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Author Ajie, B.C.; Pintor, L.M.; Watters, J.; Kerby, J.L.; Hammond, J.I.; Sih, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A framework for determining the fitness consequences of antipredator behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol.  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 267-270  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Behavioral ecologists have long been interested in understanding the adaptive value of antipredator behavior (Sih 1987Go; Lima and Dill 1990Go; Lima 1998Go). A recent review by Lind and Cresswell (2005)Go, however, noted some important difficulties with quantifying the fitness consequences of antipredator behaviors. In essence, Lind and Cresswell suggest that most studies do not provide strong evidence on the adaptive value of antipredator behavior because they do not consider 1) trade-offs between antipredator and reproductive performance, 2) the abilities of organisms to avoid fitness losses associated with constraints on focal traits by employing behavioral alternatives (behavioral compensation), and 3) the effects of behavioral defenses at different stages of the predation sequence. The authors rightfully assert that an understanding of these issues can only be accomplished by measuring multiple traits and fitness components (i.e., survival and reproduction). Nevertheless, the question of how to integrate such data into  
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  Notes 10.1093/beheco/arl064 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4087  
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Author Matsumura, S.; Kobayashi, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A game model for dominance relations among group-living animals Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.  
  Volume 42 Issue 2 Pages 77-84  
  Keywords Dominance – Hawk-dove games – Resource-holding potential – Asymmetry – Evolutionarily stable strategy  
  Abstract Abstract   We present here an attempt to understand behaviors of dominant individuals and of subordinate individuals as behavior strategies in an asymmetric “hawk-dove” game. We assume that contestants have perfect information about relative fighting ability and the value of the resource. Any type of asymmetry, both relevant to and irrelevant to the fighting ability, can be considered. It is concluded that evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs) depend on the resource value (V), the cost of injury (D), and the probability that the individual in one role will win (x). Different ESSs can exist even when values of V, D, and x are the same. The characteristics of dominance relations detected by observers may result from the ESSs that the individuals are adopting. The model explains some characteristics of dominance relations, for example, the consistent outcome of contests, the rare occurrence of escalated fights, and the discrepancy between resource holding potential (RHP) and dominance relations, from the viewpoint of individual selection.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5102  
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Author Parker, S.T. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A general model for the adaptive function of self-knowledge in animals and humans Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Consciousness and Cognition Abbreviated Journal Conscious Cogn  
  Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 75-86  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Animals; *Awareness; Concept Formation; Evolution; Humans; Phylogeny; *Self Concept; Species Specificity  
  Abstract This article offers a general definition of self-knowledge that embraces all forms and levels of self-knowledge in animals and humans. It is hypothesized that various levels of self-knowledge constitute an ordinal scale such that each species in a lineage displays the forms of self-knowledge found in related species as well as new forms it and its sister species may have evolved. Likewise, it is hypothesized that these various forms of levels of self-knowledge develop in the sequence in which they evolved. Finally, a general hypothesis for the functional significance of self-knowledge is proposed along with subhypotheses regarding the adaptive significance of various levels of self-knowledge in mammals including human and nonhuman primates. The general hypothesis is that self-knowledge serves as a standard for assessing the qualities of conspecifics compared to those of the self. Such assessment is crucial to deciding among alternative reproductive and subsistence strategies. The qualities that are assessed, which vary across taxa, range from the size and strength of the self to its mathematical or musical abilities. This so-called assessment model of self-knowledge is based on evolutionary biological models for social selection and the role of assessment in animal communication.  
