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Author Murray, J.K.; Senior, J.M.; Singer, E.R. openurl 
  Title (up) A comparison of cross-country recovery rates at CCI 2* with and without steeplechase competitions Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl  
  Volume Issue 36 Pages 133-138  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Area Under Curve; Blood Chemical Analysis/veterinary; Blood Gas Analysis/veterinary; Calcium/blood; Heart Rate/physiology; Hematocrit/veterinary; Horses/*blood/*physiology; Lactates/blood; Physical Conditioning, Animal/*methods/*physiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Short format 3-day events were introduced in 2004. Anecdotal reports suggested that horses were more tired on completion of the cross-country phase of short format events when compared with horses completing the cross-country phase of long format competitions, despite the absence of Phases A, B and C. OBJECTIVES: To compare the physiological parameters and haematological parameters of horses that had completed the cross-country phase of a short format (SF) and a long format (LF) CCI 2* competition. METHODS: During a CCI 2* competition 69 competitors took part in the short format and 74 in the long format competition. Long format competitors completed Phases A, B, C and D and short format competitors completed Phase D only. Phase D (the cross-country course) was identical for both competitions. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures and post hoc tests were used to compare temperature, pulse and respiration rates of horses competing in both types of competition. T tests were used to compare mean lactate and electrolyte concentrations, while U-Mann Whitney tests were used to compare CK and AST levels measured in horses competing in the short and long formats of the event. RESULTS: Training schedules, age and previous competition experience were not significantly different between horses competing in the SF and LF competitions. On completion of Phase D, SF horses had significantly higher PCV and significantly lower ionised calcium concentrations when compared with LF horses. LF horses had significantly higher heart rates than SF horses 10 min prior to starting Phase D and immediately after completing Phase D; however, no other significant differences were found between the 2 groups of horses. CONCLUSIONS: Only weak evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the workload for the horse in a SF CCI 2* competition is significantly different when compared to the LF CCI 2* competition. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: There is no beneficial or detrimental effect on horses that complete short format CCI 2* competitions as compared to those that complete long format CCI 2* competitions but further research is required into the physiological response of horses at CCI 3* and CCI 4* short format competitions.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, Langford, Bristol, UK  
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  Notes PMID:17402408 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4011  
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Author Berry, M.P.S openurl 
  Title (up) A comparison of different wildlife production enterprises in the northern Cape Province, South Africa Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Abbreviated Journal S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res.  
  Volume 16 Issue 4 Pages 124-128  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2238  
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Author Lyda, R.O.; Hall, J.R.; Kirkpatrick, J.F. openurl 
  Title (up) A comparison of Freund's Complete and Freund's Modified Adjuvants used with a contraceptive vaccine in wild horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Abbreviated Journal J Zoo Wildl Med  
  Volume 36 Issue 4 Pages 610-616  
  Keywords Animals; Antibody Formation; Contraception, Immunologic/*veterinary; Estrus/drug effects; Female; Freund's Adjuvant/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*immunology; Horses/immunology/*physiology; *Vaccines, Contraceptive; Zona Pellucida/*immunology  
  Abstract Fifteen captive wild mares (Equus caballus) were treated with porcine zona pellucida contraceptive vaccine and either Freund's Complete Adjuvant (n = 7) or Freund's Modified Adjuvant (n = 8). All mares received a booster inoculation of porcine zona pellucida plus Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant a month later. Anti-porcine zona pellucida antibodies were measured over 10 mo following the initial inoculation. There were no significant differences in antibody titers at any point during the 10 mo, and seven of the eight mares in the Freund's Modified Adjuvant group were above the 60% level at the end of the study, which is considered to be the contraceptive threshold for horses. There were no significant differences in titers between pregnant and nonpregnant horses, nor was there a significant correlation between age and titers. One local injection site reaction occurred after booster treatment with Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant, and 11 healthy foals were born during the course of the study. These data suggest that Freund's Modified Adjuvant is an acceptable substitute for Freund's Complete Adjuvant in certain free-ranging and captive wildlife species.  
  Address Science and Conservation Center, 2100 South Shiloh Road, Billings, Montana 59106, USA  
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  ISSN 1042-7260 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:17312717 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 139  
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Author Benson-Amram, S.; Weldele, M.L.; Holekamp, K.E. url  doi
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  Title (up) A comparison of innovative problem-solving abilities between wild and captive spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 85 Issue 2 Pages 349-356  
  Keywords Crocuta crocuta; innovation; neophobia; problem solving; spotted hyaena  
  Abstract Innovative problem solving enables individuals to deal with novel social and ecological challenges. However, our understanding of the importance of innovation for animals in their natural habitat is limited because experimental investigations of innovation have historically focused on captive animals. To determine how captivity affects innovation, and whether captive studies of animal innovation suffer from low external validity, we need experimental investigations of innovation in both wild and captive populations of the same species in diverse taxa. Here we inquired whether wild and captive spotted hyaenas differ in their ability to solve the same novel technical problem, and in the diversity of exploratory behaviours they exhibit when first interacting with the problem. Our results suggest that wild and captive populations show important differences in their innovative problem-solving abilities. Captive hyaenas were significantly more successful at solving the novel problem, and significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviour, than were wild hyaenas. We were able to rule out hypotheses suggesting that these differences result from excess energy or time available to captive animals. We conclude that captive hyaenas were more successful because captive individuals were less neophobic and more exploratory than their wild counterparts. These results have important implications for our interpretation of studies on innovative problem solving in captive animals and aid our attempts to gain a broader understanding of the importance of innovation for animals in their natural habitat.  
