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Author Wilson, M.T.; Ranson, R.J.; Masiakowski, P.; Czarnecka, E.; Brunori, M. openurl 
  Title (up) A kinetic study of the pH-dependent properties of the ferric undecapeptide of cytochrome c (microperoxidase) Type Journal Article
  Year 1977 Publication European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS Abbreviated Journal Eur J Biochem  
  Volume 77 Issue 1 Pages 193-199  
  Keywords Animals; Cyanides; *Cytochrome c Group/metabolism; Ferric Compounds; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Imidazoles; Kinetics; Mathematics; Myocardium/enzymology; *Oligopeptides/metabolism; *Peptide Fragments/metabolism; Protein Binding; Spectrophotometry; Temperature  
  Abstract The ferric form of the haem undecapeptide, derived from horse cytochrome c by peptic digestion, undergoes at least three pH-induced transitions with pK values of 3.4, 5.8 and 7.6. Temperature-jump experiments suggest that the first of these is due to the binding of a deprotonated imidazole group to the feric iron while the second and third arise from the binding of the two available amino groups present (the alpha-NH2 of valine and the epsilon-NH2 of lysine). Molecular models indicate that steric retraints on the peptide dictate that these amino groups may only coordinate to iron atoms via intermolecular bonds, thus leading to the polymerization of the peptide. Cyanide binding studies are in agreement with these conclusions and also yield a value of 3.6 X 10(6) M-1 s-1 for the intrinsic combination constant of CN- anion with the haem. A model is proposed which describes the pH-dependent properties of the ferric undecapeptide.  
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  ISSN 0014-2956 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:20304 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3814  
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Author Brandt, K. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A Language of Their Own: An Interactionist Approach to Human-Horse Communication Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Society and Animals Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 299-316  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This paper explores the process of human-horse communication using ethnographic data of in-depth interviews and participant observation. Guided by symbolic interactionism, the paper argues that humans and horses co-create a language system by way of the body to facilitate the creation of shared meaning. This research challenges the privileged status of verbal language and suggests that non-verbal communication and language systems of the body have their own unique complexities. This investigation of humanhorse communication offers new possibilities to understand the subjective and intersubjective world of non-verbal language using beings-human and nonhuman alike.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4386  
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Author Biegler, R.; McGregor, A.; Krebs, J.R.; Healy, S.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A larger hippocampus is associated with longer-lasting spatial memory Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 6941-6944  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Volumetric studies in a range of animals (London taxi-drivers, polygynous male voles, nest-parasitic female cowbirds, and a number of food-storing birds) have shown that the size of the hippocampus, a brain region essential to learning and memory, is correlated with tasks involving an extra demand for spatial learning and memory. In this paper, we report the quantitative advantage that food storers gain from such an enlargement. Coal tits () a food-storing species, performed better than great tits (), a nonstoring species, on a task that assessed memory persistence but not on a task that assessed memory resolution or on one that tested memory capacity. These results show that the advantage to the food-storing species associated with an enlarged hippocampus is one of memory persistence.  
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  Notes 10.1073/pnas.121034798 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4743  
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Author Wittemyer, G.; Getz, W.M. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A likely ranking interpolation for resolving dominance orders in systems with unknown relationships Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Behaviour  
  Volume 143 Issue 7 Pages 909-930  
  Keywords DOMINANCE HIERARCHY; ALGORITH; SOCIAL AGONISTIC INTERACTIONS  
  Abstract n many animal systems agonistic interactions may be rare or not overt, particularly where such interactions are costly or of high risk as is common for large mammals. We present a technique developed specifically for resolving an optimized dominance order of individuals in systems with transitive (i.e. linear) dominance relationships, but where not all relationships are known. Our method augments the widely used I&SI method (de Vries, 1998) with an interpolation function for resolving the relative ranks of individuals with unknown relationships. Our method offers several advantages over other dominance methods by enabling the incorporation of any proportion of unknown relationships, resolving a unique solution to any dominance matrix, and calculating cardinal dominance strengths for each individual. As such, this method enables novel insight into difficult to study behavioural systems.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 438  
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Author Penzhorn Bl, openurl 
  Title (up) A long – term study of social organisation and bhabiour of Cape mountain zebras Type Journal Article
  Year 1984 Publication Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie Abbreviated Journal Z. Tierpsychol.  
  Volume 64 Issue Pages 97-146  
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  Notes from Professor Hans Klingels Equine Reference List Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1455  
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Author Penzhorn, B.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A Long-term Study of Social Organisation and Behaviour of Cape Mountain Zebras Equus zebra zebra Type Journal Article
  Year 1984 Publication Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie Abbreviated Journal Z. Tierpsychol.  