  Address Anthropology Department, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California, USA. Parker@Sonoma.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1053-8100 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:9170562 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4160  
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Author Figueredo, A.J.; Cox, R.L.; Rhine, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A Generalizability Analysis of Subjective Personality Assessments in the Stumptail Macaque and the Zebra Finch Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Multivariate Behavioral Research Abbreviated Journal Multivariate Behav Res  
  Volume 30 Issue 2 Pages 167-197  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Psychometric findings are reported from two studies concerning the construct validity, temporal stability, and interrater reliability of the latent common factors underlying subjective assessments by human raters of personality traits in two nonhuman animal species: (a) the Stumptail macaque (Maraca arctoides), a cercopithecine monkey; and (b) the Zebra finch (Poephila guttata), an estrildid songbird. Because most theories of animal personality have historically implied that certain personality constructs should be relatively universal across taxa, parallel analyses of similar data are reported for two phylogenetically distant species of subject using the same psychometric methods. Each of the samples was drawn from a socially-housed colony of the same species: that of macaques consisted of 5 mature adult fem ales and 8 of their adult offspring and that of finches consisted of 5 adult individuals. A modified version of the 1978 Stevenson-Hinde and Zunz (SHZ) list of personality items was applied to the macaques at various times during the eight years from 1980-1988 and to the finches during 1992. This study also used the three SHZ scales – Confident, Excitable, and Sociable – originally derived from principal components. Generalizability analyses were used to assess the construct validity, temporal stability, and interrater reliability of the hypothesized factors. Both Stumptail macaques and Zebra finches manifest measurable personality factors that are highly valid across multiple items, stable across multiple years, and reliable across multiple raters. The same model fits both species, as predicted by theory. The construct validity of the factors is slightly higher for the finches than for the macaques, although the interrater reliability is somewhat lower. This study illustrates how generalizability analysis can be used to test prespecified confirmatory factor models when the number of individual subjects is quite small.  
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  Publisher Psychology Press Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-3171 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5169  
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Author Shapiro, A.D.; Janik, V.M.; Slater, P.J.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A gray seal's (Halichoerus grypus) responses to experimenter-given pointing and directional cues Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Journal of Comparative Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Psychol  
  Volume 117 Issue 4 Pages 355-362  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Cognition/physiology; Conditioning, Operant/physiology; *Cues; Eye Movements/physiology; Female; Seals, Earless  
  Abstract A gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) was trained to touch a target on its left or right by responding to pointing signals. The authors then tested whether the seal would be able to generalize spontaneously to altered signals. It responded correctly to center pointing and head turning, center upper body turning, and off-center pointing but not to head turning and eye movements alone. The seal also responded correctly to brief ipsilateral and contralateral points from center and lateral positions. Pointing gestures did not cause the seal to select an object placed centrally behind it. Like many animals in similar studies, this gray seal probably did not understand the referential character of these gestures but rather used signal generalization and experience from initial operant conditioning to solve these tasks.  
  Address School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Washington, D.C. : 1983 Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0735-7036 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:14717636 Approved yes  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4977  
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Author Bell, R.H.V. openurl 
  Title (up) A grazing ecosystem in the Serengeti Type Journal Article
  Year 1971 Publication Scientific American Abbreviated Journal Sci Am  
  Volume 225 Issue 1 Pages 86-93  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2224  
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Author Tang, Akaysha C. isbn  openurl
  Title (up) A hippocampal theory of cerebral lateralization. Type Book Chapter
  Year 2003 Publication The asymmetrical brain Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 37-68  
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  Publisher MIT Press Place of Publication Massechusetts Editor Hugdahl K. and Davidson R.J.  
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  ISSN ISBN 0-262-58254-6 Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5753  
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Author Ikeda, M.; Patterson, K.; Graham, K.S.; Ralph, M.A.L.; Hodges, J.R. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A horse of a different colour: do patients with semantic dementia recognise different versions of the same object as the same? Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Neuropsychologia Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychologia  
  Volume 44 Issue 4 Pages 566-575  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Anomia/diagnosis/psychology; Atrophy; *Attention; Color Perception; Dementia/*diagnosis/psychology; *Discrimination Learning; Dominance, Cerebral; Female; Humans; Male; *Memory, Short-Term; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests; Orientation; *Pattern Recognition, Visual; Reference Values; Retention (Psychology); Semantics; Size Perception; Temporal Lobe/pathology  
  Abstract Ten patients with semantic dementia resulting from bilateral anterior temporal lobe atrophy, and 10 matched controls, were tested on an object recognition task in which they were invited to choose (from a four-item array) the picture representing “the same thing” as an object picture that they had just inspected and attempted to name. The target in the response array was never physically identical to the studied picture but differed from it – in the various conditions – in size, angle of view, colour or exemplar (e.g. a different breed of dog). In one test block for each patient, the response array was presented immediately after the studied picture was removed; in another block, a 2 min filled delay was inserted between study and test. The patients performed relatively well when the studied object and target response differed only in the size of the picture on the page, but were significantly impaired as a group in the other three type-of-change conditions, even with no delay between study and test. The five patients whose structural brain imaging revealed major right-temporal atrophy were more impaired overall, and also more affected by the 2 min delay, than the five patients with an asymmetric pattern characterised by predominant left-sided atrophy. These results are interpreted in terms of a hypothesis that successful classification of an object token as an object type is not a pre-semantic ability but rather results from interaction of perceptual and conceptual processing.  
