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Author Rogers, L.J. doi  openurl
  Title A Matter of Degree: Strength of Brain Asymmetry and Behaviour Type EJOU
  Year 2017 Publication Symmetry Abbreviated Journal Symmetry  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords functional asymmetry; strength of lateralization; direction of lateralization; advantages; disadvantages; vertebrate species; limb preference; eye bias  
  Abstract Research on a growing number of vertebrate species has shown that the left and right sides of the brain process information in different ways and that lateralized brain function is expressed in both specific and broad aspects of behaviour. This paper reviews the available evidence relating strength of lateralization to behavioural/cognitive performance. It begins by considering the relationship between limb preference and behaviour in humans and primates from the perspectives of direction and strength of lateralization. In birds, eye preference is used as a reflection of brain asymmetry and the strength of this asymmetry is associated with behaviour important for survival (e.g., visual discrimination of food from non-food and performance of two tasks in parallel). The same applies to studies on aquatic species, mainly fish but also tadpoles, in which strength of lateralization has been assessed as eye preferences or turning biases. Overall, the empirical evidence across vertebrate species points to the conclusion that stronger lateralization is advantageous in a wide range of contexts. Brief discussion of interhemispheric communication follows together with discussion of experiments that examined the effects of sectioning pathways connecting the left and right sides of the brain, or of preventing the development of these left-right connections. The conclusion reached is that degree of functional lateralization affects behaviour in quite similar ways across vertebrate species. Although the direction of lateralization is also important, in many situations strength of lateralization matters more. Finally, possible interactions between asymmetry in different sensory modalities is considered.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Symmetry  
  Series Volume (down) 9 Series Issue 4 Edition  
  ISSN 2073-8994 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6167  
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Author Paukner, A.; Anderson, J.R.; Fujita, K. doi  openurl
  Title Redundant food searches by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): a failure of metacognition? Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Animal cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages 110-117  
  Keywords Animals; *Appetitive Behavior; Cebus; *Concept Formation; Female; Male; Pattern Recognition, Visual; *Problem Solving; *Visual Perception  
  Abstract This study investigated capuchin monkeys' understanding of their own visual search behavior as a means to gather information. Five monkeys were presented with three tubes that could be visually searched to determine the location of a bait. The bait's visibility was experimentally manipulated, and the monkeys' spontaneous visual searches before tube selection were analyzed. In Experiment 1, three monkeys selected the baited tube significantly above chance; however, the monkeys also searched transparent tubes. In Experiment 2, a bent tube in which food was never visible was introduced. When the bent tube was baited, the monkeys failed to deduce the bait location and responded randomly. They also continued to look into the bent tube despite not gaining any pertinent information from it. The capuchin monkeys' behavior contrasts with the efficient employment of visual search behavior reported in humans, apes and macaques. This difference is consistent with species-related variations in metacognitive abilities, although other explanations are also possible.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK. ap14@stir.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16184375 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 15  
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Author Palmer, M.E.; Calve, M.R.; Adamo, S.A. doi  openurl
  Title Response of female cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda) to mirrors and conspecifics: evidence for signaling in female cuttlefish Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Animal cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages 151-155  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; *Animal Communication; Animals; Bias (Epidemiology); Female; Male; Pigmentation/*physiology; Recognition (Psychology)/*physiology; Sepia/*physiology; Visual Perception/*physiology  
  Abstract Cuttlefish have a large repertoire of body patterns that are used for camouflage and interspecific signaling. Intraspecific signaling by male cuttlefish has been well documented but studies on signaling by females are lacking. We found that females displayed a newly described body pattern termed Splotch toward their mirror image and female conspecifics, but not to males, prey or inanimate objects. Female cuttlefish may use the Splotch body pattern as an intraspecific signal, possibly to reduce agonistic interactions. The ability of females to produce a consistent body pattern in response to conspecifics and mirrors suggests that they can recognize same-sex conspecifics using visual cues, despite the lack of sexual dimorphism visible to human observers.  