  Volume 64 Issue 2 Pages 97-146  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Abstract and Summary 1. The social structure of Cape mountain zebras consists of breeding herds and bachelor groups. The breeding herds, which comprise 1 stallion, 15 mares and their offspring, remain stable over many years. When the stallion is displaced by another the mares usually remain together, although some herds split up. A dominance hierarchy exists, but leadership is not confined to the dominant member. Foals leave their maternal herds at a mean age of 21.9 months. The herd stallion tries to prevent foals from leaving the herd.2. Bachelor groups are not as rigidly structured as breeding herds but core groups could be identified through a Principal Components Analysis. Family ties may be important in the establishment of core groups. Bachelors succeed in becoming herd stallions when ca. 5 years old.3. The recipient of a threat moving away seems to be an adequate response. Submissive behaviour was only recorded in bachelors. Fighting is rare, with biting as an important element. Compared to plains zebras, sounds made in communication are limited. Social grooming mainly occurs between mare and foal. Grooming intention movements may be an appeasement gesture.4. An oestrus mare assumes a characteristic posture. Flehmen occurs. Urine and faeces of oestrus mares are often marked by the stallion. This cannot be explained functionally and is not restricted to eliminations of oestrus mares. Penis erection and jerking by resting stallions could serve as a warning signal, but may be masturbatory.5. The herd stallion actively herds members of his herd and reduces intraherd antagonism by means of threats. He usually leads when the herd goes to drink and brings up the rear when the herd moves away from danger.6. Play was rarely recorded.7. A challenge ritual is performed when herd stallions meet. When challenged by a herd stallion, a bachelor is submissive.8. Foals initially remain close to their mothers and have to learn the correct orientation when suckling. A single adoption was recorded.9. Individuals apparently recognise each other after long periods.10. Cape mountain zebras react to alarm signals of antelopes.11. The greater part of the day is devoted to grazing. A significantly greater percentage of the day is spent resting in winter than in summer. Cape mountain zebras mainly stand while resting, but resting in sternal or lateral recumbency also occurs. Defaecation and urination occurs throughout the day with no definite peaks.12. Grooming consists of localized muscle contractions, shaking, striking one part of the body against another or against the ground, rubbing, dust-bathing, scratching and nibbling.13. In cold weather, Cape mountain zebras seek shelter in wooded kloofs. Zusammenfassung * 1Bergzebras bilden Familien und Junggesellengruppen. Familien bestehen aus einem Hengst, 15 Stuten und deren Nachwuchs. Harems bleiben jahrelang unverändert. Wird der Hengst verdrängt, so bleiben die Stuten meist zusammen. Es besteht eine Rangordnung, doch führt nicht nur das dominante Tier. Fohlen verlassen die Familie mit durchschnittlich 21,9 Monaten. Der Familienhengst versucht, die Fohlen am Weggehen zu hindern. * 2Junggesellengruppen sind nicht so fest strukturiert wie die Familien, doch lassen sich Kerngruppen durch Hauptkomponentenanalyse identifizieren. Familienbeziehungen können für das Entstehen soldier Kerngruppen wichtig sein. Junggesellen können im Alter von ungefähr 5 Jahren Familienhengste werden. * 3Flucht ist offenbar die ausreichende Reaktion auf Drohung. Unterwürfiges Verhalten wurde nur bei Junggesellen beobachtet. Kämpfe sieht man selten. Bergzebras haben weniger Kommunikationslaute als Steppenzebras. Soziale Hautpflege findet meist zwischen Stute und Fohlen statt. PflegeIntentionsbewegungen können zur Streitschlichtung benutzt werden. * 4Rossige Stuten nehmen eine charakteristische Stellung ein. Flehmen kommt vor. Harn und Kot rossiger Stuten werden oft vom Hengst markiert. Erektion des Penis mit Zuckungen beim ruhenden Hengst kann entweder als Warnsignal oder als Masturbation gedeutet werden. * 5Der Hengst herdet die Mitglieder seiner Familie und bremst innerfamiliäre Aggression durch Drohen. Gewöhnlich führt er die Familie zur Tränke und verläßt als Letzter die Gefahrenzone. * 6Spielen wurde selten beobachtet. * 7Wenn Familienhengste sich treffen, findet ein Herausforderungs-Ritual statt. Junggesellen reagieren unterwürfig, wenn sie so herausgefordert werden. * 8Fohlen bleiben anfangs nahe bei der Mutter. Sie müssen die richtige Orientierung beim Säugen erlernen. Eine Adoption wurde registriert. * 9Individuen scheinen sich nach langer Zeit wiederzuerkennen. * 10Bergzebras reagieren auf die Alarmsignale von Antilopen. * 11Der größte Teil des Tages wird zum Grasen gebraucht. Im Winter gibt es signifikant längere Ruheperioden als im Sommer. Bergzebras ruhen meist stehend. Exkremente werden den ganzen Tag über ausgeschieden. Zur Körperpflege gehören örtliche Muskelkontraktionen, Schütteln, Schlagen eines Körperteils gegen einen anderen oder gegen den Boden, Reiben, Staubbaden, Kratzen und Knabbern. * 12Bei kaltem Wetter suchen Bergzebras in bewaldeten Schluchten Schutz.  
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  Publisher Blackwell Publishing Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1439-0310 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5339  
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Author Hemelrijk C K url  openurl
  Title (up) A matrix partial correlation test used in investigations of reciprocity and other social interaction patterns at group level Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication Journal of theoretical biology Abbreviated Journal J. Theor. Biol.  
