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Author Nicol, C.J.; Potzsch, C.; Lewis, K.; Green, L.E. openurl 
  Title Matched concurrent case-control study of risk factors for feather pecking in hens on free-range commercial farms in the UK Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication British poultry science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci  
  Volume 44 Issue 4 Pages 515-523  
  Keywords *Aggression; Analysis of Variance; Animal Husbandry/methods; Animals; Case-Control Studies; Chickens/*physiology; Feathers; Female; Multivariate Analysis; Odds Ratio; Regression Analysis; Species Specificity  
  Abstract 1. The aim of the study was to compare the management and husbandry of free-range flocks in the UK where feather pecking was either present (case) or absent (control). 2. One hundred flocks were enrolled into a concurrent case-control study: 50 where birds had recently started feather pecking, and 50 matched control flocks where birds of the same age had not started feather pecking. 3. Information was obtained from a detailed interview with the flock manager, and by direct inspection of the flock, house and range. 4. Initial univariate analyses revealed that case flocks were more likely to comprise ISA Brown than Lohmann, were more likely to be restricted from litter areas to prevent floor eggs, and were less likely to use the outside range. 5. Cluster analysis indicated that feather pecking was not associated with any particular husbandry system. 6. The only influential risk factor significant in the multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis was use of the outdoor range. The risk of feather pecking was reduced 9-fold in flocks where more than 20% of birds used the range on sunny days (odds ratio = 0.12). Use of the range was positively associated with the presence of trees and/or hedges on the range.  
  Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, England. c.j.nicol@bris.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:14584840 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 79  
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Author Albentosa, M.J.; Kjaer, J.B.; Nicol, C.J. openurl 
  Title Strain and age differences in behaviour, fear response and pecking tendency in laying hens Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication British poultry science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci  
  Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 333-344  
  Keywords Age Factors; Aggression/*physiology; Animal Husbandry; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Breeding; Chickens/genetics/*physiology; Fear/*physiology; Feathers/*injuries; Female; Housing, Animal; Population Density; Social Behavior  
  Abstract 1. Behaviours associated with a high or low tendency to feather peck could be used as predictors of feather pecking behaviour in selective breeding programmes. This study investigated how strain and age at testing influenced responses in behavioural tests. 2. Four layer-type strains (ISA Brown, Columbian Blacktail, Ixworth and a high feather pecking (HP) and a low feather pecking (LP) line of White Leghorn) were reared in 6 same-strain/line pens of 8 birds from one day old. Birds in half the pens were given an open field test, a novel object test and a test with loose feather bundles between 4 and 12 weeks of age and a tonic immobility (TI) test at 13 weeks of age. All pens were tested with fixed feather bundles at 26 weeks, and undisturbed behaviour in the home pens was videoed at 1 and 27 weeks of age. Daily records of plumage damage were used as an indicator of feather pecking activity in the home pens. 3. Strain did not influence novel object test, open field test or loose feather test behaviour, although age effects in all three tests indicated a reduction in fearfulness and/or an increase in exploratory behaviour with increasing age. 4. White Leghorns showed longer TI durations than the other strains but less pecking at fixed feather bundles than ISA Browns and Columbian Blacktails. 5. There were few associations between behaviour in the 5 different tests, indicating that birds did not have overall behavioural traits that were consistent across different contexts. This suggests hens cannot easily be categorised into different behavioural 'types', based on their test responses and casts doubt on the usefulness of tests as predictors of feather pecking.  