  Address Dorset Environmental Science Centre, Dorset, ON, Canada, P0A 1E0  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16408230 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 16  
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Author Gorecka, A.; Golonka, M.; Chruszczewski, M.; Jezierski, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A note on behaviour and heart rate in horses differing in facial hair whorl Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 105 Issue 1-3 Pages 244-248  
  Keywords Horse; Hair whorls; Behavioural tests; Reactivity; Heart rate  
  Abstract The relationship between facial hair whorl position and reactivity, as assessed by behavioural measures (handling score = HS; startle reaction to a suddenly appearing novel object = SR; latency to touch a novel object = LNO) and heart rate measures (mean HR; increase in heart rate = IHR) were studied using 55 Konik horses reared either under conventional stable conditions or in the forest reserve. Horses were classified into four groups according to the whorl position and/or shape: (1) high, single whorl above the top eye line, n = 9; (2) medium, single whorl between the top and the bottom eye line, n = 30; (3) low, single whorl below the bottom eye line, n = 10; and (4) elongated or double whorl, n = 6. Horses with a high whorl position demonstrated a lesser degree of manageability as expressed by a lower HS compared to individuals with medium (P = 0.002) or low whorl positions (P = 0.016). Horses with different whorl positions did not differ significantly in their startle response to a suddenly appearing novel object (P = 0.685). The horses with an elongated or double whorl, which appeared only in the forest group, took significantly longer to approach the novel object than horses with medium (P = 0.006) or low (P = 0.005) whorl positions. No significant differences in mean HR and IHR between groups (HR: P = 0.629 and IHR: P = 0.214) were found. In conclusion, this study supports the relationship between the position of the hair whorl on the horses' head and their manageability during handling, as well as the latency to approach an unknown object.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 460  
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Author Herrmann, E.; Melis, A.P.; Tomasello, M. doi  openurl
  Title Apes' use of iconic cues in the object-choice task Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Animal cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages 118-130  
  Keywords Animal Communication; Animals; *Appetitive Behavior; *Choice Behavior; *Cues; Female; Gorilla gorilla; Male; *Nonverbal Communication; Pan paniscus; Pan troglodytes; Pongo pygmaeus; *Problem Solving; Space Perception; Species Specificity; Statistics, Nonparametric  
  Abstract In previous studies great apes have shown little ability to locate hidden food using a physical marker placed by a human directly on the target location. In this study, we hypothesized that the perceptual similarity between an iconic cue and the hidden reward (baited container) would help apes to infer the location of the food. In the first two experiments, we found that if an iconic cue is given in addition to a spatial/indexical cue – e.g., picture or replica of a banana placed on the target location – apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, gorillas) as a group performed above chance. However, we also found in two further experiments that when iconic cues were given on their own without spatial/indexical information (iconic cue held up by human with no diagnostic spatial/indexical information), the apes were back to chance performance. Our overall conclusion is that although iconic information helps apes in the process of searching hidden food, the poor performance found in the last two experiments is due to apes' lack of understanding of the informative (cooperative) communicative intention of the experimenter.  
  Address Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. eherrman@eva.mpg.de  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16395566 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 14  
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Author Schmoldt, A.; Benthe, H.F.; Haberland, G. openurl 
  Title Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes Type Journal Article
  Year 1975 Publication Biochemical pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Biochem Pharmacol  
  Volume 24 Issue 17 Pages 1639-1641  
  Keywords Animals; Chromatography, Thin Layer; Digitoxigenin/metabolism; Digitoxin/*metabolism; Hydroxylation; Male; Microsomes, Liver/*metabolism; NADP/metabolism; Rats; Time Factors  
  Abstract  
  Address  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-2952 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 20  
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Author Jallon, J.M.; Risler, Y.; Iwatsubo, M. openurl 
  Title Beef liver L-Glutamate dehydrogenase mechanism: presteady state study of the catalytic reduction of 2.oxoglutarate by NADPH Type Journal Article
  Year 1975 Publication Biochemical and biophysical research communications Abbreviated Journal Biochem Biophys Res Commun  
  Volume 67 Issue 4 Pages 1527-1536  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle; Glutamate Dehydrogenase/*metabolism; Ketoglutaric Acids; Kinetics; Liver/*enzymology; Nadp; Oxidation-Reduction; Spectrometry, Fluorescence; Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet  
  Abstract  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-291X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:1038 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 21  
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Author Rodier, F. openurl 
  Title [Spectral properties of porcine plasminogen: study of the acidic transition (author's transl)] Type Journal Article
  Year 1976 Publication European journal of biochemistry / FEBS Abbreviated Journal Eur J Biochem  
  Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 553-562  
  Keywords Animals; Binding Sites; Guanidines; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; *Plasminogen; Protein Binding; Protein Conformation; Spectrometry, Fluorescence; Spectrophotometry; Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet; Swine; Temperature  
