen Tag über ausgeschieden. Zur Körperpflege gehören örtliche Muskelkontraktionen, Schütteln, Schlagen eines Körperteils gegen einen anderen oder gegen den Boden, Reiben, Staubbaden, Kratzen und Knabbern. * 12Bei kaltem Wetter suchen Bergzebras in bewaldeten Schluchten Schutz.  
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  Publisher Blackwell Publishing Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
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  ISSN 1439-0310 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5339  
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Author Hemelrijk C K url  openurl
  Title (up) A matrix partial correlation test used in investigations of reciprocity and other social interaction patterns at group level Type
  Year 1990 Publication Journal of theoretical biology Abbreviated Journal J. Theor. Biol.  
  Volume 143 Issue 3 Pages 405-420  
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  Abstract Reciprocity and other social interaction patterns can be studied at two levels, within pairs (i.e. dyadic level) and among pairs (i.e. at group level). In this paper advantages of the latter approach are emphasized. However, an analysis at group level implies the correlation of interaction matrices and because such data are statistically dependent, the significance of a correlation has to be calculated in a special way  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5050  
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