  Address Centre for Behavioural Biology, Division of Farm Animal Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol, England. MAlbentosa@lincoln.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:13677322 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 80  
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Author Gavrilova, O.; Haluzik, M.; Matsusue, K.; Cutson, J.J.; Johnson, L.; Dietz, K.R.; Nicol, C.J.; Vinson, C.; Gonzalez, F.J.; Reitman, M.L. doi  openurl
  Title Liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma contributes to hepatic steatosis, triglyceride clearance, and regulation of body fat mass Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication The Journal of biological chemistry Abbreviated Journal J Biol Chem  
  Volume 278 Issue 36 Pages 34268-34276  
  Keywords Adipose Tissue/*metabolism; Animals; Blotting, Southern; Blotting, Western; Female; Hypoglycemia/genetics; Insulin Resistance/genetics; Lipid Metabolism; Liver/*metabolism; Liver Diseases/genetics/*metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Mice, Transgenic; RNA/metabolism; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/*genetics/*physiology; Recombination, Genetic; Thiazoles/pharmacology; *Thiazolidinediones; Time Factors; Transcription Factors/*genetics/*physiology; Triglycerides/*metabolism  
  Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor that mediates the antidiabetic effects of thiazolidinediones. PPAR gamma is present in adipose tissue and becomes elevated in fatty livers, but the roles of specific tissues in thiazolidinedione actions are unclear. We studied the function of liver PPAR gamma in both lipoatrophic A-ZIP/F-1 (AZIP) and wild type mice. In AZIP mice, ablation of liver PPAR gamma reduced the hepatic steatosis but worsened the hyperlipidemia, triglyceride clearance, and muscle insulin resistance. Inactivation of AZIP liver PPAR gamma also abolished the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of rosiglitazone, demonstrating that, in the absence of adipose tissue, the liver is a primary and major site of thiazolidinedione action. In contrast, rosiglitazone remained effective in non-lipoatrophic mice lacking liver PPAR gamma, suggesting that adipose tissue is the major site of thiazolidinedione action in typical mice with adipose tissue. Interestingly, mice without liver PPAR gamma, but with adipose tissue, developed relative fat intolerance, increased adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. Thus, liver PPAR gamma regulates triglyceride homeostasis, contributing to hepatic steatosis, but protecting other tissues from triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance.  
  Address Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. oksanag@bdg10.niddk.nih.gov  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-9258 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12805374 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 81  
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Author Freire, R.; Wilkins, L.J.; Short, F.; Nicol, C.J. openurl 
  Title Behaviour and welfare of individual laying hens in a non-cage system Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication British poultry science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci  
  Volume 44 Issue 1 Pages 22-29  
  Keywords *Animal Welfare; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Chickens; Female; Housing, Animal/*standards; Oviposition  
  Abstract 1. A leg band containing a transponder was fitted to 80 birds in a perchery containing 1,000 birds. 2. The transponder emitted a unique identification number when a bird walked on one of 8 flat antennae on the floor. The recording apparatus was used to measure the amount of time that each of the tagged birds spent on the slatted and littered areas in a 6-week period. 3. Some birds spent long periods of time on the slats, possibly as a means of avoiding repeated attacks. Duration on the slats was greatest in birds with the worst (as opposed to better) feather scores of the head, back and tail regions. 4. Birds that spent long periods on the slats were lighter than other birds at both 39 weeks of age and 72 weeks of age and had greater back, head and tail feather damage, consistent with these birds being victims of pecking. 5. Tagged birds received a social avoidance test outside the perchery at 39 weeks of age, which suggested that birds retreated to the slats in response to pecks rather than just to close proximity to other birds. 6. The failure to find that duration on the slats was related to anatomical indicators of stress (liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius) suggests that retreating to the slats following pecking attenuates physiological stress responses. 7. We conclude that the provision of areas where birds in a large group can avoid pecking may improve the welfare of a minority of victimised birds.  
  Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol, England. rkfreire@hotmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12737221 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 82  
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Author Nicol, C.J.; Davidson, H.P.D.; Harris, P.A.; Waters, A.J.; Wilson, A.D. openurl 
  Title Study of crib-biting and gastric inflammation and ulceration in young horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication The Veterinary record Abbreviated Journal Vet. Rec.  
  Volume 151 Issue 22 Pages 658-662  
  Keywords Animal Husbandry/methods; Animals; Antacids/therapeutic use; *Behavior, Animal; Diet/veterinary; Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/veterinary; Feces/chemistry; Female; Gastritis/diet therapy/physiopathology/*veterinary; Horse Diseases/diet therapy/*physiopathology/psychology; Horses; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Male; Random Allocation; Stereotyped Behavior/*physiology; Stomach Ulcer/diet therapy/physiopathology/*veterinary; Treatment Outcome; Weaning  
  Abstract Nineteen young horses that had recently started to perform the stereotypy of crib-biting were compared with 16 non-stereotypic horses for 14 weeks. After initial observations of their behaviour and an endoscopic examination of the condition of their stomachs, the horses were randomly allocated to a control or an antacid diet At the start of the trial, the stomachs of the crib-biting foals were significantly more ulcerated and inflamed than the stomachs of the normal foals. In addition, the faecal pH of the crib-biting foals (6.05) was significantly lower than that of the normal foals (6.58). The antacid diet resulted in a significant improvement in the condition of the horses' stomachs. The crib-biting behaviour declined in most of the foals, regardless of their diet, but tended to decline to a greater extent in the foals on the antacid diet.  
  Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, Bristol BS40 5DU  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0042-4900 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12498408 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 83  
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Author Waters, A.J.; Nicol, C.J.; French, N.P. openurl 
  Title Factors influencing the development of stereotypic and redirected behaviours in young horses: findings of a four year prospective epidemiological study Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 34 Issue 6 Pages 572-579  
  Keywords Age Factors; Animal Husbandry/*methods; Animal Welfare; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Female; Horse Diseases/epidemiology/prevention & control/*psychology; Horses; Housing, Animal; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Prevalence; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; *Stereotyped Behavior; Weaning  
  Abstract Stereotypies are invariant and repetitive behaviour patterns that seemingly have no function, which tend to develop in captive animals faced with insoluble problems and may be indicative of reduced welfare. A 4 year prospective study of the factors influencing the development of stereotypic and redirected behaviours (abnormal behaviour) in a population of 225 young Thoroughbred and part-Thoroughbred horses was conducted between 1995 and 1999. Abnormal behaviour affected 34.7% of the population. Multivariable analysis showed that foals of low- or middle-ranking mares were less likely to develop abnormal behaviour than foals of dominant mares (rate ratio (RR) 0.23, P<0.01; RR 0.48, P<0.01, respectively). Weaning by confinement in a stable or barn was associated with an increased rate of development of abnormal behaviour, compared with paddock-weaning (RR 2.19, P<0.05), and housing in barns, rather than at grass after weaning, was associated with a further increase (RR 2.54, P<0.01). Specific stereotypic and redirected behaviours were then considered as separate outcomes. Crib-biting was initiated by 10.5% of horses at median age 20 weeks, weaving by 4.6% of horses at median age 60 weeks, box-walking by 2.3% of horses at median age 64 weeks and wood-chewing by 30.3% of horses at median age 30 weeks. Wood-chewing developed at a lower rate in horses born to subordinate or mid-ranking mares than in horses born to dominant mares (RR 0.29, P<0.01; RR 0.41, P<0.01, respectively), and at a higher rate in horses kept in barns or stables rather than at grass after weaning (RR 4.49, P<0.001; RR 1A6, P<0.001, respectively). Feeding concentrates after weaning was associated with a 4-fold increase in the rate of development of crib-biting (RR 4.12, P = 0.02). The results of this study support the idea that simple changes in feeding, housing and weaning practices could substantially lower the incidence of abnormal behaviour in young horses.  
  Address University of Bristol, Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Langford, Bristol, UK  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12357996 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 84  
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Author Abeyesinghe, S.M.; Nicol, C.J.; Wathes. C.M.; Randall, J.M. doi  openurl
  Title Development of a raceway method to assess aversion of domestic fowl to concurrent stressors Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.  
  Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 175-194  
  Keywords previous termConcurrent stressors; Aversion; Domestic fowlnext term; Transport; Vibration; Hyperthermia  
  Abstract The requirement for assessing the effects of stressor combinations in improving the welfare of animals has not been widely recognised. Knowledge of the effects of concurrent stressors is needed to improve environments such as transport, where animals are presented with many simultaneous challenges. However, no method for measuring the effects of different stressors with a common unit is currently available. A locomotor passive avoidance method was developed as a common currency measure of the aversion of domestic fowl to concurrent stressors, using vibrational and thermal stressors as an exemplar. Juvenile fowl, fasted overnight, were trained to run a raceway into a goal-box for small food rewards (FR1). When running consistently, the reinforcement schedule was superimposed with a FR5 treatment schedule (60 min confinement in the goal-box with either a control of no other stressors [N] or concurrent vibration and thermal stressors [VT]). Subsequent latency to return to the goal-box was recorded as a measure of aversion. The factors affecting bird response were addressed in a series of experiments to optimise the method and clarify interpretation of results. Pre-feeding (20% ration 2 h prior to testing) did not affect response, but increasing the number of treatment presentations facilitated learning and increased method sensitivity. Treatment responses were consistent across experiments; overall VT was avoided (P<0.001), but N was not. However, there was large individual variation in response to VT. A final experiment indicated that, given a visual discriminatory cue, birds were capable of learning the required association between entering the goal-box and receiving the treatment, suggesting that the delay responses were due to aversion rather than the immediate impact of treatment on ability to respond. Further work is required to test the singular stressors, but the method retains common currency potential for assessing aversion to multiple stressors.  