  Volume 143 Issue 3 Pages 405-420  
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  Abstract Reciprocity and other social interaction patterns can be studied at two levels, within pairs (i.e. dyadic level) and among pairs (i.e. at group level). In this paper advantages of the latter approach are emphasized. However, an analysis at group level implies the correlation of interaction matrices and because such data are statistically dependent, the significance of a correlation has to be calculated in a special way  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5050  
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Author Rogers, L.J. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A Matter of Degree: Strength of Brain Asymmetry and Behaviour Type EJOU
  Year 2017 Publication Symmetry Abbreviated Journal Symmetry  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords functional asymmetry; strength of lateralization; direction of lateralization; advantages; disadvantages; vertebrate species; limb preference; eye bias  
  Abstract Research on a growing number of vertebrate species has shown that the left and right sides of the brain process information in different ways and that lateralized brain function is expressed in both specific and broad aspects of behaviour. This paper reviews the available evidence relating strength of lateralization to behavioural/cognitive performance. It begins by considering the relationship between limb preference and behaviour in humans and primates from the perspectives of direction and strength of lateralization. In birds, eye preference is used as a reflection of brain asymmetry and the strength of this asymmetry is associated with behaviour important for survival (e.g., visual discrimination of food from non-food and performance of two tasks in parallel). The same applies to studies on aquatic species, mainly fish but also tadpoles, in which strength of lateralization has been assessed as eye preferences or turning biases. Overall, the empirical evidence across vertebrate species points to the conclusion that stronger lateralization is advantageous in a wide range of contexts. Brief discussion of interhemispheric communication follows together with discussion of experiments that examined the effects of sectioning pathways connecting the left and right sides of the brain, or of preventing the development of these left-right connections. The conclusion reached is that degree of functional lateralization affects behaviour in quite similar ways across vertebrate species. Although the direction of lateralization is also important, in many situations strength of lateralization matters more. Finally, possible interactions between asymmetry in different sensory modalities is considered.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Symmetry  
  Series Volume 9 Series Issue 4 Edition  
  ISSN 2073-8994 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6167  
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Author Sibbald, A.M.; Elston, D.A.; Smith, D.J.F.; Erhard, H.W. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A method for assessing the relative sociability of individuals within groups: an example with grazing sheep Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 91 Issue 1-2 Pages 57-73  
  Keywords Association; Grazing; Nearest neighbour; Sheep; Sociability; Social behaviour  
  Abstract We describe a method for quantifying relative sociability within a group of animals, which is defined as the tendency to be close to others within the group and based on the identification of nearest neighbours. The method is suitable for groups of animals in which all individuals are visible and identifiable and has application as a tool in other areas of behavioural research. A sociability index (SI) is calculated, which is equivalent to the relative proportion of time that an individual spends as the nearest neighbour of other animals in the group and is scaled to have an expectation of 1.0 under the null hypothesis of random mixing. Associated pairs, which are animals seen as nearest neighbours more often than would be expected by chance, are also identified. The method tests for consistency across a number of independent observation periods, by comparison with values obtained from simulations in which animal identities are randomised between observation periods. An experiment is described in which 8 groups of 7 grazing sheep were each observed for a total of 10, one-hour periods and the identities and distances away of the 3 nearest neighbours of each focal animal recorded at 5-min intervals. Significant within-group differences in SIs were found in four of the groups (P < 0.001). SIs calculated using the nearest neighbour, two nearest neighbours or three nearest neighbours, were generally highly correlated within all groups, with little change in the ranking of animals. There were significant negative correlations between SIs and nearest neighbour distances in five of the groups. It was concluded that there was no advantage in recording more than one neighbour to calculate the SI. Advantages of the SI over other methods for measuring sociability and pair-wise associations are discussed.  
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 317  
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Author Boyd, R.; Silk, J.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A method for assigning cardinal dominance ranks Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 45-58  
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  Abstract Dominance hierarchies are widely described in nature. Commonly, an individual's ordinal rank is used as a measure of its position in the hierarchy, and, therefore its priority of access to resources. This use of ordinal ranks has several related drawbacks: (1) it is difficult to assess the magnitude or the significance of the difference in degree of dominance between two individuals; (2) it is difficult to evaluate the significance of differences between dominance matrices based on different behaviours or on the same behaviour at different times, and (3) it is difficult to use parametric statistical techniques to relate dominance rank to other quantities of interest. In this paper we describe a method for assigning cardinal dominance indices that does not suffer from these drawbacks. This technique is based on the Bradley-Terry model from the method of paired comparisons. We show how this model can be reinterpreted in terms of dominance interactions. and we describe a simple iterative technique for computing cardinal ranks. We then describe how to evaluate (1) whether the rank differences between individuals are significant, and (2) whether differences in the cardinal hierarchies based on different behaviours or the same behaviour at different times are significant. We then show how to generalize the method to deal with behaviours that sometimes have ambiguous outcomes, or behaviours for which the rank difference between a pair of individuals affects the rate of interaction between them.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 859  
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