  Address Department of Neuropsychiatry, Ehime University School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon City, Ehime 791-0295, Japan. mikeda@m.ehime-u.ac.jp  
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  ISSN 0028-3932 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16115656 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4059  
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Author Dunbar, K.; MacLeod, C.M. openurl 
  Title (up) A horse race of a different color: Stroop interference patterns with transformed words Type Journal Article
  Year 1984 Publication Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance Abbreviated Journal J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform  
  Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 622-639  
  Keywords *Attention; *Color Perception; Discrimination Learning; Humans; Orientation; Reaction Time; Reading; *Semantics  
  Abstract Four experiments investigated Stroop interference using geometrically transformed words. Over experiments, reading was made increasingly difficult by manipulating orientation uncertainty and the number of noncolor words. As a consequence, time to read color words aloud increased dramatically. Yet, even when reading a color word was considerably slower than naming the color of ink in which the word was printed, Stroop interference persisted virtually unaltered. This result is incompatible with the simple horse race model widely used to explain color-word interference. When reading became extremely slow, a reversed Stroop effect--interference in reading the word due to an incongruent ink color--appeared for one transformation together with the standard Stroop interference. Whether or not the concept of automaticity is invoked, relative speed of processing the word versus the color does not provide an adequate overall explanation of the Stroop phenomenon.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0096-1523 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:6238123 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4065  
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Author Ferrero, D.M.; Moeller, L.M.; Osakada, T.; Horio, N.; Li, Q.; Roy, D.S.; Cichy, A.; Spehr, M.; Touhara, K.; Liberles, S.D. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A juvenile mouse pheromone inhibits sexual behaviour through the vomeronasal system Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 502 Issue 7471 Pages 368-371  
  Keywords Pheromone Olfactory receptors  
  Abstract Animals display a repertoire of different social behaviours. Appropriate behavioural responses depend on sensory input received during social interactions. In mice, social behaviour is driven by pheromones, chemical signals that encode information related to age, sex and physiological state1. However, although mice show different social behaviours towards adults, juveniles and neonates, sensory cues that enable specific recognition of juvenile mice are unknown. Here we describe a juvenile pheromone produced by young mice before puberty, termed exocrine-gland secreting peptide 22 (ESP22). ESP22 is secreted from the lacrimal gland and released into tears of 2- to 3-week-old mice. Upon detection, ESP22 activates high-affinity sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ, and downstream limbic neurons in the medial amygdala. Recombinant ESP22, painted on mice, exerts a powerful inhibitory effect on adult male mating behaviour, which is abolished in knockout mice lacking TRPC2, a key signalling component of the vomeronasal organ2, 3. Furthermore, knockout of TRPC2 or loss of ESP22 production results in increased sexual behaviour of adult males towards juveniles, and sexual responses towards ESP22-deficient juveniles are suppressed by ESP22 painting. Thus, we describe a pheromone of sexually immature mice that controls an innate social behaviour, a response pathway through the accessory olfactory system and a new role for vomeronasal organ signalling in inhibiting sexual behaviour towards young. These findings provide a molecular framework for understanding how a sensory system can regulate behaviour.  
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  Publisher Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5732  
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