  Address Bio-Engineering Division, Silsoe Research Institute, Wrest Park, Silsoe, MK45 4HS, Bedford, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11738510 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 85  
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Author McGreevy, P.D.; Webster, A.J.; Nicol, C.J. openurl 
  Title Study of the behaviour, digestive efficiency and gut transit times of crib-biting horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication The Veterinary record Abbreviated Journal Vet. Rec.  
  Volume 148 Issue 19 Pages 592-596  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Case-Control Studies; *Digestion; *Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects; Horse Diseases/*physiopathology; Horses/*physiology/psychology; Male; Stereotyped Behavior/*physiology; Sulfapyridine/blood; Sulfasalazine/diagnostic use/pharmacology  
  Abstract The spontaneous behaviour and the apparent digestibility of dry matter and fibre and transit times of digesta were compared in four normal horses and four crib-biters. A technique was developed for measuring total gut transit times (TGTT) by using single-stool analysis of the passage of radio-opaque polyethylene markers. Longer TGTT were recorded in the crib-biters than in the normal horses but the orocaecal transit times did not differ. The crib-biters rested less than the normal horses.  
  Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0042-4900 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11386445 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 86  
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Author McGreevy, P.D.; Nicol, C.J. openurl 
  Title Prevention of crib-biting: a review Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Equine veterinary journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl  
  Volume Issue 27 Pages 35-38  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Horse Diseases/*prevention & control/psychology; Horses; *Stereotyped Behavior  
  Abstract Crib-biting is a common oral stereotype. Because of perceived deleterious effects on the health and appearance of subjects the prevention of crib-biting is regularly attempted. The resourcefulness of horses in satisfying their motivation to perform this behaviour often frustrates owners' efforts at prevention. This paper reviews the efficacy and observable consequences of attempting to prevent crib-biting by a variety of methods. These include attempts to prevent the grasping of objects, to interfere with air-engulfing and to introduce punishment for grasping and neck-flexion. Other approaches include the use of surgery, acupuncture, pharmaceuticals, operant feeding and environmental enrichment. A remedy that is effective for every crib-biter remains elusive. We conclude that, rather than concentrating on remedial prevention, further research should be directed at establishing why horses crib-bite and how the emergence of crib-biting can be avoided.  
  Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, UK  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10485002 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 87  
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Author McGreevy, P.D.; Nicol, C.J. openurl 
  Title The effect of short-term prevention on the subsequent rate of crib-biting in thoroughbred horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Equine veterinary journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl  
  Volume Issue 27 Pages 30-34  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Horse Diseases/*prevention & control/psychology; Horses; Male; Recurrence; *Stereotyped Behavior; Videotape Recording  
  Abstract The results of an experimental study of the motivational consequences of short-term prevention of crib-biting are reported here. Eight test horses wore a cribbing collar for 24 h. This was effective in preventing crib-biting in 6 subjects. Using analysis of co-variance that accounted for baseline differences in crib-biting rate, test horses showed significantly more crib-biting than control horses on the first day after prevention (P < 0.05). There was also a highly significant increase in the crib-biting rate of test horses on the first day after prevention in comparison with their baseline rate (P < 0.01). This defines the increase as a post inhibitory rebound. An increase in the novelty of the cribbing bar and an increase in feeding motivation during the period of prevention are rejected as explanations of the rebound in this study. Instead, it is suggested that the rebound reflected a rise in internal motivation to crib-bite during the period of prevention. Behaviours that exhibit this pattern of motivation are generally considered functional; and it has been argued that their prevention may compromise welfare.  
  Address Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, UK  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10485001 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 88  
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