  Abstract The acidic transition of porcine plasminogen, prepared by affinity chromatography, was studied by non-destructive methods. These methods are based on the analysis of the behaviour of the tryptophyls under various conditions. The perturbation of the absorption and emission spectra by pH or temperature and the dynamic quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence are used to obtain information on structural changes which affect the environment of these residues. It is shown that by decreasing pH the fluorescence emission spectra are shifted toward the long wavelengths, with a broadening of the fluorescence band. The same effect can be obtained at constant pH by heating the protein solution. In order to analyze these phenomena, it is assumed that the fluorescence intensities at 355 nm and 328 nm reflect the proportion of the tryptophans which are exposed to the solvent, and buried, respectively. The plot of the ratio of the fluorescence intensities at these wavelengths versus pH or temperature leads to a titration curve showing an unmasking of tryptophans. The proportion of exposed tryptophans is measured by the dynamic fluorescence quenching technique and the data analyzed according to Lehrer. The plot of the fraction of exposed tryptophyls versus pH also shows the unmasking of these chromophores. Thermal perturbation of a solution of plaminogen at neutral pH induces a difference absorption spectrum whose amplitudes at the maxima are proportional to the number of exposed aromatic residues. The comparison with a solution of fully denatured plasminogen in 6 M guanidium chloride, where all the tryptophyls are exposed, shows that the percentage of exposure is equal to 59%. This number is significantly higher than the percentage found by the fluorescence quenching technique (20%), indicating that some tryptophyls are located in crevices, exposed to the solvent but not to the iodide. At acidic pH the absorption difference spectra induced by thermal perturbation are not classical, since they show an inversion and a new band between 300 nm and 305 nm. This band is mentioned in the literature as a minor band of tryptophan which appears when this chromophore is located in an asymmetric environment. On plotting the maximum amplitude of these spectra obtained at acidic pH versus temperature, we obtain a curve indicating that two types of antagonistic interactions are involved in the perturbation of the chromophores spectra. The spectrophotometric titration of plasminogen gives classical absorption difference spectra. By plotting the maximum amplitude at 292 nm versus pH, we obtain a titration curve with an apparent pK of 2.9 units. This pK is acidic which respect to the pK value of a normal carboxyl. This low value can be due to a positively charged group in the neighbourhood of a carboxyl, which interacts with one or more chromophores. When the carboxyl becomes protonated, this positively charged group is free and available to perturb the environment of some chromophores...  
  Address  
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  Language French Summary Language Original Title Proprietes spectrales du plasminogene porcin. Etude de la transition acide  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-2956 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:4326 Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 22  
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Author NICOLA J. ROONEY & JOHN W. S. BRADSHAW doi  openurl
  Title Social cognition in the domestic dog: behaviour of spectators towards participants in interspecific games Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 72 Issue 2 Pages 343-352  
  Keywords  
  Abstract previous termSocial cognition,next term in particular the derivation of previous termsocialnext term information from observation of interactions between members of a previous termsocialnext term group, has been widely investigated in primates, but it has received little attention in other previous termsocialnext term mammals, although it has been anecdotally reported in the previous termdomestic dog,next term Canis familiaris. We recorded the behaviour of previous termdogsnext term (“spectators”) that had observed controlled interactions between a human and a previous termdognext term (the “demonstrator”) competing for an object, and that were subsequently allowed to interact freely with both participants. When the competitions were playful, as indicated by signals performed by the human, the spectator was more likely to approach the winner first and/or more rapidly, suggesting that winners of games are perceived as desirable previous termsocialnext term partners. When the human did not perform play signals, changing the previous termsocialnext term context from play to contest over a resource, spectators were slower to approach either of the participants, suggesting that participants in contests were less desirable as previous termsocialnext term partners than participants in games. If the previous termdognext term was prevented from seeing the game, it still reacted differently to the winner and the loser, but its behaviour was not the same as after games that it had seen. We conclude that spectator previous termdogsnext term gain information from the players' subsequent behaviour as well as from direct observation of the game.  
  Address N. J. Rooney, Anthrozoology Institute, School of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, U.K.  
  Corporate Author Anthrozoology Institute, University of Bristol, U.K. Thesis  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 29  
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Author Zentall, T.R. openurl 
  Title The case for a cognitive approach to animal learning and behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Behavioral Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav Processes  
  Volume 54 Issue 1-3 Pages 65-78  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The dangers of hypothesizing about unobservable cognitive mechanisms are well known to behavior analysts. I propose, however, that carefully fashioned cognitive theories that make predictions that are inconsistent with current behavioral theories can provide useful research tools for the understanding of behavior. Furthermore, even if the results of such research may be accommodated by modifying existing behavioral theories, our understanding of behavior is often advanced by the empirical findings because it is unlikely that the research would have been conducted in the absence of such cognitive hypothesizing. Two examples of the development of emergent relations are described: The first deals with the nature of a pigeon's 'representation' of two stimuli both of which are associated with correct responding to a third in a many-to-one matching task (stimulus equivalence or common representations). The second has to do with transitive inference, the emergent relation between two stimuli mediated by their relation to a common stimulus in a simultaneous discrimination.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 40506-0044, Lexington, KY, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume (down) Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11369461 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 25  
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