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  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5657  
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Author Hoover, T.S.; Marshall, T.T. url  openurl
  Title (up) A comparison of learning styles and demographic characteristics of students enrolled in selected animal science courses Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 76 Issue 12 Pages 3169-3173  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2939  
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Author Klingel H, openurl 
  Title (up) A comparison of the Social Behaviour of the Equidae. in Geist V & Walther FR (eds): The Behaviour of Ungulates and its Relation to Management Type Journal Article
  Year 1974 Publication Abbreviated Journal IUCN Publ  
  Volume Issue Pages 124-132  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1302  
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Author Klingel H, openurl 
  Title (up) A Comparison of the Social Organization of the Equids. in Denniston RH (ed) Type Conference Volume
  Year 1980 Publication Symposium on the Ecology and Behavior of Wild and Feral Equids, Laramie 1979 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 23-30  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1315  
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Author Ernst, K.; Puppe, B.; Schon, P.C.; Manteuffel, G. url  openurl
  Title (up) A complex automatic feeding system for pigs aimed to induce successful behavioural coping by cognitive adaptation Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 91 Issue 3-4 Pages 205-218  
  Keywords Learning; Cognition; Reward; Welfare; Pig  
  Abstract In modern intensive husbandry systems there is an increasing tendency for animals to interact with technical equipment. If the animal-technology interface is well-designed this may improve animal welfare by offering challenges for cognitive adaptation. Here a system and its application is presented that acoustically calls individual pigs out of a group (n = 8) to a feeding station. In three different learning phases, the computer-controlled “call-feeding-station” (CFS) trained the animals to recognize a specific acoustic signal as a summons for food, using a combination of classical and operant conditioning techniques. The experimental group's stall contained four CFSs, at each of which one animal at a time was able to feed. When an animal had learned to discriminate and recognize its individual acoustic signal it had to localize the particular CFS that was calling and to enter inside it. Then, it received a portion of feed, the amount of which was adapted to the respective age of the animals. Each animal was called at several, unpredictable times each day and the computer programme ensured that the total feed supply was sufficient for each animal. In the last phase of the experiment the animals, in addition, had to press a button with an increasing fixed ratio for the delivery of feed. It was demonstrated that the pigs were able to adapt quickly to the CFSs. Although they were challenged over 12 h daily by requirements of attention, sensory localization and motor efforts to gain comparatively low amounts of feed, they performed well and reached fairly constant success rates between 90 and 95% and short delays between 14 and 16 s between a summons and the food release in the last phase of the experiment. The weight gain during the experiment was the same as in a conventionally fed control group (n = 8). We therefore conclude that CFSs present a positive challenge to the animals with no negative effects on performance but with a potentially beneficial role for welfare and against boredom. The system is also a suitable experimental platform for research on the effects of successful adaptation by rewarded cognitive processes in pigs.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2898  
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Author Brosnan, S.F.; de Waal, F.B.M. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A concept of value during experimental exchange in brown capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Folia primatologica; international journal of primatology Abbreviated Journal Folia Primatol (Basel)  
  Volume 75 Issue 5 Pages 317-330  
  Keywords Animals; Cebus/*psychology; *Choice Behavior; Female; Food Preferences; *Learning; Male; Sex Factors; Statistics, Nonparametric; *Token Economy; Video Recording  
  Abstract We evaluated the response of brown capuchin monkeys to two differentially valued tokens in an experimental exchange situation akin to a simple barter. Monkeys were given a series of three tests to evaluate their ability to associate tokens with food, then their responses were examined in a barter situation in which tokens were either limited or unlimited. Capuchins did not perform barter in the typical sense, returning the tokens which were associated with the reward. However, females, but not males, showed a different response, preferring the higher-value token. This may indicate that they learned to prefer one token over the other rather than to associate the tokens with their specific rewards. This sex difference parallels previous findings of greater reciprocity in female brown capuchins than in males.  
  Address Living Links Center, Emory University, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 N. Gatewood Drive, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. sbrosna@emory.edu  
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  ISSN 0015-5713 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:15486443 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 170  
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Author Hinde, R.A. openurl 
  Title (up) A conceptural framework Type Book Chapter
  Year 1983 Publication Primate Social Relationships Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-7  
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  Publisher Sinauer, Sunderland Place of Publication Massechusetts Editor Hinde, R.A  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 818  
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